Tuesday, March 26, 2019

INDIA MUST REVERT TO ORGANIC AGRICULTURE before we lose all our priceless topsoil and water resources, Part 2-- Capt Ajit Vadakayil


THIS POST IS CONTINUED FROM PART 1, BELOW--





WHAT ABOUT EARTHWORMS?







Regular use of chemical fertilizers decimates the top soil – the soil becomes unproductive due to destruction of microbes , earth worms and fungi.

THE GREEN REVOLUTION SHOULD HAVE BEEN DONE WITH EARTHWORMS--  NOT CHEMICALS

Largely unseen, earthworms are a diverse, powerful workforce with the capacity to transform soil into fertile ground. Their living mass outweighs all other animal life forms in global soils.

An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida. They are commonly found living in soil, feeding on live and dead organic matter. An earthworm's digestive system runs through the length of its body. It conducts respiration through its skin.

Earthworm populations depend on both physical and chemical properties of the soil, such as temperature, moisture, pH, salts, aeration, and texture, as well as available food, and the ability of the species to reproduce and disperse.

Earthworms live in all levels of the soil. Deep-burrowing earthworms live in lower layers of the soil and form permanent burrows, while shallow dwellers exist in the top 12 inches of soil and create random pathways as they feed. The presence of earthworms typically has a positive effect on the quality of the soil

Globally, earthworms populations have been devastated by deviation from organic production and the spraying of synthetic fertilizers and biocides with at least three species now listed as extinct but many more endangered.

Earthworms feed on plant debris (dead roots, leaves, grasses, manure) and soil. Their digestive system concentrates the organic and mineral constituents in the food they eat, so their casts are richer in available nutrients than the soil around them.

 Nitrogen in the casts is readily available to plants. Worm bodies decompose rapidly, further contributing to the nitrogen content of soil.

Earthworms’ powerful activities include promoting favorable soil structure, increasing biological diversity, improving soil function, balancing nutrients needed by plants and animals and optimizing living soil.

Earthworm castings are an ideal organic amendment/fertilizer with greatly increased nutrient solubility compared to the organic materials they originated from. Castings are particularly rich in phosphorus which stimulates seedling and root growth and extension.

Worm casts release four times more phosphorus than does surface soil. Worms  leave their nutrient-rich casts in their tunnels, providing a favourable environment for plant root growth. The tunnels also allow roots to penetrate deeper into the soil, where they can reach extra moisture and nutrients.

The extensive channelling and burrowing by earthworms loosens and aerates the soil and improves soil drainage. Soils with earthworms drain up to 10 times faster than soils without earthworms. 

In zero-till soils, where worm populations are high, water infiltration can be up to 6 times greater than in cultivated soils. Earthworm tunnels also act, under the influence of rain, irrigation and gravity, as passageways .

Earthworm casts cement soil particles together in water-stable aggregates. These are able to store moisture without dispersing.  

 Earthworms which leave their casts on the soil surface rebuild topsoil. Earthworms do not like soil that is too acid, alkaline, dry, wet, hot or cold, their presence is a good indicator of soil conditions suitable for plant growth.

Earthworms need a continuous supply of calcium, so are absent in soils low in this element.
Earthworms not only play productive roles in sustainable agriculture, but they have enormous capacity to help mitigate our elevated atmospheric greenhouse gas content by reducing carbon and nitrogen gas.

Because earthworms derive their nutrition from fungi, bacteria, protozoa and nematodes, their lives and those of teeming masses of microorganisms and microbes are closely interlinked.
Microbes break down plant and animal debris. This process promotes the nutrition and health of earthworms, microbes, soil and everything that depends on the soil.

As earthworms turn and churn, they function as effective premier plant residue shredders. Their work helps liberate plant nutrients into the digestive tract by microbe activity while the earthworms themselves are favored.

Through their tunnel networks they create air channels, optimizing aeration and providing conduits for watering the soil. By allowing water and air to channel through the soil they promote rooting. Roots and plant residue feed the rich microflora that feeds the worms. 

Worms feed the earth that nourishes the plants. This is a productive interdependent life cycle. The ability to maximize water percolation also minimizes runoff, and reduced runoff greatly reduces soil erosion.

The humic substances in earthworm castings support the foundational physiological processes of plants such as photosynthesis and respiration. Their growth regulation properties include the ability to stimulate defensive reactions in plants, allowing them to deal with stress and adapt to difficult conditions.

You can compare the earthworm tunnel system to a motor with pistons — the muscular earthworms are the piston drivers of the soil pump. Plant materials fuel the living soil machine with microbial-aided decomposition working together with the worms deriving their energy through the plant remains.

The earthworms drive plant material into the ground, infusing life into the whole system.
Unlike many other animal manures, earthworm casting are not laden with toxic ammonia. Earthworm castings are rich in organic nitrogen. 

This critical difference gives unique advantages over other animal manures. Earthworm castings are also distinctive in being rich in carbon and calcium.

Because of the organic nature and low ammonia, earthworm castings can be used in close proximity to seedlings without plant toxicity.

Besides calcium, red earthworm castings are exceedingly rich in iron. Copious calcium excretion is critical to the metabolism and digestion of earthworms, and earthworms can be greatly restricted in acid soils. 

Where soils are high in alkalinity, the ability of plants which originally adapted to more acid environments, show inability to absorb and utilize iron. This results in plants yellowing due to iron deficiency or chlorosis. The organic, chelated form of iron from castings is ideal for such situations because they are readily soluble and rich in iron.

Humic materials from the earthworm microbial combo are champion chelators. Earthworm castings have a 6.9 pH, neither highly acid nor alkaline. This neutral, slightly acid pH is friendly to both earthworms and most plants they depend upon.

Besides the castings, the earthworm ejects granules akin to miniature lime stones. The fine structure of earthworm granules is both beautiful and well organized. Like castings these granule outputs are dispersed into the soil, where they act to benefit soil fertility, biology and structure.

The earthworm-tilled soil becomes limed with calcium carbonate quartz granules besides being enriched with a critical spectrum of major, secondary and micronutrients.

These granules take carbon dioxide that was in our atmosphere as greenhouse gas and trap it as insoluble carbonate. The little lime stones neutralize the soil, preventing it from becoming overly acidic. Calcium also serves as a mortar for cementing soil aggregates together, conserving both carbon and soil structure.

Soil acidity is the mortal enemy of earthworms, and the use of ammoniated fertilizers and tillage can largely stymie their beneficial natural soil-building potential. Earthworms are well known as premier bio-indicator organisms, revealing soil potential and overall environmental health.

The only nutrients available to plants are those that become soluble. Carbon is the primary element in earthworm castings. This high carbon content demonstrates the organic nature of this amendment and organic nature is key for solubility of difficult-to-dissolve minerals.

After carbon, calcium is second in abundance in earthworm castings. Unlike synthetic amendments that do not address secondary nutrients, earthworm castings do just that. Castings have abundant nutrients in balanced rations.

Calcium provides a key not only to structure and nutritional aspects for the plant but also acts as mortar in the formation of soil structure or aggregation. It helps granulate or aggregate the particles and stabilizes them from erosive force by its cementing action, which helps water and nutrients flow through the soil system. When earthworms build their soil profiles, they need mortar to be master builders.

In humans, calcium is involved in the structure and function of our bones. As calcium granulates and coagulates soil aggregates, the serum calcium is critical in this defensive blood clotting in animals and humans. As calcium is lost in membranes the defensive reactions of plants are triggered. When calcium is low in plant cell walls and membranes, they become very susceptible to soft rot by fungi and bacteria.

Nutrients from earthworms are ideal based on nitrate nitrogen form and its liming effect based on calcium in the worms’ metabolism..  Their nitrogen as nitrate does not acidify the soil as common ammoniated synthetic nitrogen does..

Earthworm casting has significant nitrogen, it is in nitrate rather than ammonium form. Nitrate, when absorbed by plants, causes release of hydroxyl ions, working together with the calcium carbonate granules to lime the soil, not to acidify it. 

One negative nitrate in the plant, leads to one negative hydroxyl out of the plant. This conservation of charges results in liming the root zone or rhizosphere. This in turn helps the rhizosphere and earthworm to create favorable environments for the plants and themselves in the virtuous cycle. This working together is especially important for the problematic, acid, infertile soils in the majority of struggling areas in the global tropics.

Earthworms mix together different layers of soil and incorporate carbon in the form of organic matter into the soil. It’s within this process of mixing that disperses the organic matter throughout the soil and makes the nutrients held in it available to plants. 

In addition earthworms propagate microorganisms in their gut adding to the biological population in the soil. Earthworms when present improve the soil physical, chemical and biological properties and acts as soil conditioner. 

They do this is through:--

Fragmentation
Aeration and soil aggregation
The breakdown of organic matter in soil
Release of plant available nutrients
Secretion of plant growth hormones
Performing their role in nitrogen fixation
Carbon dynamics
Microbial production
Phosphorous dynamics
Reducing compaction
Increasing water infiltration

Again, earthworms do not like acid soils. 

The addition of lime raises pH and also adds calcium. Earthworms need a continuous supply of calcium, so are absent in soils low in this element.

Earthworms are the principal agents in mixing dead surface matter with the soil, making the carbon more accessible to decomposition by soil microbes..

Moisture is crucial for the survival of worms. They can lose 20% of their body weight each day in mucus and castings. Groundcover such as pasture or stubble reduces moisture evaporation. Decaying organic matter (humus) holds moisture in the soil. In the heat of summer some earthworm species burrow deep into the soil and are inactive until soil moisture returns.

Worms need oxygen to survive so a reasonably aerated soil is essential. This explains why worms aren’t present in anaerobic and heavily waterlogged soils.

It is difficult for earthworms to move through heavily compacted soil

Microbes and earthworms play an important role in the soil ecosystem sometimes referred to as the soil food web.  This soil food wed consists of both small and large organisms with the smallest being the microscopic bacteria and fungi that are attracted to the plant exudates and consume organic matter, nitrogen, and nutrients. 

These organisms hold the nutrients in their body, and when they die they become slow release fertilisers for the plants. They also are food for the second level of organisms that exist in the soil, such as nematodes and protozoa. These organisms are then fed upon by millipedes and earthworms and other organisms. The soil ecosystem has a huge amount of biodiversity.

Vermicomposting of all organic "wastes" and addition of this organic matter, preferably as a surface mulch , on a regular basis will provide earthworms with their food and nutrient requirements, and will create the optimum conditions of temperature and moisture that will naturally stimulate their activity.

Fresh earthworm casts are five times richer in available nitrogen, seven times richer in available phosphates, and 11 times richer in available potassium than the surrounding upper 6 inches of soil. In conditions where humus is plentiful, the weight of casts produced may be greater than 4.5 kg per worm per year..

Earthworms promote the formation of nutrient-rich casts (globules of soil, stable in soil [mucus] that have high soil aggregation and soil fertility and quality.

Earthworms accelerate nutrient cycling in the soil-plant system through fragmentation and mixing of plant debris – physical grinding & chemical digestion.. The average earthworm consumes, digests and recycles 36 tons of soil in a single year. 

The type of soil you have determines the number of earthworms present in a single acre of land. That number, however, ranges between a few hundred to a million or more. These helpful organisms break organic matter down, making it more readily available for uptake by plants.

Shallow-dwelling earthworms have the biggest effect on topsoil. As these worms tunnel through the soil, they open pathways for the movement of air and water. Therefore, shallow-dwelling earthworms improve the structure of topsoil by allowing water and air to pass through, which also supports the life and vigor of plants. 

This is especially important in areas where soil has been overused and compacted due to urbanization or heavy agriculture. Shallow-dwelling earthworms usually recycle organic matter from the lower portions of the topsoil layer.

Earthworms  through their burrowing activity, earthworms aerate the soil by creating spaces which can help to store air and water and reduce flooding.

KERALA GETS FLOODED EASILY BECAUSE OF LACK OF EARTHWORMS IN THE SOIL.

Soils actually store carbon in the form of decaying organic material. Soils are the biggest reservoir of carbon on the planet, second only to the oceans. With soils being able to hold four times more carbon than all the plants and trees in the world, earthworms can play a vital role in carbon storage. 

Through their actions, earthworms consume and store tiny fragments of dead plants, microorganisms and animals that live within the soil, locking away carbon. This can help to reduce levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. 

Earthworms are like the miner’s canary, indicating a problem with the underground world. They are sensitive to pH, water-logging, compaction, rotations, tillage and responsive to applications of organic matter.

Earthworms are vital for healthy soils through their role in nutrient cycling. They incorporate organic material into the soil through their tissues and the mucus they secrete encourages microbial activity. Additionally their burrows improve drainage and aeration of the soil. 

These elements create a strong soil structure that allows water to permeate to the plant roots. their role in nutrient cycling as they incorporate organic material into the soil through their tissues. Additionally, the mucus they secrete encourages microbial activity and their burrows improve drainage and aeration of the soil.

Earthworms have chemoreceptors and sensory turbercles and present a high sensitivity to chemicals in the soil.
There are three main categories of earthworm and each has a different role:-

Surface – Epigeic earthworms help to break down surface organic matter and are an important food source for native birds. They are usually small, and bright red or reddish-brown, and are vulnerable to conventional tillage. Epigeic class of earthworms play a big role in decomposing leaves and other organic matter that falls to the woodland floor simply by eating it.

Topsoil – Endogeic earthworms mix the organic and mineral components together in the topsoil and have a pale colour of pink, grey, green or blue. These earthworms are important for soil aggregation and nutrient mobilisation for plants. Endogeic earthworms generally move parallel to the surface, leaving horizontal burrows and eating organic material found only beneath the ground, like dead plant roots. As they spend their entire lives underground and out of the sun, they lack pigment and are usually pink, gray or white.

Deep burrowing worms – Anecic earthworms such as Lumbricus terrestris play important roles for forming deep (up to 2m) vertical burrows supporting water movement and root penetration. They are large earthworms, and vulnerable to conventional tillage. The deep-dwelling anecic class can reach several feet beneath the surface. They too feed on leaf litter, but anecic worms pull whole leaves down into their burrows where they feed at their leisure.


As far as animals go, the earthworm is pretty no-frills. It's essentially an eating (and defecating) machine. A mouth at the front end of the earthworm leads to what amounts to a long tube where the organic matter and dirt from the worm's diet pass through until it exits the other end. 

Along the way, organic matter is pushed into the crop, where food is stored, and then into a gizzard, where tiny pebbles previously eaten by the worm are used to grind food for further digestion. The intestinal walls of the worm are lined with blood vessels that are effused with blood by one of the aortic arches, the earthworm's five hearts. 

The vessels absorb and distribute nutrients from the food. On its way out, microbes living in the worm may attach to the dirt and remaining organic material, and the entire package is deposited as worm feces, called castings. These castings may be deposited within the dirt or in tiny, cone-shaped piles with a hollow center on the surface of the ground.

In addition to having five hearts, the earthworm has some other interesting anatomical features. Breathing through its skin is one. An earthworm lacks any kind of lungs, but like any other aerobic organism, it still needs oxygen to carry out essential processes and to rid itself of carbon dioxide that builds up as waste. 


Instead of inhaling and exhaling like us, the exchange of these gases in and out of the earthworm takes place passively through the skin. An earthworm can even survive submerged in water if it contains enough available oxygen.

For this breathing to occur, an earthworm's skin must always be moist. This need is generally assured by the mucus the worm excretes naturally through its skin. But earthworm slime is no match for hot, dry air. 

Without enough moisture at the skin, the gas exchange can't occur and the worm can't breathe. If you've ever seen a dead, desiccated earthworm curled up on a sidewalk on a warm day, you've likely met an earthworm that suffocated to death.

Because this need to avoid heat necessitates staying out of the sun, earthworms have evolved a means of determining if the sun's out. This leads us to yet another interesting earthworm fact: They don't have eyes but they can detect light. 

Specialized photosensitive cells on the earthworm's skin convert light into electrical impulses that the worm senses and reacts to, moving back below ground or under the cover of plant matter.






CRITICAL COMMENT FOR FUTURE OF THIS PLANET ----

https://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2019/03/india-must-revert-to-organic.html

MOST IMPORTANT -- THE ABOVE VALUABLE POST HAS BEEN WRITTEN FOR THE PERSONAL ATTENTION OF PM NARENDRA MODI…

IN FUTURE MAN WILL HAVE TO DERIVE ANTI-BIOTICS FROM ORGANIC HUMUS LADEN SOIL..

THIS WAS THE REASON KERALA HAS SNAKE GROVES WITH 8 FEET DEEP HUMUS LADEN SOIL.. AYURVEDA PREPARED SOIL BASED PRO-BIOTICS.. SNAKE GROVE HERBS WERE EATEN WITHOUT WASHING..

http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2012/07/king-cobra-and-snake-temples-of-kerala.html

WESTERN MODERN ANTIBIOTICS HAVE MADE BACTERIA INCREASINGLY RESISTANT..

http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2013/08/probiotics-prebiotics-friendly-gut.html

http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2017/03/ibs-irritable-bowel-syndrome-vagus_14.html

http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2017/04/small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth.html
IF GANDHI HAS KNOWN ALL THIS THERE WAS NO NEED FOR HIS ENDLESS EXPERIMENTS WITH TRUTH—INVOLVING TWO UNDERAGE NAKED GIRLS, AN ENEMA KIT AND A PETRI-BOWL FOR MIXING FECES…

CAESARIAN BIRTHS AND IVF BABIES HAVE MADE THE SITUATION WORSE… THIS IS ADDED TO WOMEN WHO DO NOT LACTATE AS THEY HAVE POLLUTED THEIR BODIES AND MINDS..

THIS IS PART OF THE 6200 YEAR OLD CHARAKA SAMHITA, A TREATISE ON AYURVEDA..

http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2011/02/fathers-of-surgery-and-medicine-4200-bc.html

CHARAKA SAMHITA ALSO USED NANO-SILVER AND NANO-GOLD AS ANTIBIOTICS.

NANO GOLD CAME FROM HUMPED COW URINE.. HUMPED VEDIC COW HAS SURYA NADI..

NANO GOLD BUSTS THE OUTER ARMOUR OF VIRUSES.

AS A SMALL BABY I WAS GIVEN NANO GOLD ( BY RUBBING ACTUAL GOLD TO PRODUCE COLLOIDS ON A SPECIAL CERAMIC STONE ) WITH FRESH HONEY AND “VAYAMBU” TO BE LICKED OFF A PEEPAL TREE LEAF AS A PREVENTIVE ..

MY ANCESTORS HAD IT THE SAME WAY.. THIS CONCOCTION INVADES THE BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER..

EVEN TODAY WHEN WE EAT TOO MUCH OF MILK BASES SWEETS , WE IN INDIA HAVE SILVER COLLOIDS.. MILK PEDAS ARE COVERED WITH A SHEET OF SILVER EVEN TODAY..

SILVER AND GOLD COLLOIDS HAVE NO SIDE EFFECTS.. THEY SELECTIVELY ATTACK HARMFUL BACTERIA BASED ON ELECTRIC CHARGE..

http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2010/12/blue-avatar-and-viagra-capt-ajit.html

Simply put, the human body is an ecosystem, host to trillions of microorganisms including bacteria, archaea, viruses, yeasts, fungi, and parasites known collectively as our microbiota.

Exposure to microbes MUST begin at birth … Those born vaginally have decreased rates of asthma, allergies, and celiac disease, related to the microbes they were seeded with..

http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2016/10/epidurals-when-chutney-mary-fails-her.html

While we inherit more than 22,000 genes from our parents, the bacteria that exist in and on our bodies sustain at least eight million bacterial genes, a whopping 360 times more bacterial genes than human genes.

The genetic material from bacteria that populate the human body is known as the human microbiome.

Through the course of our lives, we pick up “hitchhikers”, bacteria from food, water, and various components of our environment. Modern scientists estimate that we each carry 100 trillion bacteria in our intestinal tract alone!

BROAD SPECTRUM ANTI-BIOTICS DECIMATE THE MICROBES IN THE GUT.. THIS MAKES MAN AN ASSHOLE WHO CANT THINK CLEARLY ..

ARTIFICIAL CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS AND PESTICIDES DECIMATE THE MICROBES IN THE TOP SOIL..

Capt ajit vadakayil
..
SOMEBODY ASKED ME..

WHAT IS WITH GANDHI BEATING UP HIS WIFE BECAUSE SHE REFUSED TO EMPTY THE CHAMBER POT CONTAINING THE SHIT OF HER HUSBAND AND TWO NAKED UNDERAGE GIRLS WHO SLEPT UNDER THE SAME BLANKET ..

The absence of these microbes is an important contributor to the development of allergies and some autoimmune disorders. Adding certain microbes to our internal ecosystem can help in the treatment of these problems as well as in treating some forms of autism.

Probiotics don’t always colonize the gut and could even slow down recovery of the gut microbiome after antibiotics

http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2013/08/probiotics-prebiotics-friendly-gut.html

An altered gut microbiome is associated with a number of different chronic diseases, including , diabetes, metabolic syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), skin conditions, anxiety, depression, and multiple sclerosis, to name a few.

70% of physicians regularly prescribe probiotics to their patients.. Probiotics are widely used and prescribed during or after antibiotics, with the idea that flooding the system with good bacteria can help prevent the adverse effects of antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis

The gut can be divided into the upper GI tract (small intestine) and the lower GI tract (large intestine, or colon). It can also be divided cross-sectionally into the gut lumen and the gut mucosa. If you think of the gut as a hollow tube, the lumen is the innermost (center) part of the tube, while the mucosa is like a sticky gel-like substance coating the wall of the tube.

So we can think of the G.I. tract as a hollow tube, and all the inside walls of that tube are coated with this thick, protective gel. And so in this analogy, the gel represents the gut mucus layer, and the very inner center of that tube represents the gut lumen. And each of these regions has a distinct community of microbes, but these are rarely studied because these regions are rather inaccessible unless you undergo invasive endoscopy.

The human microbiome can take many months to recover from a single course of broad-spectrum antibiotics, and even then, recovery may be incomplete. Antibiotic exposure, especially during the early years of life, is associated with an increased risk of developing allergies, asthma, autoimmunity, obesity, IBD, and skin conditions. A mass extinction, is caused by broad-spectrum antibiotics, which significantly alter community dynamics

In reality treating the gut with probiotics actually delayed the normal recovery process of the gut microbiome. Most probiotic products today are developed with Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli, and other lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactococci and Streptococci who prevent microbiota recovery..

Ancient Ayurveda used nano silver and nano gold to selectively and intelligently target harmful bacteria and viruses –based on electric charge ..

People who take high doses of antibiotics tend to lose many of their normal gut bacteria, allowing a naturally antibiotic-resistant species called Clostridium difficile to overgrow and cause severe gastric problems, especially chronic diarrhea.

CONTINUED TO 2--
  1. CONTINUED FROM 1--

    Obviously, trying to treat this problem with antibiotics only makes it worse. However, it has been successfully treated by giving the patients fecal transplants.. Fecal microbiome is not the same as the gut microbiome

    Gandhi could not function without fecal transplants.. This is one of the reasons why two gut healthy naked underage girls slept with Gandhi under the same blanket..

    The idea is that the stool from the donor contains a healthful mix of gut bacteria that can seed the intestine of the patient, bringing healthful results. Donor stool may be introduced into the colon via an enema

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i6RBfoITbls

    The clash is over the future of fecal microbiota transplants, or F.M.T., a 6200 year old remedy in Charaka Samhita has proved remarkably effective in treating Clostridioides difficile, a debilitating bacterial infection that kills 41,000 beef eating Americans a year.

    The first principle of medicine is do no harm, and there is ZILCH record of F.M.T.’s adverse effects.

    THE WHITE BASTARDS HAVE PATENTED FMT..

    AYURVEDA HAS ZERO SIDE EFFECTS ..

    KOSHER EVIL PHARMA DOES NOT LIKE FMT AS THEY STAND TO LOSE TWO BILLION USD A YEAR...

    capt ajit vadakayil
    ..




Plant nutrient availability is affected by soil pH, which is a measure of the hydrogen ion activity in the soil solution. Soil pH is a function of many soil forming factors, and is generally lower (more acid) where weathering is more advanced.

Microbial activity in soils may release nutrients from minerals or organic matter for use by plants and other microorganisms, sequester (incorporate) them into living cells, or cause their loss from the soil by volatilisation (loss to the atmosphere as gases) or leaching.


Soil formation, or pedogenesis, is the combined effect of physical, chemical, biological and anthropogenic processes working on soil parent material. Soil is said to be formed when organic matter has accumulated and colloids are washed downward, leaving deposits of clay, humus, iron oxide, carbonate, and gypsum, producing a distinct layer called the B horizon.

This is a somewhat arbitrary definition as mixtures of sand, silt, clay and humus will support biological and agricultural activity before that time. These constituents are moved from one level to another by water and animal activity. As a result, layers (horizons) form in the soil profile. The alteration and movement of materials within a soil causes the formation of distinctive soil horizons.

A soil horizon is a layer parallel to the soil surface, whose physical, chemical and biological characteristics differ from the layers above and beneath.   The uppermost soil layer (not including surface litter) is termed the A horizon. 

This is a weathered layer that contains an accumulation of humus (decomposed, dark-coloured, carbon-rich matter) and microbial biomass that is mixed with small-grained minerals to form aggregate structures.



 Below A lies the B horizon. In mature soils this layer is characterized by an accumulation of clay (small particles less than 0.002 mm in diameter) that has either been deposited out of percolating waters or precipitated by chemical processes involving dissolved products of weathering. 

Clay endows B horizons with an array of diverse structural features (blocks, columns, and prisms) formed from small clay particles that can be linked together in various configurations as the horizon evolves.


Below the A and B horizons is the C horizon, a zone of little or no humus accumulation or soil structure development. The C horizon often is composed of unconsolidated parent material from which the A and B horizons have formed. It lacks the characteristic features of the A and B horizons and may be either relatively unweathered or deeply weathered. At some depth below the A, B, and C horizons lies consolidated rock, which makes up the R horizon.












During the humification process, microbes secrete sticky gum-like mucilages; these contribute to the crumb structure (tilth) of the soil by holding particles together, and allowing greater aeration of the soil.

The world has woken up to the fact that the chemical fertilizers and pesticides not only have adverse effects on soil but also are harmful for human health.

How your food is grown or raised can have a major impact on your mental and emotional health as well as the environment. Organic foods often have more beneficial nutrients, such as antioxidants, than their conventionally-grown counterparts and people with allergies to foods, chemicals, or preservatives often find their symptoms lessen or go away when they eat only organic foods.

Pesticides are chemical preparations used to kill fungal or animal pests. Over 98.5% of sprayed insecticides and 96% of herbicides reach a destination other than their target species, because they are sprayed or spread across entire agricultural fields. 

Runoff  carry pesticides into aquatic environments while wind can carry them to other fields, grazing areas, human settlements and undeveloped areas, potentially affecting other species. Over time, repeated application increases pest resistance, while its effects on other species can facilitate the pest's resurgence.

The extensive use of pesticides in agricultural production  degrade and damage the community of microorganisms living in the soil.. Many of the chemicals used in pesticides are persistent soil contaminants, whose impact  endure for decades and adversely affect soil conservation.. The use of pesticides decreases the general biodiversity in the soil. Not using the chemicals results in higher soil quality. 

LOSS OF ORGANIC MATTER AND MICROBES IN THE TOP SOIL PREVENTS THE APPLIED TOXIC CHEMICALS FROM BREAKING DOWN..


MORE ORGANIC MATTER IN THE SOIL ALLOWS FOR HIGHER WATER RETENTION.


DON’T EVER THINK THAT ALL WATER IN THE GANGES DOWNRIVER IS MELTED HIMALAYAN ICE.. THIS WATER HAS LEACHED FROM THE SOIL ON EITHER SIDE OF THE RIVER BANKS..  

RAPE OF SOIL BY CHENICAL FERTILISERS AND PESTICIDES CAUSES SEVERE LOSS OF WATER HOLDING CAPACITY..

Degradation and sorption are both factors which influence the persistence of pesticides in soil. Depending on the chemical nature of the pesticide, such processes control directly the transportation from soil to water, and in turn to air and our food. Breaking down organic substances, degradation, involves interactions among microorganisms in the soil. 

Sorption affects bioaccumulation of pesticides which are dependent on organic matter in the soil. Weak organic acids are weakly sorbed by soil, because of pH and mostly acidic structure. Sorbed chemicals become less accessible to microorganisms. 

Aging mechanisms are poorly understood but as residence times in soil increase, pesticide residues become more resistant to degradation and extraction as they lose biological activity

Nitrogen fixation, which is required for the growth of higher plants, is hindered by pesticides in soil.  The insecticides  interfere with legume-rhizobium chemical signaling 

Reduction of this symbiotic chemical signaling results in reduced nitrogen fixation and thus reduced crop yields.  Root nodule formation in these plants saves the world economy 14 billion USD in synthetic nitrogen fertilizer every year


Symbiotic nitrogen fixation occurs in plants that harbor nitrogen-fixing bacteria within their tissues. The best-studied example is the association between legumes and bacteria in the genus Rhizobium. ... A symbiotic relationship in which both partners benefits is called mutualism.

Even the agriculture scientists agree with the view that regular use of chemical fertilizers leads to a situation when land ultimately becomes unproductive and barren because of destruction of microbes.

Pesticides kill bees and are strongly implicated in pollinator decline, the loss of species that pollinate plants, including through the mechanism of Colony Collapse Disorder, in which worker bees from a beehive or western honey bee colony abruptly disappear. Application of pesticides to crops that are in bloom kill honeybees which act as pollinators.


Pesticides have direct harmful effect on plant including poor root hair development, shoot yellowing and reduced plant growth..

Pesticides can eliminate some animals' essential food sources, causing the animals to relocate, change their diet or starve. Residues can travel up the food chain; for example, birds can be harmed when they eat insects and worms that have consumed pesticides.  

Earthworms digest organic matter and increase nutrient content in the top layer of soil. They protect human health by ingesting decomposing litter and serving as bioindicators of soil activity. Pesticides have had harmful effects on growth and reproduction on earthworms.  

Some pesticides can bioaccumulate, or build up to toxic levels in the bodies of organisms that consume them over time, a phenomenon that impacts species high on the food chain especially hard.

Studies have revealed that 72 million birds are killed by pesticides in the United States alone each year.

Fish and other aquatic biota are harmed by pesticide-contaminated water.   Pesticide surface runoff into rivers and streams are highly lethal to aquatic life, sometimes killing all the fish in a particular stream..

Application of herbicides to bodies of water cause fish kills when the dead plants decay and consume the water's oxygen, suffocating the fish. Herbicides such as copper sulfite that are applied to water to kill plants are toxic to fish and other water animals at concentrations similar to those used to kill the plants. 

Repeated exposure to sublethal doses of some pesticides cause physiological and behavioral changes that reduce fish populations, such as abandonment of nests and broods, decreased immunity to disease and decreased predator avoidance

Application of herbicides to bodies of water kill plants on which fish depend for their habitat.

Pesticides  accumulate in bodies of water to levels that kill off zooplankton, the main source of food for young fish. Pesticides also kill off insects on which some fish feed, causing the fish to travel farther in search of food and exposing them to greater risk from predators.

Pesticides  enter the body through inhalation of aerosols, dust and vapor that contain pesticides; through oral exposure by consuming food/water; and through skin exposure by direct contact.  Pesticides secrete into soils and groundwater which can end up in drinking water, and pesticide spray can drift and pollute the air.

Persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic substances (PBTs) are a class of compounds that have high resistance to degradation from abiotic and biotic factors, high mobility in the environment and high toxicity. Because of these factors PBTs have been observed to have a high order of bioaccumulation and biomagnification, very long retention times in various media..

PBTs  have a high environmental mobility relative to other contaminants mainly due to their resistance to degradation (persistence). This allows PBTs to travel far and wide in both the atmosphere and in aqueous environments. 

The low degradation rates of PBTs allow these chemicals to be exposed to both biotic and abiotic factors while maintaining a relatively stable concentration. Another factor that makes PBTs especially dangerous are the degradation products which are often relatively as toxic as the parent compound.

The bioaccumulative ability of PBTs follows suit with the persistence attribute by the high resistance to degradation by biotic factors, especially with in organisms. Bioaccumulation is the result of a toxic substance being taken up at a higher rate than being removed from an organism. 

For PBTs this is caused mainly by a resistance to degradation, biotic and abiotic. PBTs usually are highly insoluble in water which allows them to enter organisms at faster rates through fats and other nonpolar regions on an organism. 

Bioaccumulation of a toxicant lead to biomagnification through a trophic web which has resulted in massive concern in areas with especially low trophic diversity. Biomagnification results in higher trophic organisms accumulating more PBTs than those of lower trophic levels through consumption of the PBT contaminated lower trophic organisms




Soil microorganisms do much more than nourish plants. Just as the microbes in the human body both aid digestion and maintain our immune system, soil microorganisms both digest nutrients and protect plants against pathogens and other threats.

The microbial community in the soil, like in the human biome, provides “invasion resistance” services to its symbiotic partner. We disturb this association at our peril .  The alarming increase in autoimmune diseases in the West owe to a disruption in the ancient relationship between our bodies and their ‘old friends’ — the microbial symbionts with whom we coevolved.

Not only do soil microorganisms nourish and protect plants, they play a crucial role in providing many “ecosystem services” that are absolutely critical to human survival.    The living soil is the Earth’s most valuable ecosystem, providing ecological services such as climate regulation, mitigation of drought and floods, soil erosion prevention, and water filtration, worth trillions of dollars each year.

Even soil microbes need carbon to flourish, which is why slow and steady carbon depletion from our soils will inevitably lead to ecological collapse.   Deprived of carbon and critical microbes, soils become sterile, devoid of the microbial ecosystem.  


Plants draw CO2 out of the atmosphere and into the ground through the process of photosynthesis, and this is a far more efficient method than any carbon-reduction scheme man has been able to come up with. 

The plants convert this CO2 into a carbon fuel used to stimulate and promote their own growth. Up to 42% of that carbon fuel also goes to the roots of the plant, where it’s leaked out into the soil.

Nutrient cycling is the exchange of nutrients between the living and nonliving parts of the ecosystem.  
Microorganisms are responsible for the degradation of organic matter, which controls the release of plant nutrients, but is also important for the maintenance of soil structure and sustainability of soil quality for plant growth. 

Microbial activity in soil is also responsible for carbon losses to the atmosphere through respiration and methanogenesis, and microorganisms are required for remediation, through degradation of organic pollutants and immobilisation of heavy metals, providing obvious examples of improving soil quality. 

Thus all microbiological activity in soil contributes to cycling of nutrients and other ecosystem functions and all soil functions contribute to ecosystem services. Nutrient cycling can be assessed by measuring the following indicators:

Fertility Indicators including mineral nitrogen, potentially mineralizable nitrogen, soil nitrate, soil test phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, calcium, magnesium, boron, and zinc

Organic Matter Indicators including C:N ratio, decomposition, microbial biomass carbon, particulate organic matter, soil enzymes, soil organic matter, total organic carbon and total organic matter

Soil Reaction Indicators including soil pH

Soil is the major "switching yard" for the global cycles of carbon, water, and nutrients. Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and many other nutrients are stored, transformed, and cycled through soil. Decomposition by soil organisms is at the center of the transformation and cycling of nutrients through the environment. 

Decomposition liberates carbon and nutrients from the complex material making up life forms-putting them back into biological circulation so they are available to plants and other organisms. Decomposition also degrades compounds in soil that would be pollutants if they entered ground or surface water.

Decomposition is a stepwise process involving virtually all soil organisms. Arthropods and earthworms chew the material and mix it with soil. A few fungi may break apart one complex compound into simpler components, then bacteria can attack the newly created compounds, and so on. Each organism gets energy or nutrients from the process. 

Usually, but not always, compounds become simpler after each step. The portion of plant and animal residue that is not broken down plays a crucial role in soil. It is transformed into the highly complex organic compounds called humic substances that can persist in soil for centuries and are important to soil structure and nutrient storage. 

More carbon is stored in soil than in the atmosphere and above-ground biomass combined. Soil carbon is in the form of organic compounds originally created through photosynthesis in which plants convert atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) into plant matter made of organic carbon compounds, such as carbohydrates, proteins, oils, and fibers. 

The organic compounds enter the soil system when plants and animals die and leave their residue in or on the soil. Immediately, soil organisms begin consuming the organic matter, extracting energy and nutrients and releasing water, heat, and CO2 back to the atmosphere. Thus, if no new plant residue is added to the soil, soil organic matter will gradually disappear. 

If plant residue is added to the soil at a faster rate than soil organisms convert it to CO2, carbon will gradually be removed from the atmosphere and stored (sequestered) in the soil. Cultivation aerates the soil, triggering increased biological activity, and therefore rapid decomposition, loss of soil organic matter, and release of CO2 into the atmosphere.. 

The annual loading with artificial fertilisers  is nowmore than 10.1 million tonnes of phosphorus and  62 million tonnes of nitrogen per year. Typically, if the local plant community cannot take up the added nutrient load, the nutrients move through groundwater, ditches, and streams into lakes and oceans. 

Throughout the world, lakes and marine shorelines become “over-productive” (eutrophic) where a few plant or bacteria species feast on the nutrients and choke out other lifeforms. Eutrophication can create dead zones and putrid lakes. 

Fish and amphibians can die out, leaving festering swamps. In just 55 years of the advent of the  desh drohi GREEN REVOLUTION 90% : of our lakes and water bodies are. When algae blooms die off, they deplete oxygen, killing other organisms. 

NGT , Environment Ministry and our Think Tanks are packed with people who have shit for brains. 

The disruption of Earth’s nutrient cycles remains MORE urgent than global heating and biodiversity loss.

“Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle,” showed that human disruption of the nitrogen cycle has:---

 Doubled the rate of nitrogen input into terrestrial ecosystems
 Increased the greenhouse gas N2O globally, contributing to photochemical smog
 Depleted calcium and potassium in soils, undermining longterm soil fertility
 Contributed to acidification of soils, streams, and lakes 
 Increased the eutrophication of lakes, rivers, estuaries, and coastal oceans
 Diminished biological diversity
 Reduced coastal marine fisheries

We can reverse the trend of increasing marine dead zones and eutrophic lakes. To achieve this, however, we must accept the evidence that nature’s bounty comes with limits

Miner microbes make a kind of “bacterial goo” – scientifically called an “exudate”. The goo has a special pH and other key characteristics specially formulated to bind and extract nutrients like phosphorus, calcium, and potassium. All of these minerals are needed for healthy plants and good crop yields.

A specific group of these “mining” microorganisms is called mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhizal fungi form special symbiotic relationships with plant roots. They connect with plant roots to provide access to the freshly-released nutrients. In return, the plant roots provide the fungi with tasty, energy-rich carbon that the fungi use for growth in an otherwise desolate area of the soil environment.

The final type of microbes are the “refiners.” Refiner microbes, a class of bacteria called Rhizobia, are able to take nitrogen from the air and process it into a form usable by the plant. These “nitrogen-fixing” bacteria take inert nitrogen gas in the atmosphere (N2 gas) and convert it to the plant-available ammonia and other nitrogen-rich organic compounds.

Generally, refiners only live in special root formations called “nodules” of legume plants. Peanuts, alfalfa, clover, beans, and lentils, are all legumes. They can all form this symbiotic relationships with Rhizobia. 

The legumes house the Rhizobia and provide them with energy-rich compounds for food. Due to this special symbiotic relationship, legumes make for great cover-crops in agricultural settings. 

The dead tissues of legumes (re-introduced to the soil for future plant use by the recyclers!) are nitrogen-rich. This nitrogen-rich plant material can provide nitrogen to the next planted crop. This means that the farmer is not required to spend as much time, money, and energy applying nitrogen fertilizers.


A mulch is usually,  organic in nature.

Mulch is a material placed on the soil surface to maintain moisture, reduce weed growth, mitigate soil erosion and improve soil conditions. Mulching (installing mulches) can help to improve crop yield and optimise water use. Typical materials for organic mulching are straw, leaves, cut grass, wood chips, peat, cut branches or the left over of old harvested crops and various types of compost 

The microbes that work in the recycling role use the organic carbon in the organic matter as an energy source (food). Recycling frees up nutrients like nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus that are important to plant health. The importance of these recycling microbes cannot be overstated; they turn the world’s refuse into the building blocks of life. The maintenance of plant-life would be nearly impossible without these hard-working organisms.

Soil biologists measure how plants and microbes absorb nutrients, and incorporate them into organic matter, which is the basis for the carbon cycle. There are two main processes. Immobilization is when soil organisms take up mineral nutrients from the soil and transform them into microbial and plant tissues. Immobilization in soil science is the conversion of inorganic compounds to organic compounds by micro-organisms or plants, by which it is prevented from being accessible to plants

The opposite process is mineralization, which is what happens when organism die and release nutrients from their tissues. This process is rapidly changing, and very important in providing nutrients for plants to grow. The carbon cycle and nitrogen cycle are both very important to soil microbiologists.

Mineralization increases the bioavailability of the nutrients that were in the decomposing organic compounds, most notably, because of their quantities, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulphur. Whether the decomposition of an organic compound will result in mineralization or immobilization is dependent on its concentration proportionate to that of the carbon in the organic matter. If the concentration of a specific element exceeds the needs of the decomposer for biosynthesis or storage then it will mineralize.

Whether nitrogen mineralizes or immobilizes depends on the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C:N ratio) of the decomposing organic matter.   In general organic matter contacting soil has too little nitrogen to support the biosynthetic needs of the decomposing soil microbial population. 

If the C:N ratio of the decomposing organic matter is above circa 30:1 then the decomposing microbes may absorb nitrogen in mineral form as, e. g., ammonium or nitrates. This mineral nitrogen is said to be immobilized. This may reduce the concentration of inorganic nitrogen in the soil and thus the nitrogen available to plants.

As carbon dioxide is released during the generation of energy in decomposition, a process denominated "catabolism", the C:N ratio of the organic matter decreases. When the C:N ratio is less than circa 25:1, further decomposition causes mineralization by the simultaneous release of inorganic nitrogen as ammonium. 

When the decomposition of organic matter is complete, the mineralized nitrogen therefrom adds to that already present in the soil, and therefore increases the total mineral nitrogen in the soil. 

Plant roots leak a lot of organic substances into the soil from dead materials. These provide food for the microorganisms, and create zones of activity around the root called the rhizosphere. In this zone, plant growth or toxic substances can be produced, but most of these organisms are benefical.

Bacteria are organisms that have only one cell and are, therefore, microscopic. There are anywhere from 100 million to one billion bacteria in just a teaspoon of moist, fertile soil. They are decomposers, eating dead plant material and organic waste. 

By doing this, the bacteria release nutrients that other organisms could not access. The bacteria do this by changing the nutrients from inaccessible to usable forms. The process is essential in the nitrogen cycle.

We can see that healthy soils contain enormous numbers of microbes and substantial quantities of microbial biomass. This translates into an enormous potential for microbial activity when soil conditions (available carbon sources, moisture, aeration, temperature, acidity/alkalinity and available inorganic nutrients, such as nitrogen), are favourable. 

The potential for activity must be stressed because, under normal situations, the microbial population does not receive a constant supply of readily-available substrates to sustain prolonged high rates of growth.

Almost all soil organisms (except some bacteria) need the same things that we need to live: food, water and oxygen. They eat a carbon-based food source, which provides all their nutrients, including nitrogen and phosphorus. 

They require a moist habitat, with access to oxygen in the air spaces in soil. These reasons explain why 75 per cent of soil organisms are found in the top five centimetres of soil. It also explains, however, why many of our agricultural soil microorganism populations are deplete

Bacteria work to accelerate the breakdown of organic matter into inorganic material. This process is called nutrient recycling. Microorganisms are excellent recyclers of soil nutrients and minerals for improved plant uptake. 

A majority of nutrients are present in the soil in an insoluble form, unavailable for plant use. Microbes are the only organisms on earth that are able to convert them into plant useable forms for improved crop yield and soil health.

Generally, microbes grow best in soils that have a neutral pH (7.0), a balance of air and water filled pore space and abundant organic substrates.

Microbes live throughout the entire season and then start to gradually decline in number after you have harvested, as there is less sugar in the soil. Most of the bacteria will become dormant spores,

Over-used and over-fertilized soils tend to lose their microorganisms. They are also loss due to , floods, drought and freeze. Soils under these conditions can see up to 99% loss in their microorganisms which has a major role in the health of your soil and plants.. 

Photosynthetic bacteria (called cyanobacteria) produce 50% of the oxygen we breathe ..  Half of the oxygen we breath is a result of microbes that lived billions of years ago.


The beneficial bacteria colonize the soil and reside in the small rock pores and structures within the soil.  Once the microbes form colonies, then they will become part of the overall microbiology profile in the soil.   The microbes excel at mineralizing nutrients from rock forms into plant usable forms 

Would a drought affect or kill the microbes?

Far from it, the microbes will continue to multiply exponentially. And remain living in both layers of soil. At the time of drought, it provides support to plants and rhizosphere with their hormones and water retention capacity.  

The bacteria will start multiplying which breaks down organic matter and transforms it into organic acids. The acids then start to combine with various matter in the soil including salt. This is known as chelating.

 Chelation is when a coating is formed around matter such as salt or metals. This coating allows plants to absorb more nutrients from it while taking in less salt. As the bacteria continues to multiply and chelate, water starts to penetrate deeper which causes salt to move downward. 

This chain reaction allows water to reach deeper in the soil while also removing salt from topsoil and moving it deeper into the ground giving your plants access to more nutrients..

Roots serve many functions for a plant including anchorage and acquisition of vital nutrients and water necessary for growth. The plant root-soil interface is a dynamic region in which numerous biogeochemical processes take place driven by the physical activity, and the diversity of chemicals released by the plant root and mediated by soil microorganisms. 

In turn the processes occurring in this region control a host of reactions regulating terrestrial carbon and other element cycling that sustain plant growth and which have an enormous influence on plant and microbial community function and structure which greatly influence a variety of ecosystem level processes

There are two broad categories of mycorrhizal associations with plant roots, ectomycorrhiza and endomycorrhiza, which are differentiated by how they physically interface with the plant

In ectomycorrhizal association, the fungus forms a mantle or sheath over the surface of fine lateral roots of the host trees and sends some hyphae into the intercellular spaces of the outer cortex forming a so-called Hartignet. Arbuscules and vesicles, characteristically present in endomycorrhizae are absent. The lateral roots covered by the fungal mantle often assume a swollen or coralloid form.

Ectomycorrhizal fungi is of great importance in afforestation. In developing pine forests, it is always ensured that the seedlings are inoculated with soil containing the appropriate strains of ectomyct rrhizal fungi. Trees with ectomycorrhizal association are capable of growing better under nutrient-deficient conditions in comparison to non-mycorrhizal plants, because of their greater ability to absorb nutrients from soil.

Endomycorrhizal associations are more common than the ecto-mycorrhizal ones and they are found in almost all groups of higher plants. The best known endo-mycorrhizae are those of orchids. It is well- known that under natural conditions, orchids are unable to grow without association with fungi.

The endomycorrhizal fungi enter into the root cells and are generally restricted to the cortical region rarely crossing the endodermis. The vesicular-arbuscular types form characteristic structures within the cells. After growing for some time in the cells, these structures degenerate and eventually decompose, thereby providing nutrition to the host. Thus, in VAM the plant host is directly benefited. 

Organic fertilizers do not contain nutrient-salt complexes but are loaded with organic material that slowly releases for season long nutrient absorption by crops.  The conversion of the organic fertilizer into plant usable nutrients is facilitated by microorganisms.  

Microbes are the only species on earth that can convert nutrients in the soil into forms that plants can use.  No other chemicals or mechanisms are able to perform the functions of beneficial bacteria.  This is the reason why organic fertilizers and beneficial bacteria are essential to soil health and crop production.

Bacteria are able to take carbon atoms from organic compounds and convert them into organic acid chains.  This means that they can take the carbon atoms from CO2 and link them together into organic acids that plants can benefit from in the soil. The bacteria decrease CO2 during carbon cycling and sequestration.

There are thousands of different types of bacteria, that can both help and harm people. Only 5% of what is produced by green plants is consumed by animals, but the 95% is consumed by microorganisms. One gram of fertile soil can contain up to one billion bacteria. 

There are many different types of bacteria, and most of them have not even been discovered yet! Most of these bacteria are aerobic, meaning that they require oxygen from the soil atmosphere. However, other bacteria need to live without oxygen, and other types can live both with, and without oxygen. 

The growth of these bacteria is limited by the food that is available in the soil
Fungi and bacteria provide the foundation for soil biological ecosystems, and estimates of their population and structure appear to provide an accurate measure of ecosystem health and productivity..

Proper balance between the two groups of microbes is key, with fungal domination of the microbial community most healthful for soils.

Pant growth is poorly correlated with soil levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and organic matter. On the other hand, he found a good correlation between plant growth and fungal-bacteria ratios in fungal-dominated soils.

Both fungi and bacteria derive their energy requirements directly from plants – as exudates from plant roots – or indirectly through consumption of plant-originated organic matter


Up to 10 billion bacterial cells inhabit each gram of soil in and around plant roots, a region known as the rhizosphere

Microbes can make nutrients and minerals in the soil available to plants, produce hormones that spur growth, stimulate the plant immune system and trigger

Healthy soil can increase fertility in multiple ways, including supplying nutrients such as nitrogen and protecting against pests and disease,

The group of bacteria called rhizobia live inside the roots of legumes and fix nitrogen from the air into a biologically

These microbes interact closely with each other, forming complex networks. They communicate with chemical signals. They work together to break down complex organic materials, including dead plants and animals. 

They often work in teams to complete biochemical processes, such as transforming nitrogen from an inert gas to plant-usable forms, and recycling it from dead plant materials back into dissolved forms.

Rhizobia are diazotrophic bacteria that fix nitrogen after becoming established inside the root nodules of legumes (Fabaceae). To express genes for nitrogen fixation, rhizobia require a plant host; they cannot independently fix nitrogen. In general, they are gram negative, motile, non-sporulating rods.


Rhizobium organisms in the soil recognize and invade the root hairs of their specific plant host, enter the plant tissues, and form a root nodule. This process causes the bacteria to lose many of their free-living characteristics. 

They become dependent upon the carbon supplied by the plant, and, in exchange for carbon, they convert nitrogen gas to ammonia, which is used by the plant for its protein synthesis and growth. In addition, many bacteria can convert nitrate to amines for purposes of synthesizing cellular materials or to ammonia when nitrate is used as electron acceptor. 

Denitrifying bacteria convert nitrate to dinitrogen gas. The conversion of ammonia or organic amines to nitrate is accomplished by the combined activities of the aerobic organisms Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter, which use ammonia as an electron donor.

In the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide is converted into cellular materials by plants and autotrophic prokaryotes, and organic carbon is returned to the atmosphere by heterotrophic life-forms. The major breakdown product of microbial decomposition is carbon dioxide, which is formed by respiring aerobic organisms.

Some micro-organisms are able to metabolise organic matter and release ammonium in a process called mineralisation. Others take free ammonium and oxidise it to nitrate. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are capable of metabolising N2 into the form of ammonia in a process called nitrogen fixation. 

Nitrate may also be lost from the soil when bacteria metabolise it to the gases N2 and N2O. The loss of gaseous forms of nitrogen to the atmosphere due to microbial action is called denitrification.
In the process of mineralisation, microbes feed on organic matter, releasing ammonia (NH3), ammonium (NH4+) and other nutrients. 

Again, a long as the carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) of fresh residues in the soil is above 30:1, nitrogen will be in short supply and other bacteria will feed on the ammonium and incorporate its nitrogen into their cells in the immobilization process. 

In that form the nitrogen is said to be immobilised. Later, when such bacteria die, they too are mineralised and some of the nitrogen is released as ammonium and nitrate. If the C/N is less than 15, ammonia is freed to the soil, where it may be used by bacteria which oxidise it to nitrate (nitrification).

At any given time, 95 to 99 percent of the potentially available nitrogen in the soil is in organic forms, either in plant and animal residues, in the relatively stable soil organic matter, or in living soil organisms, mainly microbes such as bacteria. 

This nitrogen is not directly available to plants, but some can be converted to available forms by microorganisms. A very small amount of organic nitrogen may exist in soluble organic compounds, such as urea, that may be slightly available to plants.

.Soil C results both directly from growth and death of plant roots, as well as indirectly from the transfer of carbon-enriched compounds from roots to soil microbes

Actinomycetes are soil microorganisms like both bacteria and fungi, and have characteristics linking them to both groups. They are often believed to be the missing evolutionary link between bacteria and fungi, but they have many more characteristics in common with bacteria than they do fungi. Actinomycetes give soil its characteristic smell. They have also been the source of several significant therapeutic medicines.

Actinomycetes are soil microorganisms. They are a type of bacteria, but they share some characteristics with fungi 

Fungi are abundant in soil, but bacteria are more abundant. Fungi are important in the soil as food sources for other, larger organisms, pathogens, beneficial symbiotic relationships with plants or other organisms and soil health. 

Fungi can be split into species based primarily on the size, shape and color of their reproductive spores, which are used to reproduce. Most of the environmental factors that influence the growth and distribution of bacteria and actinomycetes also influence fungi. 

The quality as well as quantity of organic matter in the soil has a direct correlation to the growth of fungi, because most fungi consume organic matter for nutrition. Fungi thrive in acidic environments, while bacteria and actinomycetes cannot survive in acid, which results in an abundance of fungi in SLIGHTLY acidic areas.

 Fungi also grow well in dry, arid soils because fungi are aerobic, or dependent on oxygen, and the higher the moisture content in the soil, the less oxygen is present for them. Most fungi grow well at slight acidic pH values however at pH below 2 or above 8 it can not grow.

Nitrogen is important to all living things, including us. It plays a key role in plant growth: too little nitrogen and plants cannot thrive, leading to low crop yields; but too much nitrogen can be toxic to plants.. The nitrogen cycle is a repeating cycle of processes during which nitrogen moves through both living and non-living things: the atmosphere, soil, water, plants, animals and bacteria.   Microscopic living organisms that usually contain only one cell and are found everywhere. 

Bacteria can cause decomposition or breaking down, of organic material in soils.. In order to move through the different parts of the cycle, nitrogen must change forms. In the atmosphere, nitrogen exists as a gas (N2), but in the soils it exists as nitrogen oxide, NO, and nitrogen dioxide, NO2.. Efficient use of N by meeting crop needs while avoiding excessive applications of N is an important goal.


There are five stages in the nitrogen cycle-- fixation or volatilization, mineralization, nitrification, immobilization, and denitrification.

Fixation refers to the conversion of atmospheric N  to a plant available form.   Nitrogen fixation requires energy, enzymes and minerals, so  if a plant available form of N is present, the crop will  use it instead of fixing it from the air. 

When legumes are tilled into the soil, the N  stored in their roots is released and made  available to the next crop or lost to the  environment, depending on management.

Mineralization is the process by which microbes  decompose organic N from manure, organic matter  and crop residues to ammonium. Because it is a biological process, rates of mineralization vary with soil temperature, moisture and the amount of oxygen in the soil (aeration).

Nitrification is the process by which  microorganisms convert ammonium to nitrate to obtain energy. Nitrate is the most plant available form of N, but is also highly susceptible to leaching losses.

Denitrification occurs when N is lost through the conversion of nitrate to gaseous forms of N, such as nitric oxide, nitrous oxide and dinitrogen gas. This  occurs when the soil is saturated and the bacteria use nitrate as an oxygen source 

Volatilization is the loss of N through the conversion of ammonium to ammonia gas, which is released to the atmosphere. The volatilization losses  increase at higher soil pH and conditions that favor evaporation (e.g. hot and windy).

Immobilization is the reverse of mineralization. All  living things require N; therefore microorganisms in  the soil compete with crops for N. Immobilization  refers to the process in which nitrate and  ammonium are taken up by soil organisms and therefore become unavailable to crops.

Leaching is a pathway of N loss of a high concern  to water quality. Soil particles do not retain nitrate  very well because both are negatively charged. As a  result, nitrate easily moves with water in the soil.

The rate of leaching depends on soil drainage,  rainfall, amount of nitrate present in the soil, and crop uptake..

Crop Uptake is the prime goal of N management  on farms. The greatest efficiency occurs when adequate N is applied at a time when the crop is actively taking it up. Efficient N use also depends on a number of other factors including temperature,  soil moisture, pest pressure, and soil compaction…

The ultimate goal of N management is to  maximize N efficiency by increasing crop uptake and  minimizing N losses to the environment. Crop N  needs can be met through existing N sources (e.g.  from soil organic matter, past sods and previously  applied manure)

Soil organic matter exists as decomposing plant and animal residues, relatively stable products of decomposition-resistant compounds and humus. Nitrogen has accumulated in these various organic fractions during soil development.

Organic matter formation and stability is largely related to long-term moisture and temperature trends. With higher average temperatures, soil organic matter decreases. As moisture increases, soil organic matter increases. Higher temperatures lead to more rapid and complete organic matter decomposition to soluble products which can leach from soil. Increasing moisture causes more plant growth, resulting in more organic residue.

Plants normally use nitrogen in only the ammonium and nitrate forms. Nitrite is actually toxic to plants.

The nitrogen cycle, as typically described, begins with nitrogen in its simplest stable form, dinitrogen (N2), and follows it through the processes of fixation, mineralization, nitrification, leaching, plant assimilation, ammonia volatilization, denitrification, and immobilization.

Fixation is the process of converting dinitrogen gas to chemically reactive forms — where nitrogen combines with other elements such as oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon. These forms are dependent on fixation. 

Lightning fixes nitrogen into various oxides that rain and snow deposit. Typically, this is less than 10 pounds of total nitrogen per acre per year. Bacteria can convert nitrogen to organic forms through fixation. Fixation can occur either in free-living organisms or symbiotically in association with legumes. Nitrogen is also fixed industrially through several processes. 

Once nitrogen is fixed, it is subject to several chemical reactions which can convert it to different organic or inorganic forms. Mineralization occurs in soil as microorganisms convert organic nitrogen to inorganic forms. The first step of mineralization is called aminization, in which microorganisms (primarily heterotrophs) break down complex proteins to simpler amino acids, amides, and amines.


Saturating soils with a ready supply of nitrate can cause denitrification — the conversion of nitrate to various gaseous forms of nitrogen which can be lost to the atmosphere (nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, dinitrogen). Denitrification occurs under oxygen-limiting conditions when anaerobic bacteria use nitrate in respiration in the presence of carbon sources such as organic matter.

Denitrifying bacteria, microorganisms whose action results in the conversion of nitrates in soil to free atmospheric nitrogen, thus depleting soil fertility and reducing agricultural productivity.

Dentrifying bacteria are a diverse group of bacteria that encompass many different phyla. This group of bacteria, together with dentrifying fungi and archaea, is capable of performing denitrification as part of the nitrogen cycle They metabolise nitrogenous compounds using various enzymes, turning nitrogen oxides back to nitrogen gas or nitrous oxide.

Without denitrification, however, the Earth’s supply of nitrogen would eventually accumulate in the oceans, since nitrates are highly soluble and are continuously leached from the soil into nearby bodies of water

The process of denitrification can lower the fertility of soil as nitrogen, a growth-limiting factor, is removed from the soil and lost to the atmosphere. This loss of nitrogen to the atmosphere can eventually be regained via introduced nutrients, as part of the nitrogen cycle. Some nitrogen may also be fixated by species of nitrifying bacteria and the cyanobacteria.

Nitrification will occur once ammonia becomes readily available in urine-contaminated soils. Ammonia is oxidized into nitrite and nitrate via nitrifying bacteria.

Denitrification is the process that produces the most nitrous oxide. Denitrification involves the reduction of nitrites and nitrates produced during nitrification into nitrous oxide by denitrifying bacteria. Nitrous oxide is subsequently reduced to dinitrogen, the key product of the nitrogen cycle. Nitrous oxide is merely a free obligatory intermediate and is not a major product.

Organic agriculture has shown decreased nitrous oxide emissions through limiting the number of cattle present per hectare of pasture. A decreased number of cattle in one hectare leads to less nitrogenous constituents deposited into the soil at one time and strains the occurrence of nitrification and denitrification. This in turn limits the total amount of nitrous oxide that can be produced.

Nitrogen stabilizers are commonly used to protect against nitrogen losses through volatilization, denitrification and leaching. Nitrification occurs when ammonium is converted to nitrite in the soil by nitrosomonas bacteria, and then further oxidized to nitrate by nitrobacter bacteria. A majority of the nitrogen taken up by the plant is in the nitrate form, but most plants can also take up ammonium.

Most plant nutrients, with the exception of nitrogen, originate from the minerals that make up the soil parent material. Some nitrogen originates from rain as dilute nitric acid and ammonia, but most of the nitrogen is available in soils as a result of nitrogen fixation by bacteria. 

Once in the soil-plant system, most nutrients are recycled through living organisms, plant and microbial residues (soil organic matter), mineral-bound forms, and the soil solution. Both living microorganisms and soil organic matter are of critical importance to this recycling, and thereby to soil formation and soil fertility.

Nitrogenous fertilizers tend to create acidic conditions, which are fatal to the worms, and dead specimens are often found on the surface following the application of substances.

 There is a lot of nitrogen in the atmosphere, but it is not easy for plants to get. There are certain species of bacteria that absorb nitrogen gas from the atmosphere, and form a nodule. These are called nitrogen fixing bacteria. When the die, the nitrogen that they used are released for plants.

Bacteria live in almost any habitat. They are found inside the digestive system of animals, in the ocean and fresh water, in compost piles (even at temperatures over 130°F), and in soils. Although some kinds of bacteria live in flooded soils without oxygen, most require well-aerated soils. In general, bacteria tend to do better in neutral pH soils than in acid soils.

In addition to being among the first organisms to begin decomposing residues in the soil, bacteria benefit plants by increasing nutrient availability. For example, many bacteria dissolve phosphorus, making it more available for plants to use. 

Bacteria are also very helpful in providing nitrogen to plants, which they need in large amounts but is often deficient in agricultural soils. You may wonder how soils can be deficient in nitrogen when we are surrounded by it—78% of the air we breathe is composed of nitrogen gas. 

Yet plants as well as animals face a dilemma similar to that of the Ancient Mariner, who was adrift at sea without fresh water: “Water, water, everywhere nor any drop to drink.” Unfortunately, neither animals nor plants can use nitrogen gas (N2) for their nutrition.

 However, some types of bacteria are able to take nitrogen gas from the atmosphere and convert it into a form that plants can use to make amino acids and proteins. This conversion process is known as nitrogen fixation.

Some nitrogen-fixing bacteria form mutually beneficial associations with plants. One such symbiotic relationship that is very important to agriculture involves the nitrogen-fixing rhizobia group of bacteria that live inside nodules formed on the roots of legumes. 

These bacteria provide nitrogen in a form that leguminous plants can use, while the legume provides the bacteria with sugars for energy.


Protozoa are single-celled animals that use a variety of means to move about in the soil. Like bacteria and many fungi, they can be seen only with the help of a microscope. They are mainly secondary consumers of organic materials, feeding on bacteria, fungi, other protozoa, and organic molecules dissolved in the soil water.


 Protozoa—through their grazing on nitrogen-rich organisms and excreting wastes—are believed to be responsible for mineralizing (releasing nutrients from organic molecules) much of the nitrogen in agricultural soils. Protozoa are single-celled animals that feed primarily on bacteria, but also eat other protozoa, soluble organic matter, and sometimes fungi. 

They are several times larger than bacteria. As they eat bacteria, protozoa release excess nitrogen that can then be used by plants and other members of the food web. Soil bacteria have a carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of about 5:1 while protozoa have a ratio closer to 10:1. 

As the protozoa feed on the bacteria, they consume more nitrogen than they need. The excess is excreted and utilized by plants, and the cycling process continues.


Plant production and biomass (living material) are limited by the availability of nitrogen. Understanding how the plant-soil nitrogen cycle works can help us make better decisions about what crops to grow and where to grow them, so we have an adequate supply of food. 

Knowledge of the nitrogen cycle can also help us reduce pollution caused by adding too much fertilizer to soils. Certain plants can uptake more nitrogen or other nutrients, such as phosphorous, another fertilizer, and can even be used as a “buffer,” or filter, to prevent excessive fertilizer from entering waterways. 

Not enough nitrogen in the soils leaves plants hungry, while too much of a good thing can be bad: excess nitrogen can poison plants and even livestock! Pollution of our water sources by surplus nitrogen and other nutrients is a huge problem, as marine life is being suffocated from decomposition of dead algae blooms.. We need to protect the natural plant buffer zones that can take up nitrogen runoff before it reaches water bodies..

Plants respond to nutrient deficiency by altering root morphology, recruiting the help of microorganisms and changing the chemical environment of the rhizosphere.  The nutrients most limiting to plant growth are nitrogen and phosphorus. Even though 78% of the Earth's atmosphere is composed of nitrogen (N2 gas), it is in a form that is only utilizable by nitrogen-fixing organisms. As such, inorganic forms of N (NO3-,NH4+) that can be used by plants are added to soils. 

The availability of nitrogen in most soils is low because of the leaching losses of soluble nitrate (NO3-) with infiltrating rainwater, fixation of ammonium (NH4+) in clays and soil organic matter and bacterial denitrification. Plants respond differently depending on the form of nitrogen in the soil. 

Ammonium has a positive charge, and thus the plant expels one proton (H+) for every NH4+ taken up resulting in a reduction in rhizosphere pH. When supplied with NO3-, the opposite can occur where the plant releases bicarbonate (HCO3-) which increases rhizosphere pH. These changes in pH can influence the availability of other plant essential micronutrients (e.g., Zn, Ca, Mg).

Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria, such as Rhizobium species, detect compounds like flavonoids secreted by the roots of leguminous plants and then produce nod factors which signal to the plant that they are present and will lead to the formation of root nodules. In these nodules bacteria, sustained by nutrients from the plant, convert nitrogen gas to a form that can be used by the plant.    

Non-symbiotic (or "free-living") nitrogen-fixing bacteria may reside in the rhizosphere just outside the roots of certain plants (including many grasses), and similarly "fix" nitrogen gas in the nutrient-rich plant rhizosphere. ple, nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the rhizosphere of the rice plant exhibit diurnal cycles that mimic plant behavior, and tend to supply more fixed nitrogen during growth stages when the plant exhibits a high demand for nitrogen.
  
Bacteria and Archaea are the smallest organisms in soil apart from viruses. Bacteria and Archaea are prokaryotic.   Bacteria and archaea are the most abundant microorganisms in the soil, and serve many important purposes, including nitrogen fixation

Nitrobacter can only derive its energy by turning nitrite into nitrate, which is also known as oxidation. They are microorganisms that are important in the nitrogen cycle as converters of soil ammonia to nitrates, compounds usable by plants. 

Unlike plants, where electron transfer in photosynthesis provides the energy for carbon fixation, Nitrobacter uses energy from the oxidation of nitrite ions, NO2−, into nitrate ions, NO3−, to fulfill their energy needs. Nitrobacter fix carbon dioxide via the Calvin cycle for their carbon requirements..

The production of nitrate (NO3−) by oxidation of nitrite (NO2−) by nitrification the process that produces the inorganic nitrogen that supplies much of the demand by marine oxygenic, photosynthetic organisms such as phytoplankton, particularly in areas of upwelling. 

For this reason, nitrification supplies much of the nitrogen that fuels planktonic primary production in the world's oceans. Nitrification is estimated to be the source of half of the nitrate consumed by phytoplankton globally.. The oxidation of ammonia to nitrate is called nitrification and is an important part of the nitrogen cycle.

 Nitrifiers are a diverse group of Gram-negative bacteria that obtain energy by oxidizing inorganic nitrogen compounds such as ammonia or nitrite. These bacteria are of particular interest to farmers who fertilize their crops with ammonium nitrogen, a form of nitrogen that is retained by soils because its positive charge enables it to adhere to negatively charged soil particles.. 

As nitrifying bacteria oxidize nitrogen compounds, they consume O2. Because of this, waters polluted with nitrogen-containing wastes can quickly become anaerobic.

The nitrification process requires the mediation of two distinct groups: bacteria that convert ammonia to nitrites (Nitrosomonas, Nitrosospira, Nitrosococcus, and Nitrosolobus) and bacteria that convert nitrites (toxic to plants) to nitrates

Nitrogen is fixed, or combined, in nature as nitric oxide by lightning and ultraviolet rays, but more significant amounts of nitrogen are fixed as ammonia, nitrites, and nitrates by soil microorganisms.

The genus Clostridium is an example of bacterial versatility because it, unlike most species, can grow in the absence of oxygen, respiring anaerobically. Several species of Pseudomonas, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa are able to respire both aerobically and anaerobically, using nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor

Nitrogen fixation Nitrogen fixation, any natural  process that causes free nitrogen (N2), which is a relatively inert gas plentiful in air, to combine chemically with other elements to form more-reactive nitrogen compounds such as ammonia, nitrates, or nitrites. 

Under ordinary conditions, nitrogen does not react with other elements. Yet nitrogenous compounds are found in all fertile soils, in all living things, Nitrogen is also found in the nucleus of every living cell as one of the chemical components of DNA.

Nitrogen is fixed, or combined, in nature as nitric oxide by lightning and ultraviolet rays, but more significant amounts of nitrogen are fixed as ammonia, nitrites, and nitrates by soil microorganisms. More than 90 percent of all nitrogen fixation is effected by them. 

The symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria invade the root hairs of host plants, where they multiply and stimulate the formation of root nodules, enlargements of plant cells and bacteria in intimate association. 

Within the nodules, the bacteria convert free nitrogen to ammonia, which the host plant utilizes for its development. Legumes work in harmony with a group of bacteria that live on their roots. These bacteria take nitrogen from the air and “fix” or concentrate it in pink root nodules, adding nitrogen to the soil in a form the plants can absorb.

To get scientific about it, Rhizobia spp. bacteria have a symbiotic relationship with legume plant roots. The bacteria live in nodules in the legume roots. Plants cannot absorb nitrogen (N2) from the air. The bacteria convert nitrogen (N2) from the air by adding hydrogen to create ammonium ions (NH4+) which the plants can absorb. Converting the nitrogen by adding hydrogen is what is called “nitrogen fixation” in legumes. 

Biological nitrogen fixation converts N2 into ammonia, which is metabolized by most organisms. Nitrogen fixation is essential to life because fixed inorganic nitrogen compounds are required for the biosynthesis of all nitrogen-containing organic compounds, such as amino acids and proteins, nucleoside triphosphates and nucleic acids. 

As part of the nitrogen cycle, it is essential for agriculture and the manufacture of fertilizer Some nitrogen-fixing bacteria have symbiotic relationships with some plant groups, especially legumes. Nitrogen fixation also occurs between some termites and fungi.It also occurs naturally in the air by means of NOx production by lightning.


All biological nitrogen fixation is effected by enzymes called nitrogenases These enzymes are responsible for the reduction of nitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3). Nitrogenases are the only family of enzymes known to catalyze this reaction, which is a key step in the process of nitrogen fixation. 

Nitrogen fixation is required for all forms of life, with nitrogen being essential for the biosynthesis of molecules (nucleotides, amino acids) that create plants, Nitrogenase is an enzyme responsible for catalyzing nitrogen fixation, which is the reduction of nitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3) and a process vital to sustaining life on Earth



XXX
IF CHANDRABABU NAIDU BECOMES CM OF ANDHRA HE WILL BUILD HIS CAPITAL AT AMRAVATI BEFORE 2024..

PM MODI HIMSELF LAID THE FOUNDATION STONE ON 22ND OCT 2015 AT EDDANDARAYUNIPALEM AREA ON BANKS OF KRISHNA RIVER .

WE ASK AJIT DOVAL / CBI TO CHECK THE BENAMI LANDS CHANDRABABU NAIDU HAS ACQUIRED SURREPTITIOUSLY AT THE HEART OF HIS NEW EARMARKED CAPITAL AMRAVATI .. THIS WILL MAKE HIM THE RICHEST MAN IN INDIA..

http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2012/05/jagan-mohan-reddy-finally-in-jail-for.html

THE BUDDHIST STUPA AT AMARAVATI IS FAKE..

THE REAL BUDDHA ( WHO BELIEVED IN VEDAS ) HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH MODERN BUDDHISM ( OF BUDDHA BORN IN 563 BC WHO ATE PIG AND DID NOT BELIEVE IN SOUL ) WE SEE TODAY.. WHEN THE WHITE INVADER CAME TO INDIA THERE WAS NOT ONE SINGLE BUDDHIST IN INDIA..

THE REAL BUDDHA WAS ADI BUDDHA BORN TO ANJANA OF FATHER HEMAJIT IN KIKATA, BODHGAYA IN 1900 BC..

THE FAKE BUDDHA ( BORN IN LUMBINI , KAPILAVASTU, NEPAL ) OF FAKE ASHOKA FAME WAS NOT LIBERATED... HE STRUGGLED FOR SALVATION.. HIS LAST MEAL WAS PIG GIBLET..HIS MOTHER WAS MAYADEVI AND FATHER WAS SHUDDHODANA..

his is a passage from my social studies book while at school

QUOTE : The great Buddhist Stupa of Amaravati, the Maha chaitya, is one of the greatest architectural achievement of ancient India. The monument was situated on the outskirts of the town of Amaravati near the ancient ruined city of Dharanikota. It was founded in the 3rd-2nd centuries BC during Ashoka Maurya' reign UNQUOTE

BUT ALAS—EMPEROR ASHOKA NEVER EXISTED. HE WAS COOKED UP BY JEW ROTHSCHILD .

AFTER ALL ASHOKA CONVERTED FROM BAAAAAAD HINDUSIM TO GOOOOOOD BUDDHISM !

THE STUPA NEVER EXISTED AT THE SPOT –IT WAS JUST A FIGMENT OF ROTHSCHILDs SLIMY IMAGINATION.. ALL DIAGRAMS ARE FAKE..

I HAVE SEEN THE AMARAVATI BUDDHIST RELICS IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM— THEY ARE ALL FAKE—JUST LIKE THE ASHOKA ROCK EDICTS .

I have seen the Colin Mackenzie album of maps, plans and drawings of sculpture from the stupa at Amaravati at the British Library—all FAKE

THE NAME OF THIS NEW CAPITAL IS DERIVED FROM AN OLDER VILLAGE IN GUNTUR NAMED AMARAWATHI ON THE BANKS OF THE KRISHNA RIVER

Amaravathi Mahachaitya Stupa exists in this village. This is a FAKE relic made by Jew Rothschild to propagate the FAKE Emperor Ashoka who never existed.

The Chinese traveller and Buddhist monk Hiuen Tsang (Xuanzang) visited Amaravati in 640 AD as per Rothschild historians – BALLS! This fellow Hiun Tsang was cooked up by Jew Rothschild.

Colonel Colin Mackenzie working for Rothschild as the first Surveyor General of India was a FAKE archaeologist, FAKE collector of antiquities and an orientalist—who did propaganda for this FAKE Buddhist STUPA ..

Colonel Colin Mackenzie was involved in the MURDER of Tipu Sultan while he was eating breakfast in 1799 at his palace in Srirangapatnam..

CHANDRABABU NAIDU WANTS TO MAKE AMARAVATHI A BUDDHIST MECCA..

87 % of the nearly 54,000 acres land (lying between Vijayawada and Guntur cities alongside the river Krishna) designated for Amravati has been acquired under the land pooling system from 28,200 farmers .. This is a fertile area growing 3 crops a year for 122 varieties of food crops.. Even marginal farmers who own half an acre or less earn more than Rs 32,000 each month

This area if a FOOD BOWL and will be prone to floods.. Why trade precious FOOD for a concrete Jungle?

THE TOPSOIL IS SOFT AND IF TALL BUILDING HAVE TO BE MADE, THE BOTTOM OF THE TOP SOIL WHERE FOUNDATIONS WILL BE DRIVEN IN MUST BE INVESTIGATED FOR SUITABILITY..

IF CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL WAS THE BOSS OF NGT OR ENVIRONMENT MINISTER OR PM — I WONT GIVE CLEARANCE FOR BEING ENVIRONMENTALLY UNSUSTAINABLE ..

CONTINUED TO 2-
  1. CONTINUED FROM 1-

    WE ALL SAW HOW KERALA WAS FLOODED RECENTLY DURING FEW DAYS OF EXCESSIVE RAIN. ..YOU CANT FILL LANDS MEANT TO RECEIVE FLOODWATERS.

    The Singapore-based firm Subarna Jurong prepared the master plan for Amaravati.

    SINGAPORE IS A ILL PLANNED CITY WHO NEED TO BEG DRINKING WATER FROM MALAYSIA THOUGH IT RAINS HEAVILY IN SINGAPORE ALMOST EVERY DAY.

    WHAT IS THE NEED FOR THE CAPITAL OF A STATE TO BE A SUPERCITY AND THAT TOO BY SACRIFICING THE FOOD BOWL .. MORE CRITICALLY IMPORTANT IS SACRIFICING A CATCHMENT AREA.

    WHY DO WE HAVE CUNTS IN OUR THINK TANKS ?

    DO THEY EVEN KNOW THAT KRISHNA RIVER IN ANDHRA WHICH IS FED BY WATER ABSORBSION IN SOIL AND AQUIFERS BENEATH AND SLOW DISCHARGE WILL DRY UP.. THE DELTA OF KRISHNA RIVER IN ANDHRA IS AMONG THE MOST FERTILE LANDS IN INDIA..

    THE KRISHNA RIVER WILL GET EXTREMELY POLLUTED IN THE LAST LEG OF ANDHRA STATE ..EVEN NOW THE SOIL IS SALINE AND DODIC ALKALINE AT THE LOWER REACHES OF THE RIVER BASIN.


    DOES ANDHRA WANT TO BE ANOTHER TAMIL NADU WHERE COASTAL AQUIFERS GET INGRESSED BY SALT WATER ?.

    THIS RIVER IS 1300 KM LONG FLOWING THROUGH MAHARASHTRA, KARNATAKA AND TELENGANA

    WE ALL KNOW WHAT AN UNPLANNED CITY CALLED DELHI DID TO YAMUNA.

    ALL THOSE WHO THINK THAT ALL THE WATER IN GANGES RIVER IS DUE TO ICE IN HIMALAYAS MELTING— PLEASE RAISE YOUR HANDS.. I SEE NO HANDS, -- I SEE, EVEN A WATCHING MONKEY DID NOT RAISE HIS HAND..

    WHOSE EGO IS THIS CONCEPT PANDERING TO? NAIDU BABY WANTS HIS STATUE EVERYWHERE ?

    EVEN TODAY KRISHNA FLOWING THROUGH ANDHRA TO SEA GETS DRY..

    Pooling emerges from a separate state law called the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority Act passed by the Assembly on December 22, 2014. This scheme doesn’t offer monetary compensation for land taken. In exchange for village land taken today, it offers a developed piece of land in the future city.

    For every fertile acre pooled, the state will return 25% of developed area in the future city: a 1,000 square-yard residential plot, and a 250 square-yard commercial plot..

    Naidu baby has already got a home in Amaravati.. Most pro-pooling farmers are Kammas, like Chief Minister Chandrababu Naidu. They are traditional voters of the ruling TDP.

    Most anti-pooling farmers are Reddys or Kapus, supporting the YSR Congress.

    CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL DECLARES—ALL THOSE WHO HAD VISION OF A BUSTLING AMARAVATI CITY WITH WHITE FOREIGNERS PLAYING GOLF LOOKING INTO A MIGHTY FLOWING KRISHNA RIVER –THEY MUST BE COLLECTED TOGETHER AND SHOT WITH THEIR OWN SHIT

    Capt ajit vadakayil
    ..


Available nitrogen in the soil is the essential nutrient for green leaves, and new roots and shoots.

Bacteria are responsible for the process of nitrogen fixation, which is the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogen-containing compounds (such as ammonia) that can be used by plants. Autotrophic bacteria derive their energy by making their own food through oxidation, like the Nitrobacters species, rather than feeding on plants or other organisms. 

These bacteria are responsible for nitrogen fixation. The amount of autotrophic bacteria is small compared to heterotrophic bacteria (the opposite of autotrophic bacteria, heterotrophic bacteria acquire energy by consuming plants or other microorganisms), but are very important because almost every plant and organism requires nitrogen in some way.

In nitrogen fixation, rhizobium bacteria convert N2 to ammonia (NH3). Rhizobia share a symbiotic relationship with host plants, since rhizobia supply the host with nitrogen and the host provides rhizobia with nutrients and a safe environment. 

Rhizobia are diazotrophic bacteria that fix nitrogen after becoming established inside the root nodules of legumes (Fabaceae). To express genes for nitrogen fixation, rhizobia require a plant host; they cannot independently fix nitrogen.  In general, they are gram negative, motile, non-sporulating rods.

Nitrogen is a critical limiting element for plant growth and production. It is a major component of chlorophyll, the most important pigment needed for photosynthesis, as well as amino acids, the key building blocks of proteins. It is acids. Even though it is one of the most abundant elements (predominately in the form of nitrogen gas (N2) in the Earth’s atmosphere), plants can only utilize reduced forms of this element. 

Plants acquire these forms of “combined” nitrogen by: 1) the addition of ammonia and/or nitrate fertilizer (from the Haber-Bosch process) or manure to soil, 2) the release of these compounds during organic matter decomposition, 3) the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into the compounds by natural processes, such as lightning, and 4) biological nitrogen fixation

Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), discovered by Beijerinck in 1901 (Beijerinck 1901), is carried out by a specialized group of prokaryotes. These organisms utilize the enzyme nitrogenase to catalyze the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3). Plants can readily assimilate NH3 to produce the aforementioned nitrogenous biomolecules. 

These prokaryotes include aquatic organisms, such as cyanobacteria, free-living soil bacteria, such as Azotobacter, bacteria that form associative relationships with plants, such as Azospirillum, and most importantly, bacteria, such as Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium, that form symbioses with legumes and other plants (Pos

Many heterotrophic bacteria live in the soil and fix significant levels of nitrogen without the direct interaction with other organisms. Examples of this type of nitrogen-fixing bacteria include species of Azotobacter, Bacillus, Clostridium, and Klebsiella.   

These organisms must find their own source of energy, typically by oxidizing organic molecules released by other organisms or from decomposition.
Many microorganisms fix nitrogen symbiotically by partnering with a host plant. 

The plant provides sugars from photosynthesis that are utilized by the nitrogen-fixing microorganism for the energy it needs for nitrogen fixation. In exchange for these carbon sources, the microbe provides fixed nitrogen to the host plant for its growth.

The Rhizobium or Bradyrhizobium bacteria colonize the host plant’s root system and cause the roots to form nodules to house the bacteria . The bacteria then begin to fix the nitrogen required by the plant. Access to the fixed nitrogen allows the plant to produce leaves fortified with nitrogen that can be recycled throughout the plant. This allows the plant to increase photosynthetic capacity, which in turn yields nitrogen-rich seed.

Ammonium ions (NH4+) not immobilized or taken up quickly by higher plants are usually converted rapidly to NO3- ions by a process called nitrification. This is a two-step process, during which bacteria called Nitrosomonas convert NH4+ to nitrite (NO2-), and then other bacteria, Nitrobacter, convert the NO2- to NO3-. This process requires a well-aerated soil and occurs rapidly enough that one usually finds mostly NO3- rather than NH4+ in soils during the growing season.

When bacteria feed on soluble forms of nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate), they temporarily sequester that nitrogen in their bodies in a process called immobilisation. At a later time when those bacteria die, their nitrogen may be released as ammonium by the processes of mineralisation.

Usable nitrogen may be lost from soils when it is in the form of nitrate, as it is easily leached. Further losses of nitrogen occur by denitrification, the process whereby soil bacteria convert nitrate (NO3−) to nitrogen gas, N2 or N2O.

This occurs when poor soil aeration limits free oxygen, forcing bacteria to use the oxygen in nitrate for their respiratory process. Denitrification increases when oxidisable organic material is available and when soils are warm and slightly acidic. Denitrification may vary throughout a soil as the aeration varies from place to place. 

Denitrification may cause the loss of 10 to 20 percent of the available nitrates within a day and when conditions are favourable to that process, losses of up to 60 percent of nitrate applied as fertiliser may occur.

Waterlogging causes oxygen starvation in the root zone, which retards root development and may lead to death directly, or to poor growth and low productivity due to a stunted root system. Waterlogging also causes nitrogen loss through denitrification and can affect the availability of other nutrients. Toxins secreted by anaerobic bacteria, which flourish in waterlogged soils, may also damage plants.

The ratio of carbon to nitrogen will differ from species to species, and depending upon the age of the plant. The ratio is referred to as C:N. The value of N is always one, whereas the value of carbon or carbohydrates is expressed in a value of about 10 up to 90; the ratio must be less than 30:1 to prevent the manure bacteria from depleting existing nitrogen in the soil. Rhizobium are soil organisms that interact with green manure to retain atmospheric nitrogen in the soil.

Bacteria are organisms that have only one cell and are, therefore, microscopic. There are anywhere from 100 million to one billion bacteria in just a teaspoon of moist, fertile soil. They are decomposers, eating dead plant material and organic waste. 

By doing this, the bacteria release nutrients that other organisms could not access. The bacteria do this by changing the nutrients from inaccessible to usable forms. The process is essential in the nitrogen cycle.



WHAT IS CROP ROTATION?

IF WE NEED TO KICK THE DESH DROHI GREEN REVOLUTION AND REVERT BACK TO ORGANIC AGRICULTURE FARMERS NEED TO BE TAUGHT CROP ROTATION BY WAY OF TV AND FIELD CLASSES BY VOLUNTEERS TO ASSESS THE SOIL HISTORY AND HELP ON THE SPOT.

INDIANS TAUGHT CROP ROTATION TO THE REST OF THE PLANET IN ANCIENT TIMES.. TODAY WE ARE STRUGGLING WITH THE GREEN REVOLUTION GIFTS GIVEN TO US BY DESH DROHI MS SWAMINATHAN.

WE ASK THE MODI GOVT TO CERTIFY FARMERS WHO DO NOT USE ARTIFICIAL FERTILIZERS AND PESTICIDES..THESE FARMERS MUST BE GIVEN A HEFTY INCENTIVE. 

VIDEOS MUST BE TAKEN TO PROVE EARTHWORMS EXIST ..  

SEALED SOIL SAMPLES MUST BE TAKEN BY CERTIFIED TECHNICIANS TO THE LAB AND ANALYSED FOR MICROBES..


Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar or different types of crops in the same area in sequenced seasons. It is done so that the soil of farms is not used for only one set of nutrients. 

It helps in reducing soil erosion and increases soil fertility and crop yield. Growing the same crop in the same place for many years in a row (monocropping) disproportionately depletes the soil of certain nutrients. 

With rotation, a crop that leaches the soil of one kind of nutrient is followed during the next growing season by a dissimilar crop that returns that nutrient to the soil or draws a different ratio of nutrients. 

In addition, crop rotation mitigates the buildup of pathogens and pests that often occurs when one species is continuously cropped, and can also improve soil structure and fertility by increasing biomass from varied root structures. 

A preliminary assessment of crop interrelationships can be found in how each crop:---
 (1) contributes to soil organic matter (SOM) content, (2) provides for pest management, (3) manages deficient or excess nutrients, and (4) how it contributes to or controls for soil erosion..

Crop rotation allows the land to regenerate and rejuvenate its self-nutrients without having to apply more nutrients through the use of fertilizers.

Crop choice is often related to the goal the farmer is looking to achieve with the rotation, which could be weed management, increasing available nitrogen in the soil, controlling for erosion, or increasing soil structure and biomass, to name a few..

Crop rotation must consider in what condition one crop will leave the soil for the succeeding crop and how one crop can be seeded with another crop.  

For example, a nitrogen-fixing crop, like a legume, should always precede a nitrogen depleting one; similarly, a low residue crop (i.e. a crop with low biomass) should be offset with a high biomass cover crop, like a mixture of grasses and legumes..

Intercropping is a multiple cropping practice involving growing two or more crops in proximity. 

The most common goal of intercropping is to produce a greater yield on a given piece of land by making use of resources or ecological processes that would otherwise not be utilized by a single crop.
Multiple cropping is the practice of growing two or more crops in the same piece of land in same growing seasons instead of one crop. It is a form of polyculture. 

It can take the form of double-cropping, in which a second crop is planted after the first has been harvested, or relay cropping, in which the second crop is started amidst the first crop before it has been harvested.

The use of different species in rotation allows for increased soil organic matter (SOM), greater soil structure, and improvement of the chemical and biological soil environment for crops. With more SOM, water infiltration and retention improves, providing increased drought tolerance and decreased erosion.

Soil organic matter is a mix of decaying material from biomass with active microorganisms. Crop rotation, by nature, increases exposure to biomass from sod, green manure, and a various other plant debris. 

The reduced need for intensive tillage under crop rotation allows biomass aggregation to lead to greater nutrient retention and utilization, decreasing the need for added nutrients.  

Microorganisms are what make nutrients available to plants. So, where "active" soil organic matter is a key to productive soil, soil with low microbial activity provides significantly fewer nutrients to plants; this is true even though the quantity of biomass left in the soil may be the same.

Soil microorganisms also decrease pathogen and pest activity through competition. In addition, plants produce root exudates and other chemicals which manipulate their soil environment as well as their weed environment. 

Thus rotation allows increased yields from nutrient availability but also alleviation of allelopathy and competitive weed environments. Similar plants tend to have the same pathogens, therefore, crop rotation intercepts the pest life cycle and their habitat.

Crop rotations greatly increase soil organic carbon (SOC) content, the main constituent of soil organic matter. Carbon, along with hydrogen and oxygen, is a macronutrient for plants. Highly diverse rotations spanning long periods of time have shown to be even more effective in increasing SOC, while soil disturbances (e.g. from tillage) are responsible for exponential decline in SOC levels..

Rotating crops adds nutrients to the soil. Legumes, plants of the family Fabaceae, for instance, have nodules on their roots which contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria called rhizobia. 

During a process called nodulation, the rhizobia bacteria use nutrients and water provided by the plant to convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, which is then converted into an organic compound that the plant can use as its nitrogen source   

 It therefore makes good sense agriculturally to alternate them with cereals (family Poaceae) and other plants that require nitrates. How much nitrogen made available to the plants depends on factors such as the kind of legume, the effectiveness of rhizobia bacteria, soil conditions, and the availability of elements necessary for plant food

Crop rotation is used to control pests and diseases that can become established in the soil over time. The changing of crops in a sequence decreases the population level of pests by:--
 (1) interrupting pest life cycles and (2) interrupting pest habitat. Plants within the same taxonomic family tend to have similar pests and pathogens. 

By regularly changing crops and keeping the soil occupied by cover crops instead of lying fallow, pest cycles can be broken or limited, especially cycles that benefit from overwintering in residue
Integrating certain crops, especially cover crops, into crop rotations is of particular value to weed management. 

These crops crowd out weed through competition. In addition, the sod and compost from cover crops and green manure slows the growth of what weeds are still able to make it through the soil, giving the crops further competitive advantage. 

By removing slowing the growth and proliferation of weeds while cover crops are cultivated, farmers greatly reduce the presence of weeds for future crops, including shallow rooted and row crops, which are less resistant to weeds. Cover crops are, therefore, considered conservation crops because they protect otherwise fallow land from becoming overrun with weeds..

Crop rotation contributes to increased yields through improved soil nutrition. By requiring planting and harvesting of different crops at different times, more land can be farmed with the same amount of machinery and labour.

For example, say a farmer has planted a field of corn. When the corn harvest is finished, he might plant beans, since corn consumes a lot of nitrogen and beans return nitrogen to the soil.

If a farmer plants the exact same crop in the same place every year, as is common in conventional farming, she continually draws the same nutrients out of the soil. Pests and diseases happily make themselves a permanent home as their preferred food source is guaranteed. With monocultures like these, increasing levels of chemical fertilizers and pesticides become necessary to keep yields high while keeping bugs and disease at bay.

Crop rotation increases soil fertility by controlling deficient or excess nutrients because it replenishes nutrients that are not available or absorbing nutrients that are in abundance. It also increases the soil organic matter caused by the micro-organisms left behind by each type of crop planted. 

Animals that also graze on land left to fallow contribute to adding manure to the ground that fertilizes the soil.

Crop rotation helps return nutrients to the soil without synthetic inputs.

Organic crops perform better in weak-acidic to weak-alkaline soils—soils with pH between 5.5 and 8.0. This happens because of the difficulty in managing phosphorus in organic systems. Under strong alkaline and acidic conditions, phosphorus is less readily available to plants as it forms insoluble phosphates.


Crop rotation helps prevent soil compaction thus improving the physical condition of the soil. This allows for good condition for seed germination and root proliferation. It also helps with other soil processes such as water infiltration and aeration, which have a lot of benefits to the crops and improves the composition of the soil.




Cover crops take carbon out of the atmosphere as they grow and funnel it into the soil. Unlike cash crops that are harvested and removed from the soil, cover crops are left to decompose and contribute to soil formation. 

A cover crop is planted to manage soil erosion, soil fertility, soil quality, water, weeds, pests, diseases, biodiversity and wildlife in an agroecosystem—an ecological system managed and shaped by humans. 

Cover crops may be an off-season crop planted after harvesting the cash crop. The cover crop may grow over winter. One of the primary uses of cover crops is to increase soil fertility. These types of cover crops are referred to as "green manure." They are used to manage a range of soil macronutrients and micronutrients. 

Of the various nutrients, the impact that cover crops have on nitrogen management has received the most attention from researchers and farmers, because nitrogen is often the most limiting nutrient in crop production.

Often, green manure crops are grown for a specific period, and then plowed under before reaching full maturity in order to improve soil fertility and quality. Also the stalks left block the soil from being eroded.

A cover crop is a crop of a specific plant that is grown primarily for the benefit of the soil rather than the crop yield. Cover crops are commonly used to suppress weeds, manage soil erosion, help build and improve soil fertility and quality, control diseases and pests, and promote biodiversity.

Cover crops are typically grasses or legumes but may be comprised of other green plants. And, most often, a cover crop is grown in the off-season before the field is needed for growing the cash crop. In essence, a cover crop readies the land for an incoming cash crop. 

Cover crops reduce the amount of water that drains off a field, protecting waterways and downstream ecosystems from erosion. Because each root of the cover crop creates pores in the soil, cover crops help allow water to filter deep into the ground. As a result, a cover crop can help conserve water and prevent soil erosion.

Cover crops can help break disease cycles by reducing the amount of bacterial and fungal diseases in the soil. If you have a soil that is infested, you can plant a cover crop in that area as a means to eradicate the disease. 

Cover crops are sometimes called "green manure" because they provide nutrients to the soil, much like manure does. They are also called "living mulches" because they can prevent soil erosion. A mulch is a layer of organic material, such as crop residue, that is left on the surface of the soil to prevent water runoff and protect the soil from the damaging effects of heavy rainfall. 

Cover crops are an important part of sustainable agriculture. These crops add fertility to the soil without chemical fertilizers via biological nitrogen fixation. A cover crop can offer a natural way to reduce soil compaction, manage soil moisture, reduce overall energy use, and provide additional forage for livestock.

Small farmers choose to grow specific cover crops based on their needs and goals and the overall requirements of the land they are working. Cover crops grown in summer are often used to fill in space during crop rotations, help amend the soil, or suppress weeds. Winter cover crops help hold soil in place over the winter ..


This ensures that the soil has a suitable energy reserve as well as tissue building material to enable the plants to thrive.

In a fish tank, a fish’s primary waste is ammonia. Ammonia is produced by the breakdown of protein, the main staple of most fishes’ diets. Ammonia is excreted out through the urinary tract and gills. Ammonia is highly toxic to fish, causing death and increased secondary illness, so it is converted, through nitrogen-fixing bacteria, into nitrite. Now, nitrite can be just as bad as ammonia.  

Methemoglobinemia, or “Brown Blood Disease,” is caused by a build-up of nitrite. Nitrite can bind to hemoglobin in the blood and outcompete oxygen. This causes a brown coloration and the fish will asphyxiate from lack of oxygen. 

Thankfully, more nitrogen-fixing bacteria convert nitrite into the final nitrate. Nitrate is safe for fish at low levels, but at higher levels, and depending on the fish species’ tolerance, can cause the same issues as high ammonia. Nitrate is removed from the system by aquatic plants or water changes.

Microorganisms are very small forms of life that can sometimes live as single cells, although many also form colonies of cells. A microscope is usually needed to see individual cells of these organisms. Many more microorganisms exist in topsoil, where food sources are plentiful, than in subsoil. 

They are especially abundant in the area immediately next to plant roots (called the rhizosphere), where sloughed-off cells and chemicals released by roots provide ready food sources. 

These organisms are primary decomposers of organic matter, but they do other things, such as provide nitrogen through fixation to help growing plants, detoxify harmful chemicals (toxins), suppress disease organisms, and produce products that might stimulate plant growth.

 Soil microorganisms have had another direct importance for humans—they are the source of most of the antibiotic medicines we use to fight diseases.

Soil is a wonderful source of bacteria that can make new antibiotics.

One teaspoon of healthy soil contains hundreds of millions  of bacteria.

ANCIENT AYURVEDA NOT ONLY USED GOLD ( FROM HUMPED COW URINE ) AND SILVER COLLOIDS ( FROM GANGES HEAD RIVER WATERS ) AS ANTIBIOTICS BUT ALSO SOIL BACTERIA FROM SNAKE GROVES.  

HERBS COLLECTED FROM SNAKE GROVES ARE CONSUMED WITHOUT WASHING OR LIGHT RINSING ...

EVERY SNAKE GROVE HAD A POND WITH FISHES INSIDE.  EVEN SWALLOWING THE FISHES WITHOUT COOKING CURED DISEASES.

WHY IS GANGES RIVER WATER HOLY?

BECAUSE IT IS THE ONLY RIVER ON THE PLANET CONTAINING BACTERIOPHAGES.

Before the Suez canal was built,  British East India company ships would stock up Ganges water from the fag end of Ganges river  off Calcutta.  This water would hold excellent quality till the ship arrived at London, and sailors would be in the pink of health .

On the reverse passage they would stock fresh water from river Thames and this water would develop fungus , have bacteria and stink, and the water had to be discarded and replenished enroute .  Sailors used to he half dead by the time the ship reached India.

A quarter century ago, I had an argument with a Dutch river pilot .  When I pointed out some white chemical ( Styrene ) foam in water river water and a dead sea gull  , he ridiculed the holy river Ganges .  

I instantly busted his bubble by telling him that the Ganges which flows from the mythical hairlocks of Lord Shiva is self cleansing due to the action of bacteriophages ,  silver/ himalayan salt colloids  and hyper oxygenation—and it is the only river on the planet which has this ability.

Bacteriophage, is a virus,  any of a group of viruses that infect bacteria—it literally means  “bacteria eater” .

BELOW:  BACTERIOPHAGES OF THE GANGES RIVER HAVE INNATE INTELLIGENCE AND THEY DO ONLY GOOD TO HUMANS.   THIS IS WHY WE CALL GANGES A HOLY RIVER WITH LIVING WATER ..



Thousands of varieties of such phages exist, each of which may infect only one type or a few types of bacteria..  The nucleic acid may be either DNA or RNA and may be double-stranded or single-stranded.

During infection a phage attaches to a bacterium and inserts its genetic material into the cell.  After this a phage follows one of two life cycles, lytic (virulent) or lysogenic (temperate).  Lytic phages take over the machinery of the cell to make phage components.  They then destroy, or lyse, the cell, releasing new phage particles.

After the discovery of antibiotics in the 1940s it was virtually abandoned.  With the ever increasing rise of anti-biotic resistant bacteria , phages will now command fresh attention.

More than 125 years ago there was a cholera outbreak in India and dead bodies were dumped in the upper river. Yet strangely Ganges water did NOT spread the cholera down the river .

A British bacteriologist by the name of Dr Ernest Hankin found that colonies of cholera bacteria that thrived in ground water quickly died in Ganges water.  He pursued his experiment by using boiled Ganges water and filtered Ganges water.

To his surprise, while the filtered water ( which could not hold back nano colloids ) continued to show an antibacterial effect, the boiled water did not.  Heating water flocculates ( agglomerates ) and sediments the magic colloids and also kills the magic bacteriophages.


Ganges is heavily populated with phages which multiply rapidly , travel fast and home in on targets . They are harmless to humans because they are strain specific.  This means phages that infect the cholera bacterium can only infect the cholera bacterium and no other bacteria.
When a bacteriophage finds a bacterium with proteins which match its receptors, it can insert DNA or RNA into the bacterium and direct the organism to start producing replicas of the virus.

In the process of replicating the bacteriophage, many bacteria will experience lysis, in which they literally explode as they become overloaded with viruses.

Unlike antibiotics, phages take out the pathogen without harming the natural flora and friendly bacteria present in the body . 

The EVIL PHARMA has killed all efforts to revive phage research.  Bacteriophages which are viruses infect and kill their host bacteria by a magical SEARCH AND DESTROY action.

Phages have been keeping keeping bacteria in check for three and a half billion years! Antibiotics have been around for a few decades are they are already failing to do their job.

60 years ago people would put a few drops of Ganga water into ponds and it would kill all the bacterial growth.   Even today the polluted Ganga that kills pathogens twenty-five times faster than any other river. But with the onslaught of toxic chemicals from tanneries this rate has slowed down.

Dams have prevented the phages from doing their job. There are phages for all bacteria. A cholera phage can only attach to a cholera bacteria, an E. coli phage only to that specific E. coli and so on. They simply bide their time until they can sense that bacteria .

A phage or virus is a kind of macromolecule. It cannot replicate itself in nature. It has to penetrate the body of a suitable host and use its mechanism to replicate.  It can hang around in shady waters for years, but you won’t notice it because there is no host. It will only express itself when there is a bacterial host.

Without a host in sight it just remains dormant. The phage that will kill cholera will not kill shigella dysentery even though they are both diarrhoeal diseases. And one that kills shigella will not kill typhoid, and so on.

 The bacteria which phages feed on can come from human bodies when they bathe. The human body in water in fact acts as a catalyst.  The higher the concentration of bathers the more food for the phages to feast on.  So wherever there are major bathing festivals like the Kumbh mela,phages will flock.

Having found out its prey, the phage will multiply and the whole area suddenly becomes rich in phages.  So a few days after a Kumbh Mela the riversuddenly acquired greater powers of self-purification.

Now you get the drift why Capt Ajit Vadakayil got pissed off with the ignoramus river pilot in Netherlands.

Bacteriophages can eliminate the bacteria in the water. Compared to antibiotics, bacreriophages go deeper into the infected area. The replication of phages is concentrated on the infected area where they are needed the most.


Bacteriophages are viruses cannot multiply through the division of cells because they are acellular (they do not have cells).  Instead, they seek a host cell in which they replicate and assemble themselves using the metabolism and machinery of the host cell.  Antibiotics are metabolized and removed from the body, with associated side effects.

Now let me talk about the magical nano colloids in Ganges water.

300 million years ago, these magic colloids were at the bottom of the sea, and was churned up when two continents banged against each other at the end of the great continental drift.

The Himalayas were pushed up when two continents collided .  This is why Tibet is elevated and Mount Everest is the tallest mountain peak , which is still rising.   Rock salts from the bottom of the deep ocean were pushed up as mountains.

It is electrically charged nano size colloids of Himalayan rock salt which protects the human body from free radicals and heals the human body.   This is why Ganges water is called LIVING WATER. 

This low surface tension water contains all the 83 odd minerals required by the human body in the correct dosage, to take it to the correct vibrational state where all cells dance in supreme harmony. 
Ganges water heals at the cellular level.  Hardly any modern doctors understand the strange tango of minerals in the human cell. 

Ganges water  is highly alkaline and has an extraordinary amount of hydrogen with an extra electron, to neutralize damaging free radicals , which cause DNA damage, diseases and ageing. 

It holds high amounts of silver colloids , is highly sunbathed and oxygenated , and is indeed bio-energised miracle water. 

Low surface tension water ( normal is 73 dynes ) can store information for healing in its vibratory structure. It easily penetrates the 75 trillion cells and mitochondrial membranes, to supply nutrients and flush away toxins.

As we grow old our bodies are NOT able to absorb water into the cells. We are more than 70% of water.

HINDUS ARE NOT SAVAGES TO DRINK GANGES RIVER WATER-  AS KOSHER CUNTS LIKE JACK DORSEY, MARK ZUCKERBERG AND ANGELO D ADAMS THINK





An antibiotic is a chemical made by certain bacteria (or fungi) that either kills other bacteria or inhibits their growth or reproduction. Doctors prescribe antibiotics to destroy harmful bacteria that are causing disease.

Soil is a wonderful source of bacteria that can make new antibiotics which can kill bacteria in human body which are resistant to antibotics medicines.

Some antibiotics block the production of the cell wall in bacteria. Human cells don't have a cell wall, so they are unharmed by the chemicals. We need to repeatedly find new antibiotics because of a phenomenon known as antibiotic resistance. In this situation, an antibiotic that once killed a harmful bacterium no longer works. 

The microbe is said to have become resistant to the chemical. Antibiotic resistance develops due to genetic changes in bacteria. These changes are a natural part of a bacterium's life. 

Transfer of genes from one individual to another, mutations (alterations in genes), and transfer of genes by viruses that infect bacteria give the microbes new characteristics. It also means that the members of a bacterial population are not completely identical genetically.

When a bacterial population is attacked by an antibiotic, many of the bacteria may be killed. Some members of the population may survive because they have a gene (or genes) that enables them to resist the attack, however. When these resistant bacteria reproduce, some of their offspring will also have the helpful gene. A large population of resistant organisms may eventually form.

Antibiotic resistance is very worrying. If we can't find new ways to kill bacteria, some infections may become untreatable. Some serious diseases have already become much harder to treat. The search for new antibiotics made by soil bacteria is therefore very important.

MRSA stands for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This bacterium produces a very problematic infection because it's resistant to many common antibiotics. The infection can still be treated, but the treatment is often difficult because the number of drugs that affects the bacterium is decreasing.


Healthy soil is a rich source of bacteria. A significant number of these microbes might produce chemicals that could be used as human medicines.

One of the most useful abilities of bacteria as far as humans are concerned is to make antibiotics. An antibiotic is a chemical made by certain bacteria (or fungi) that either kills other bacteria or inhibits their growth or reproduction. Doctors prescribe antibiotics to destroy harmful bacteria that are causing disease.

Soils supply plants with nutrients, most of which are held in place by particles of clay and organic matter (colloids).   The nutrients may be aDsorbed on clay mineral surfaces, bound within clay minerals (absorbed), or bound within organic compounds as part of the living organisms or dead soil organic matter. 

These bound nutrients interact with soil water to buffer the soil solution composition (attenuate changes in the soil solution) as soils wet up or dry out, as plants take up nutrients, as salts are leached, or as acids or alkalis are added.

Biochar removes organic micropollutants from water via adsorption.


INDIANS HAVE BEEN BURNING CROP STUBBLE SINCE TIME IMMEMORIAL.. 

INDIANS WERE VEGANS AND WERE THE FIRST TO DO ORGANIC AGRICULTURE TO PRODUCE  GRAIN AND PULSES. 

Fire is a powerful regenerating force. This is why prescribed burns are useful management tools in forests and rangelands to clear out old growth, stimulate new growth and recycle nutrients.

The microorganisms that are killed by fire near the soil surface, where temperatures are greatest during a fire, become food for the survivors that escape by living deeper down or by being protected within the occasional soil aggregate (bound-up clusters of soil particles that may encase microbes and protect them from high temperatures).


WHAT MUST BE REMEMBERED DURING A FOREST FIRE IS THAT HEAT TRAVELS UPWARDS IN SECONDS, SIDEWAYS IN MINUTES AND DOWNWARDS IN HOURS..

Soil organic carbon is the basis of soil fertility. It releases nutrients for plant growth, promotes the structure, biological and physical health of soil, and is a buffer against harmful substances..
Organic material is manufactured by plants using carbon dioxide from the air and water.. Soil organic carbon tends to be concentrated in the topsoil

CARBON DIOXIDE IS A LIFE SUSTAINING GAS , NOT A BAD GAS AS PER PROPAGANDA OF “CHAMPION OF EARTH” JEW DARLING MODI— IN HIS ATTEMPT TO MOTHBALL OUR ENORMOUS RESERVES OF COAL. .




Plants (and animals, as part of the food chain), die and return to the soil where they are decomposed and recycled. Minerals are released into the soil and carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere.

A fertile and healthy soil is the basis for healthy plants, animals, and humans. And soil organic matter is the very foundation for healthy and productive soils.

Without an atmosphere, the Earth would be a rocky planet with no oceans, clouds or life. The mix of gases and conditions in the Earth's atmosphere make life possible. 

Plants and animals need the gases in the air to survive, and the protection the atmosphere provides helps sustain life as well.

Plants use carbon dioxide to grow and sustain life.

GLOBAL WARMING HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH CARBON DIXODE. 

THIS FOUL LIE IS JUST A RUSE FOR JEWS TO MAKE MONEY OUT OF THIN AIR BY CARBON TAXES..

CARBON DIOXIDE IS BEING BRANDED AS A GREENHOUSE GAS SO THAT INDIA WILL MOTHBALL OUR COAL

WATER VAPOUR IS  THE MOST DOMIANNT GREENHOUSE GAS .

In Salah in southern Algeria, a r noon high of 52 degrees Celsius was recorded  – by midnight that night at the same place it was -3.6 degree Celsius.

In Atacama desert noon temperatures can get as high as 55°C. At night, the temperature fall to  -3.3 degree C.

That was caused because there is no, or very little, water vapour in the atmosphere and it is a demonstration of water vapour as the most important greenhouse gas. Water in the ground and in the atmosphere is very good at storing heat from the day and releasing it slowly over the night, producing milder climates in wetter regions of the world.


THE PLANET GREENS WHEN THERE IS MORE CO2 IN THE ATMOSPHERE

When CO levels rise, plants don’t need to open their “stomata” as much to absorb the same amount of CO. This also reduces the loss of water through the same pores…Both more CO and saving water increases plant growth. 

Stomata are small pores in the underside of the leaf that allow gas exchange where water vapor leaves the plant and carbon dioxide enters. Special cells called guard cells control each pore’s opening or closing. When stomata are open, transpiration rates increase; when they are closed, transpiration rates decrease. 

Plants open and close their stomata in response to changes in their environment so they can get the CO2 they need, and avoid drying out. Plants need CO2 to enter and O2 to exit. Stomata close when it is dark and dry, unless carbon dioxide levels inside the leaf start to fall. Plant stomata close in darkness and when conditions are very dry. 



Since plant cells need carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, carbon dioxide concentrations are another key factor. If carbon dioxide concentrations inside the leaf start to fall, the plant will open its stomata so that more CO2 can enter, even under dry conditions when the stomata would ordinarily be closed.

Falling carbon dioxide concentrations trigger a biochemical pathway that makes the stomata reopen.


As soil organic matter decreases, it becomes increasingly difficult to grow plants, because problems with fertility, water availability, compaction, erosion, parasites, diseases, and insects become more common. If attention is paid to proper organic matter management, the soil can support a good crop without the need for artificial fertilisers and pesticides.

Plants need eighteen chemical elements for their growth—carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sulfur (S), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), boron (B), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), and chlorine (Cl). 

Plants obtain carbon as carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen partially as oxygen gas (O2) from the air. The remaining essential elements are obtained mainly from the soil. The availability of these nutrients is influenced either directly or indirectly by the presence of organic matter. 

The elements needed in large amounts—carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur—are called macronutrients. The other elements, called micronutrients, are essential elements needed in small amounts. (Sodium [Na] helps many plants grow better, but it is not considered essential to plant growth and reproduction.)

Most of the nutrients in soil organic matter can’t be used by plants as long as those nutrients exist as part of large organic molecules. As soil organisms decompose organic or mineral forms that plants can easily use. This process, called mineralization, provides much of the nitrogen that plants need by converting it from organic forms.  

For example, proteins are converted to ammonium (NH4+) and then to nitrate (NO3–). Most plants will take up the majority of their nitrogen from soils in the form of nitrate. The mineralization of organic matter is also an important mechanism for supplying plants with such nutrients as phosphorus and sulfur and most of the micronutrients. This release of nutrients from organic matter by mineralization is part of a larger agricultural nutrient cycle

Decomposing organic matter can feed plants directly, but it also can indirectly benefit the nutrition of the plant. A number of essential nutrients occur in soils as positively charged molecules called cations.. As I have explained in great detail before, the ability of organic matter to hold on to cations in a way that keeps them available to plants is known as cation exchange capacity (CEC). Humus has many negative charges

Because opposite charges attract, humus is able to hold on to positively charged nutrients, such as calcium (Ca++), potassium (K+), and magnesium (Mg++) (see figure 2.5a). This keeps them from leaching deep into the subsoil when water moves through the topsoil. 

Nutrients held in this way can be gradually released into the soil solution and made available to plants throughout the growing season. However, keep in mind that not all plant nutrients occur as cations. For example, the nitrate form of nitrogen is negatively charged (NO3–) and is actually repelled by the negatively charged CEC. Therefore, nitrate leaches easily as water moves down through the soil and beyond the root zone.

Clay particles also have negative charges on their surfaces , but organic matter may be the major source of negative charges for coarse and medium-textured soils.



Organic molecules in the soil may also hold on to and protect certain nutrients. These particles, called “chelates” are by-products of the active decomposition of organic materials and are smaller than the particles that make up humus. In general, elements are held more strongly by chelates than by binding of positive and negative charges. 


Chelates work well because they bind the nutrient at more than one location on the organic molecule . In some soils, trace elements, such as iron, zinc, and manganese, would be converted to unavailable forms if they were not bound by chelates. It is not uncommon to find low-organic-matter soils or exposed subsoils deficient in these micronutrients. 

Soil organisms are essential for keeping plants well supplied with nutrients because they break down organic matter. These organisms make nutrients available by freeing them from organic molecules. Some bacteria fix nitrogen gas from the atmosphere, making it available to plants. Other organisms dissolve minerals and make phosphorus more available. If soil organisms aren’t present and active, more fertilizers will be needed to supply plant nutrients. 

When soil has a favorable physical condition for growing plants, it is said to have good tilth. Such a soil is porous and allows water to enter easily, instead of running off the surface. More water is stored in the soil for plants to use between rains, and less erosion occurs. 

Good tilth also means that the soil is well aerated. Roots can easily obtain oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide. A porous soil does not restrict root development and exploration. When a soil has poor tilth, the soil’s structure deteriorates and soil aggregates break down, causing increased compaction and decreased aeration and water storage. A soil layer can become so compacted that roots can’t grow. 


A soil with excellent physical properties will have numerous channels and pores of many different sizes. As organic matter increases, soils tend to be less compact and have more space for air passage and water storage. Sticky substances are produced during the decomposition of plant residues. Along with plant roots and fungal hyphae, they bind mineral particles together into clumps, or aggregates. 

In addition, the sticky secretions of mycorrhizal fungi—beneficial fungi that enter roots and help plants get more water and nutrients—are important binding material in soils. The arrangement and collection of minerals as aggregates and the degree of soil compaction have huge effects on plant growth. I have explained all this in great detail before.




JUST NOW I SAW CONGRESS SPOKESMAN PC CHACKO PRAISING THE GREEN REVOLUTION AND WHITE REVOLUTION OF CONGRESS ON TV ..

TRULY SPOKEN LIKE AN IDIOT OF THE FIRST ORDER…

I GUESS HE IS MORE CHRISTIAN THAN INDIAN..

GREEN AND WHITE REVOLUTIONS NEARLY KILLED BHARATMATA..

TELL DUFFER PC CHACKO TO READ THE POSTS BELOW--

https://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2019/03/india-must-revert-to-organic.html

https://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2019/03/india-must-revert-to-organic_26.html

AND HERE IS SOME FACE LOTION FOR HIM-- ( just imagine, i had a soft corner for this FAALTHU fellow )

AAAARRRRGGHH PPTTHHEEOOOYYYYYYY

capt ajit vadakayil
..

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SEND ABOVE LINKS TO VANDANA SHIVA..

TELL HER, CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL SAYS THAT--

" VANDANA SHIVA MUST INCREASE THE SIZE OF HER BINDI -- TO DOUBLE-- , TO IMPROVE HER PERSONALITY .. NEVER MIND IF HER FOREHEAD IS COMPLETELY COVERED BY IT "

capt ajit vadakayil
..

SOMEBODY ASKED ME

WHAT WAS THE REASON FOR THAT SWIPE AT VANDANA SHIVA

WELL , SHE IS THE “CATs WHISKERS “ IN THE FIELD OF ORGANIC FARMING..

She received the Right Livelihood Award in 1993, an honor known as an "Alternative Nobel Prize".

IF I WERE TO PUT HER THROUGH AN OBJECTIVE EXAM ON BASICS , SHE WONT EVEN SCORE 3%..

Capt ajit vadakayil
..


Degradation and sorption are both factors which influence the persistence of pesticides in soil. Depending on the chemical nature of the pesticide, such processes control directly the transportation from soil to water, and in turn to air and our food. 

Breaking down organic substances, degradation, involves interactions among microorganisms in the soil. Sorption affects bioaccumulation of pesticides which are dependent on organic matter in the soil. Weak organic acids have been shown to be weakly sorbed by soil, because of pH and mostly acidic structure. Sorbed chemicals have been shown to be less accessible to microorganisms.

Nitrogen fixation, which is required for the growth of higher plants, is hindered by pesticides in soil. The insecticides DDT, methyl parathion, and especially pentachlorophenol have been shown to interfere with legume-rhizobium chemical signaling. Reduction of this symbiotic chemical signaling results in reduced nitrogen fixation and thus reduced crop yields.

Pesticides can kill bees and are strongly implicated in pollinator decline, the loss of species that pollinate plants, including through the mechanism of Colony Collapse Disorder, in which worker bees from a beehive or western honey bee colony abruptly disappear. 

Application of pesticides to crops that are in bloom can kill honeybees, which act as pollinators. The, pesticides have direct harmful effect on plant including poor root hair development, shoot yellowing and reduced plant growth.


Rhizosphere is the area around a plant root that is inhabited by a unique population of microorganisms influenced,  by the chemicals released from plant roots.

The rhizosphere an information super highway, for transferring data using exudates and communities. 

Plant roots penetrate soil horizons and open channels upon decomposition. Plants with deep taproots can penetrate many metres through the different soil layers to bring up nutrients from deeper in the profile.  Plants have fine roots that excrete organic compounds (sugars, organic acids, mucigel), slough off cells (in particular at their tip) and are easily decomposed, adding organic matter to soil, a process called rhizodeposition.


Rhizodeposition  as all material lost from plant roots, including water-soluble exudates, secretions of insoluble materials, lysates, dead fine roots, and gases, such as CO2 and ethylene he sources of organic C-input from roots can be divided into two main groups: ---(1) water-soluble exudates, for example sugars, amino acids, organic acids, and so on; and (2) water-insoluble materials, for example sloughed cells and mucilage. Materials in the first group are rapidly metabolized by rhizosphere microorganisms. 

There are three sources of CO2 released by a system of living roots and soil: ---(1) root respiration; (2) microbial respiration utilizing root-derived materials (rhizo-microbial respiration); and (3) microbial respiration using original soil carbon. This intimate association of root respiration and exudation with rhizo-microbial respiration has made studies of root respiration, root exudation, and rhizo-microbial respiration in natural soils very difficult.

The growth of roots through the soil stimulates microbial populations, stimulating in turn the activity of their predators (notably amoeba), thereby increasing the mineralization rate, and in last turn root growth, a positive feedback called the soil microbial loop.  

Out of root influence, in the bulk soil, most bacteria are in a quiescent stage, forming microaggregates, i.e. mucilaginous colonies to which clay particles are glued, offering them a protection against desiccation and predation by soil microfauna (bacteriophagous protozoa and nematodes). Microaggregates are ingested by soil mesofauna and macrofauna, and bacterial bodies are partly or totally digested in their guts.

Sand is least active, having the least specific surface area, followed by silt; clay is the most active. Sand's greatest benefit to soil is that it resists compaction and increases soil porosity, although this property stands only for pure sand, not for sand mixed with smaller minerals which fill the voids among sand grains. Silt is mineralogically like sand but with its higher specific surface area it is more chemically and physically active than sand. 

But it is the clay content of soil, with its very high specific surface area and generally large number of negative charges, that gives a soil its high retention capacity for water and nutrients. Clay soils also resist wind and water erosion better than silty and sandy soils, as the particles bond tightly to each other,and that with a strong mitigation effect of organic matter.


When the organic component of a soil is substantial, the soil is called organic soil rather than mineral soil. A soil is called organic if:-- 
Mineral fraction is 0% clay and organic matter is 20% or more
Mineral fraction is 0% to 50% clay and organic matter is between 20% and 30%
Mineral fraction is 50% or more clay  

Many of the chemicals used in pesticides are persistent soil contaminants, whose impact endure for decades and adversely affect soil conservation.


The use of pesticides decreases the general biodiversity in the soil. Not using the chemicals results in higher soil qualit with the additional effect that more organic matter in the soil allows for higher water retention. 

This helps increase yields for farms in drought years, when organic farms have had yields 40% higher than their conventional counterparts. A smaller content of organic matter in the soil increases the amount of pesticide that will leave the area of application, because organic matter binds to and helps break down pesticides.


  1. S0MEONE ASKED ME..

    DID MORARJEE DESAI DRINK HIS OWN URINE?..

    BALLS TO THAT GUJJU CUNT..

    NOWHERE IS IT WRITTEN IN AYURVEDA THAT HUMAN URINE CAN BE DRUNK..

    HUMAN URINE ( UNLIKE HUMPED COW URINE ) IS TOXIC WASTE..

    HUMPLESS COW URINE IS TOXIC WASTE..

    It was the white Christian invader who created false texts by forcing Sanskrit pandits to inject poison into a Sanskrit text by the name of DAMAR TANTRA . They put in contains 107 stanzas on the benefits of drinking one's own urine.

    These morons don’t realize in Hinduism nobody writes 107 stanzas, they will put in 108. These immoral white men have even gone ahead and written texts in a most foul manner on the benefits of eating dead rotting flesh and feces -- all in the name of Tantra.

    They even established that Lord Shiva is an AGHORI, a corpse eater lurking in the cremation yards , foraging for dead rotting flesh.

    Humped cow’s urine is a potent electrolyte. Here is an experiment for you to do at home. You can run an clock using cow urine without help of normal batteries. Connect two thin sheets of copper and zinc ( cathode and anode ) dipped in cow urine to the clock with wires—and the clock will run for 6 months.

    The power of cow’s urine is not in the chemicals and minerals alone, but also lies in the potency as an electrolyte.

    The quantum action lies in drinking the cow’s urine within 120 seconds of the cow pissing it out. Just make sure the cow is not pregnant, healthy and does NOT eat plastics on the road side.

    And most important, there is a spiritual aspect. This cow must be of Indian breed – meaning it MUST have a hump. Sorry, foreign cows.

    avyam pavitram ca rasayanam ca pathyam ca hrdyam balam buddhi syata
    Aayuh pradam rakt vikar hari tridosh hridrog vishapaham syata

    Sanjivani Translation: Cow urine is great elixir, proper diet, pleasing to heart, giver of mental and physical strength, enhances longevity. It balances bile, mucous and airs. Remover of heart diseases and effect of poison.

    Mutreshu, gaumutram gunto Adhikam. Avisheshat kathane, mutram gaumutramucchyate.

    Translation: Amongst all urines, cow urine alone is best.

    The ancient 7000 year old holy texts, like Atharva Veda, Charaka Samhita, Rajni Ghuntu, Vridhabhagabhatt, Amritasagar, Bhavaprakash, Sushruta Samhita, etc., contain lucid descriptions about the medicinal benefits of cow urine.

    Let me introduce some science into the effects of cow’s urine.

    Each individual human cell possesses two characteristics – capacitance and inductance , which are the elements of a tuned circuit. The fresh urine of the cow holds scalar healing energy. Healing energy which produces tiny eddy currents in body tissue.

    Cancer cells are almost without exception, low voltage cells, in the 15-20 milli-volt range. The optimum cell voltage for most cells in the body is in the 70-90 milli-volt range. As cell voltage starts to drop into the range where the very survival of the cell may be called into question, the cell begins to proliferate uncontrollably in an attempt to guarantee its own “survival.” This is what cancer is all about in a nutshell.

    If you raise cell voltage , the cell no longer needs to proliferate wildly. In effect, it can become “normal” again. The implications for this in treating cancer could be profound . There is an increase of overall body energy levels thus increasing cellular energy for trillions of cells to the ideal 70-90 milli-volt range. Increase of energy covalent level of every single hydrogen atom in the body can be verified by spectrographs.


    CONTINUED TO 2--
    1. CONTINUED FROM 1-

      This improves cell wall permeability thus facilitating the intake of nutrients into each and every cell and the elimination of waste from each and every cell. This cleanses the blood improving chylomicron levels (protein & fat particles floating in the blood) and triglyceride profiles and fibrin patterns. It improve immune functions. Enhanced permeability facilitates the intake of nutrients into each and every cell and also aids the elimination of toxins from the cells. In this way, optimum cellular nutrition and detoxification is maintained.

      This in turn, facilitates optimum cellular performance and function retard regeneration, age-related diseases may be prevented and hence slow down the ageing process. Increase of tissue voltage, improve the activities of the body's enzymes, enhance ion transport at a cellular level and affect membrane potentials.

      Cow’s urine contains copper. Scalar energy are capable of acting on living organisms at a sub-atomic level, and certain frequencies of scalar destroy viruses and bacteria. The body does not to consist of dense matter but rather vortices of energy spinning continuously, vibrating at very high frequency and giving the appearance of hard matter.

      The human body consists of approximately 70% water. Many biologically active compounds are switched on or off by changes in the concentrations of dissolved ions such as sodium and potassium. Individual water molecules, with their tendency to form hydrogen bonds, also stabilise the structure of proteins, whose action depends crucially on their shape.

      If the hydrogen bonding angles of one molecule are altered, those in the other molecules can be expected to follow suit (as in a domino effect). Digestion is nothing more than a slow form of burning that produces energy for your body to live on. In fact, death itself is defined as the absence of electrical activity in the brain.

      Our molecular and cellular matrix remembers the painful experience and may cause us to avoid situations that seem similar for fear of reenacting the experience. Poor health often results. In addition, this constricted energy many times affects our habits and perceptions in negative ways.

      The electrical activity of the heart muscle sets up its electromagnetic field, the strongest field of the body. It is at the heart that the center of the vascular möbius coil is found-- an intersection of venous blood passing through the right atrium, overlapping aortic blood coming through the left atrium.

      First of all why cow’s urine. The simple reason is the cow though a vegetarian takes a longer time to piss or shit of what it eats and drinks. And it gives fresh white milk.

      Have you ever smelt a humped cow? She smells great.

      The cow has four stomachs and undergoes a special digestive process to break down the grass and hay it eats. When the cow first eats, it chews the food just enough to swallow it. The unchewed food travels to the first two stomachs, the rumen and the reticulum, where it is stored until later. When the cow is full from this eating process, she rests.

      Later, the cow coughs up bits of the unchewed food called cud and chews it completely this time before swallowing it again. The cud then goes to the third and fourth stomachs, the omasum and abomasum, where it is fully digested. Some of this digested food enters the bloodstream and travels to a bag called the udder, where it is made into milk that will come out of her teats, while the rest goes towards the cow's nourishment.

      This is why the HUMPED cow’s dung and urine is not a YUCK thing--unlike the HUMPLESS cow ..

      http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2013/02/gomutra-drinking-cows-urine-as-elexir.html

      Gomutra has copper ions which do NOT allow fat to deposit and lowers the levels of cholestrol. It has hormones which decomposes fat. Cow’s urine enhances metabolic activity of cells and tissue.

      CONTINUED TO 3--

    2. CONTINUED FROM 2-

      The analysis of cow urine has shown that it contains nitrogen, sulphur, phosphate, sodium, manganese, carbolic acid, iron, silicon, chlorine, magnesium, melci, citric, titric, succenic, calcium salts, Vitamin A, B, C, D, E, minerals, lactose, enzymes, creatinine, hormones and gold COLLOIDS.

      Cow’s urine is a natural panacea for all diseases .

      Gomutra is antiseptic, detoxificant, germicidal , anti- microbail , diuretic , blood purifier, appetizer , growth hormone, anti-carcinogenic immunity enhancer, anti fungal, anti-bacterial, compensates the loss of micronutrients (enzymes), anti allergic, antibiotic and antihelmintic (parasite expeller ). It is an anti-oxidant , digestion enhancer, anti inflammatory, eliminates intestinal worms , treats skin diseases like eczema ringworm psoriasis , detoxifier, blood cleanser , bile stabiliser, improves production of haemoglobin, treats anemia, removing urinary tract stones, antacid, for eye infections, natural disinfectant and insecticide, anti-reptile, migraine treatment , improves memory with ashwagandha, treating constipation, anti aging elexir, dissolves blood clots, promotes normalization of menstrual cycle, heals tumors, controls jaundice, supports digestion, laxative, anti-edema, for equilibrium of water content and acid – base balance, disorders of brain/ neurological conditions like epilepsy, psychiatric complaints, improves skin tone, corrects menstrual disorders, maintains the level of insulin by enhancing the function of pancreas, calms the chattering mind, piles treatment , prostrate , arthritis ,ulcers etc..

      Ayurveda administers cow’s urine as enema ( vasti ) . Also as nasal administration ( Nasya ), for many psychological disorders.

      The Brits thought that they are very smart . They wanted more milk and make more moolah. So the greedy Brit fed their cows with non-vegetarian stuff. And see what happened -- MAD COW disease. Today the once intelligent British race is history !

      http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2013/12/shocking-legacy-of-mad-cow-disease-capt.html

      THIS IS THE FIRST TIME IT IS BEING TOLD ON THIS PLANET THAT HUMPED COW URINE WITH GOD GIVEN ENZYMES CAN SAVE YOU.
      There is NO western medicine for viruses . Whatever medicines which they give you by LIES have very bad side effects.

      The Surya Nadi in vedic HUMPED cow gives its urine nano gold colloids. The nano-particles of gold in gomutra offer protection against auto-immune disease and cancer.

      THE URINE OF HUMPED COW HAS NANO GOLD COLLOIDS DUE TO SURYANADI AND CAN MELT THE OUTER SHELL OF ANY BACTERIA / VIRUS. .. THE ONLY WAY TODAY TO RETARD BRAIN DEGRADATION IS TO CONSUME HALF A TEASPOON OF FRESH GOMUTRA ..

      Nano gold colloids are anti-inflammatory and have NIL side effects. Thy decalcify the shriveled pineal gland. Gomutra has enzymes too which dissolve and bust the protective outer armor of virusus, bacteria, fungi and yeasts.

      VEDIC HUMPED COW IS NEVER INFECTED WITH SUCH DISEASES LIKE MYCOPLASMA BOVIS ,MAD COW DISEASE OR MIDDLE EAR INFECTIONS ..

      ONLY HUMPLESS WESTERN COWS ARE INFECTED... THESE COWS ARE WORSE THAN PIGS..

      DESH DROHI VEGGHESE KURIAN SWITCHED OUR PRICELESS HUMPED COW WITH USELESS HUMPLESS COWS..

      VEDIC HUMPED COWS GIVE US NUTRITIOUS A2 MILK AND PRICELESS URINE AND DUNG..

      HUMPLESS JERSEY/ HOLSTEN COWS GIVE TOXIC A1 MILK AND TOXIC URINE/ DUNG...

      LIKE HOW UK CULLED ALL THEIR COWS AFTER FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE AND MAD COW DISEASE , NATIONS AFFECTED WITH EVEN ONE SINGLE COW HAVING MYCOPLASMA BOVIS DISEASE WILL HAVE TO CULL THE ENTIRE POPULATION OF HUMPLESS COWS..

      Following depopulation, farms are disinfected and will lie fallow for 60 days after which they can be restocked.

      In India thanks to DESH DROHI ( father of white revolution ) we get only toxic A1 milk of humpless cows..

      CONTINUED TO 4--

    3. CONTINUED FROM 3--

      AND TODAY THE POODLE OF THE ITALIAN WAITRESS PC CHACKO WAS SINGING VERGHESE KURIANs PRAISES. APUN BHI KERALA CHRISTIAN -TUPPUNN BHI KERALA CHRISTIAN -- MAJJA HAI!

      It is a WHITE LIE that milk of Mycoplasma bovis affected cows do NOT infect humans and presents no food safety risk. That there is no concern about eating meat, milk and milk product..

      THEY PROPAGATED THE SAME LIE IN UK AND USA.. BOTH MARGARET THATCHER AND RONALD REAGAN DIED OF BRAIN DISEASE..

      I CAN LOOK AT COW SHIT AND TELL IF IT BELONGS TO HUMPED OR HUMPLESS COW--IT WILL HAVE A GLAZED LOOK ( OILY OUTER COATING ) FOR HUMPED COWS ..

      I CAN SMELL COW SHIT AND TELL -- HUMPED COW SHIT IS SWEET SMELLING..IN OUR CHILDHOOD WE IN KERALA PUT ONAM FLOWERS ON FRESH HUMPED COW SHIT PASTE ..

      I CAN BLINDFOLD MYSELF -- PUT NOSE FILTER AND TELL BY FEELING THE TEXTURE.. HUMPED COW HAS A PERFECT DIGESTIVE SYSTEM...

      HINDUS CARE ONLY FOR HUMPED VEDIC COW..HUMPED COW WAS THE BACKBONE OF ORGANIC FARMING..

      KILL ALL THE HUMPLESS WESTERN COWS-- ALL WORSE THAN PIGS --GIVING TOXIC A1 MILK , TOXIC URINE, TOXIC DUNG AND TOXIC MEAT..

      BEEF LOBBY OF HUMPLESS WESTERN COW IS THE NO 1 REASON FOR GLOBAL WARMING DUE TO GREENHOUSE GASES OF METHANE AND NITROUS OXIDE...

      THESE GLUTTON HUMPLESS COWS FART METHANE. THEIR URINE AND DUNG EMANATE NITROUS OXIDE..

      VEDIC HUMPED CW FARTS ONLY 5% OF METHANE THEIR WESTERN COUNTERPARTS DO...

      EVERY ACRE OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN INDIA MUST HAVE 5 VEDIC HUMPED COWS..TO GET RID OF ARTIFICIAL NITROGEN LADEN FERTILISERS..

      TODAY THE WEST WANTS TO EAT HUMPED COW MEAT.. TOXIC HUMPLESS COW MEAT CAUSES HOMOSEXUALITY AND DEMENTIA IN OLD AGE.

      http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2013/07/nutritious-a1-milk-of-vedic-cows-with.html

      VEDIC HUMPED COW DUNG IS USED FOR AGNIHOTRA TO PRODUCE NITRIC OXIDE.

      http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2012/08/agnihotra-ghee-cow-dung-fuel-capt-ajit.html

      AS PER AYURVEDA 90% OF HUMAN DISEASES ORIGINATE IN THE GUT..

      http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2017/04/small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth.html

      http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2017/03/ibs-irritable-bowel-syndrome-vagus.html

      http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2014/10/no-farting-please-capt-ajit-vadakayil.html

      HUMPED COW , EVEN OF BARREN AND DOES NOT PRODUCE MILK, BABY CALVES ARE USEFUL AS THEY GIVE PRICELESS URINE AND DUNG..

      THE DUNG OF HUMPED COW HAS BEEN USED FOR MILLENNIUMS TO KEEP AWAY NEGATIVE ENERGIES AND HAS BEEN USED AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR HOLY GANGES WATER WHICH CONTAIN NANO SILVER COLLOIDS AND BACTERIOPHAGES .. ONLY GANGES WATER HAS NANO SILVER COLLOIDS AND BACTERIOPHAGES ..

      http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2014/06/ganga-manthan-cleaning-of-river-ganges.html

      NANO COLLOIDS OF GOLD ( HUMPED COW URINE ) AND SILVER ( GANGA WATER ) CAN BREACH THE BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER. THIS IS NO SUPERSTITION..

      THE WEST NOW CRAVE TO EAT INDIAN HUMPED COW BEEF AS THE MEAT IS NOT TOXIC FOR THE BRAIN..
      HUMPLESS JERSEY/ HOLSTEN COW TOXIC A1 MILK IS THE REASON WHY KOSHER EVIL PHARMA DOCTORS AND HOSPITALS THRIVE IN INDIA..

      capt ajit vadakayil
      ..
Soil aggregates are clumps of soil particles that are held together by moist clay, organic matter (like roots), gums (from bacteria and fungi) and by fungal hyphae. The aggregates are relatively stable oil pores are the spaces between soil particles and between soil aggregates. They can be full of air or they can have water in them. 

A polysaccharide is an organic compound composed of many simple carbon compounds, identical to each other, joined together in a long chain. They are released into the soil by microorganisms and roots. Polysaccharides are long and flexible and they can make points of contact with many soil particles. In this way they have been associated with the formation of aggregates in soil. 

Firstly, bacteria produce polysaccharides which can make many points of contact with soil particles producing aggregates. Unlike the polysaccharides produced by plant roots, bacterial polysaccharides resist decomposition long enough to be involved in holding soil particles together in aggregates. 

Secondly, bacteria develop a small electrostatic charge which attracts to the electrostatic charge on clay surfaces, bringing together small aggregates of soil.

Water is essential to plants for four reasons:--
It constitutes 80%-95% of the plant's protoplasm.
It is essential for photosynthesis.
It is the solvent in which nutrients are carried to, into and throughout the plant.
It provides the turgidity by which the plant keeps itself in proper position.

Soil bulk density is equal to the dry mass of the soil divided by the volume of the soil; i.e., it includes air space and organic materials of the soil volume. Thereby soil bulk density is always less than soil particle density and is a good indicator of soil compaction

Water moves in soil under the influence of gravity, osmosis and capillarity.When water enters the soil, it displaces air from interconnected macropores by buoyancy, and breaks aggregates into which air is entrapped, a process called slaking.

The rate at which a soil can absorb water depends on the soil and its other conditions. As a plant grows, its roots remove water from the largest pores (macropores) first. Soon the larger pores hold only air, and the remaining water is found only in the intermediate- and smallest-sized pores (micropores). 


The water in the smallest pores is so strongly held to particle surfaces that plant roots cannot pull it away. Consequently, not all soil water is available to plants, with a strong dependence on texture.When saturated, the soil may lose nutrients as the water drains. 

Water moves in a draining field under the influence of pressure where the soil is locally saturated and by capillarity pull to drier parts of the soil.  Most plant water needs are supplied from the suction caused by evaporation from plant leaves (transpiration) and a lower fraction is supplied by suction created by osmotic pressure differences between the plant interior and the soil solution. 


Plant roots must seek out water and grow preferentially in moister soil microsites, but some parts of the root system are also able to remoisten dry parts of the soil. Insufficient water will damage the yield of a crop.  Most of the available water is used in transpiration to pull nutrients into the plant.

Water is retained in a soil when the adhesive force of attraction that water's hydrogen atoms have for the oxygen of soil particles is stronger than the cohesive forces that water's hydrogen feels for other water oxygen atoms.  

When a field is flooded, the soil pore space is completely filled by water. The field will drain under the force of gravity until it reaches what is called field capacity, at which point the smallest pores are filled with water and the largest with water and gases. 

The total amount of water held when field capacity is reached is a function of the specific surface area of the soil particles.  As a result, high clay and high organic soils have higher field capacities.  The total force required to pull or push water out of soil is termed suction and usually expressed in units of bars  which is just a little less than one-atmosphere pressure. Alternatively, the terms "soil moisture tension" or water potential may be used.

Water potential is the potential energy of water per unit volume relative to pure water in reference conditions. Water potential quantifies the tendency of water to move from one area to another due to osmosis, gravity, mechanical pressure, or matrix effects such as capillary action (which is caused by surface tension).

If flow is not restricted, water will move from an area of higher water potential to an area that is lower potential.  With no restriction on flow, water will move from the locus of greater potential (pure water) to the locus of lesser (the solution); flow proceeds until the difference in potential is equalized or balanced by another water potential factor, such as pressure or elevation.

A soil solution  experiences osmotic potential. The osmotic potential is made possible due to the presence of both inorganic and organic solutes in the soil solution. As water molecules increasingly clump around solute ions or molecules, the freedom of movement, and thus the potential energy, of the water is lowered. 

As the concentration of solutes is increased, the osmotic potential of the soil solution is reduced. Since water has a tendency to move toward lower energy levels, water will want to travel toward the zone of higher solute concentrations. Although, liquid water will only move in response to such differences in osmotic potential if a semipermeable membrane exists between the zones of high and low osmotic potential. 

A semipermeable membrane is necessary because it allows water through its membrane while preventing solutes from moving through its membrane. If no membrane is present, movement of the solute, rather than of the water, largely equalizes concentrations.

Since regions of soil are usually not divided by a semipermeable membrane, the osmotic potential typically has a negligible influence on the mass movement of water in soils. On the other hand, osmotic potential has an extreme influence on the rate of water uptake by plants. 

If soils are high in soluble salts, the osmotic potential is likely to be lower in the soil solution than in the plant root cells. In such cases, the soil solution would severely restrict the rate of water uptake by plants. In salty soils, the osmotic potential of soil water may be so low that the cells in young seedlings start to collapse (plasmolyze).


When water is in contact with solid particles (e.g., clay or sand particles within soil), adhesive intermolecular forces between the water and the solid can be large and important. The forces between the water molecules and the solid particles in combination with attraction among water molecules promote surface tension and the formation of menisci within the solid matrix. 

Force is then required to break these menisci. The magnitude of matrix potential depends on the distances between solid particles—the width of the menisci (also capillary action and differing Pa at ends of capillary)—and the chemical composition of the solid matrix (meniscus, macroscopic motion due to ionic attraction).

The matrix potential is always negative because the water attracted by the soil matrix has an energy state lower than that of pure water. Matrix potential only occurs in unsaturated soil above the water table. If the matrix potential approaches a value of zero, nearly all soil pores are completely filled with water, i.e. fully saturated and at maximum retentive capacity. 


The matrix potential can vary considerably among soils. In the case that water drains into less-moist soil zones of similar porosity, the matrix potential is generally in the range of −10 to −30 kPa.

1 Atmos= 760mm HG= 29.92 inch HG= 33.899 feet FW= 1.033 kg/cm2=  14.69 psi= 1.0133 bars= 101.3 kPa (KN m2)= 1013.3 HPa (mb)


1 kpa= 102 mm aq,   1 kg= 100 kpa,    1 mpa= 10 kg.














CRYING BOLLYWOOD SUPERSTAR—  SANS BASIC UNDERSTANDING OF DARCYs LAW !!








IN USA AND EUROPE VAPOR RETURN CALCULATION WERE WRONG…

SOME CUNT STARTED A MINDLESS METHOD AND ALL WERE FOLLOWING THAT TILL BAAD BOY VADAKAYIL STOPPED IT QUOTING DARCYs LAW..

CALCULATIONS IN THIS POST WILL MAKE ALL IIT PROFESSORS SCRATCH THEIR BOTTOM ORIFICES AND SMELL IT FOR GOOD MEASURE .. 

MIND YOU , WE ARE DEALING WITH HIGHLY TOXIC , AND CARCINOGENIC GASES.. THERE IS NO ROOM FOR ERROR.





WE ASK THE MODI GOVT NOT TO ALLOW PUBLICITY KA BHOOKA BOLLYWOOD SUPERSTARS AND CONMEN LIKE SRI SRI RAVISHANKAR AND SADGURU JAGGI VASUDEV TO DABBLE IN HYDROGEOLOGY ..  

THIS IS A COMPLICATED MATER FOR THE BRIGHTEST MINDS OF INDIA..



Darcy's law is an equation that describes the flow of a fluid through a porous medium. The law was formulated by Henry Darcy based on the results of experiments  on the flow of water through beds of sand, forming the basis of hydrogeology.



AT SEA, CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL IS KNOWN AS THE "UNIVERSAL WATER SEEKING YOUR LEVEL"

I DONT REVEAL MY THINKING PROCESSES .   LUMP IT OR LEAVE IT ..

YOU GET TO SEE IT NOW , BECAUSE THIS POST IS FOR HCD ( NO LCD  -- LOWEST COMMON DENOMINATOR DIMWITS ) 


Soil is made up of small particles, providing lots of surfaces that will bind water. This binding is highly dependent on soil type. For example, sandy soil has large particles which provide less surface binding sites, while a silt loam has smaller particles and more surface binding sites.

Matric potential is always negative or zero, and is the most significant component of soil water potential in unsaturated conditions.

Matric potential arises because water is attracted to most surfaces through hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces. This water droplet is pure but no longer free. The matric forces that bind it to the plastic have lowered its potential and you would have to use some energy to remove it from the surface and take it to a pool of pure, free water.

Osmotic potential describes the dilution and binding of water by solutes that are dissolved in the water. This potential is also always negative.

Osmotic potential only affects the system if there is a semi-permeable barrier that blocks the passage of solutes. This is actually quite common in nature. For example, plant roots allow water to pass but block most solutes. Cell membranes also form a semi-permeable barrier. 

A less obvious example is the air-water interface, where water can pass into air in the vapor phase, but salts are left behind. Gravitational potential arises because of water’s location in a gravitational field. 

It can be positive or negative depending on where you are in relation to the specified reference of pure, free water at the soil surface Pressure potential is a hydrostatic or pneumatic pressure being applied to or pulled on the water.  It is a more macroscopic effect acting throughout a larger region of the system.

There are several examples of positive pressure potential in the natural environment.

For example, there is a positive pressure present below the surface of any groundwater. You can feel this pressure yourself as you swim down into a lake or pool. Similarly, a pressure head or positive pressure potential develops as you move below the water table. 

Though pressure potential is usually positive, there are important cases where it is not. One is found in plants, where a negative pressure potential in the xylem draws water from the soil up through the roots and into the leaves.












At a potential of 0 kPa, soil is in a state of saturation. At saturation, all soil pores are filled with water, and water typically drains from large pores by gravity. At a potential of −33 kPa, or −1/3 bar, (−10 kPa for sand), soil is at field capacity. 

Typically, at field capacity, air is in the macropores and water in micropores. Field capacity is viewed as the optimal condition for plant growth and microbial activity. At a potential of −1500 kPa, soil is at its permanent wilting point, meaning that soil water is held by solid particles as a "water film" that is retained too tightly to be taken up by plants.


In contrast, atmospheric water potentials are much more negative—a typical value for dry air is −100 MPa, though this value depends on the temperature and the humidity. 
Root water potential must be more negative than the soil, and the stem water potential and intermediate lower value than the roots but higher than the leaf water potential, to create a passive flow of water from the soil to the roots, up the stem, to the leaves and then into the atmosphere.

The forces with which water is held in soils determine its availability to plants. Forces of adhesion hold water strongly to mineral and humus surfaces and less strongly to itself by cohesive forces. A plant's root may penetrate a very small volume of water that is adhering to soil and be initially able to draw in water that is only lightly held by the cohesive forces. 

But as the droplet is drawn down, the forces of adhesion of the water for the soil particles produce increasingly higher suction, finally up to 15 bar.At 15 bar suction, the soil water amount is called wilting point.

 At that suction the plant cannot sustain its water needs as water is still being lost from the plant by transpiration, the plant's turgidity is lost, and it wilts, although stomatal closure may decrease transpiration and thus may retard wilting below the wilting point, in particular under adaptation or acclimatization to drought. 

The next level, called air-dry, occurs at 1000 bar suction. Finally the oven dry condition is reached at 10,000 bar suction. All water below wilting percentage is called unavailable water.







When the soil moisture content is optimal for plant growth, the water in the large and intermediate size pores can move about in the soil and be easily used by plants. The amount of water remaining in a soil drained to field capacity and the amount that is available are functions of the soil type. Sandy soil will retain very little water, while clay will hold the maximum amount.


Water moves through soil due to the force of gravity, osmosis and capillarity. At zero to one-third bar suction, water is pushed through soil from the point of its application under the force of gravity and the pressure gradient created by the pressure of the water; this is called saturated flow. At higher suction, water movement is pulled by capillarity from wetter toward drier soil. This is caused by water's adhesion to soil solids, and is called unsaturated flow.



Warm soils take in water faster. Water flows through the ground unevenly, in the form of so-called "gravity fingers", because of the surface tension between water particles.

Tree roots, whether living or dead, create preferential channels for rainwater flow through soil, magnifying infiltration rates of water up to 28 times.

Flooding temporarily increases soil permeability in river beds, helping to recharge aquifers.
Water applied to a soil is pushed by pressure gradients from the point of its application where it is saturated locally, to less saturated areas, such as the vadose zone. 

The vadose zone, also termed the unsaturated zone, is the part of Earth between the land surface and the top of the phreatic zone, the position at which the groundwater (the water in the soil's pores) is at atmospheric pressure . Hence, the vadose zone extends from the top of the ground surface to the water table. 

Water in the vadose zone has a pressure head less than atmospheric pressure, and is retained by a combination of adhesion (funiculary groundwater), and capillary action (capillary groundwater). If the vadose zone envelops soil, the water contained therein is termed soil moisture. 

In fine grained soils, capillary action can cause the pores of the soil to be fully saturated above the water table at a pressure less than atmospheric. The vadose zone does not include the area that is still saturated above the water table, often referred to as the capillary fringe. 

Once soil is completely wetted, any more water will move downward, or percolate out of the range of plant roots, carrying with it clay, humus, nutrients, primarily cations, and various contaminants, including pesticides, pollutants, viruses and bacteria, potentially causing groundwater contamination.

Soil physics (Darcy-type model) predicts that at suctions less than one-third bar, water moves theoretically in all directions via unsaturated flow at a rate that is dependent on the square of the diameter of the water-filled pores.

 Preferential flow occurs along interconnected macropores, crevices, root and worm channels, which drain water under gravity. Water is also pulled by capillary action due to the adhesion force of water to the soil solids, producing a suction gradient from wet towards drier soil and from macropores to micropores. 

Water flow (also called hydraulic conductivity) is primarily from coarse-textured soil into fine-textured soil horizons and is slowest in fine-textured soils such as clay.

Groundwater recharge, which is an important process that refills aquifers, generally occurs through the vadose zone from precipitation.


Of equal importance to the storage and movement of water in soil is the means by which plants acquire it and their nutrients. Most soil water is taken up by plants as passive absorption caused by the pulling force of water evaporating (transpiring) from the long column of water (xylem sap flow) that leads from the plant's roots to its leaves, according to the cohesion-tension theory.  

The upward movement of water and solutes (hydraulic lift) is regulated in the roots by the endodermis  and in the plant foliage by stomatal conductance, and can be interrupted in root and shoot xylem vessels by cavitation, also called xylem embolism.  In addition, the high concentration of salts within plant roots creates an osmotic pressure gradient that pushes soil water into the roots.  

Osmotic absorption becomes more important during times of low water transpiration caused by lower temperatures (for example at night) or high humidity, and the reverse occurs under high temperature or low humidity. It is these process that cause guttation and wilting, respectively.

Root extension is vital for plant survival.  Root architecture, i.e. the spatial configuration of the root system, plays a prominent role in the adaptation of plants to soil water and nutrient availabiity, and thus in plant productivity.

Roots must seek out water as the unsaturated flow of water in soil can move only at a rate of up to one inch per day; as a result they are constantly dying and growing as they seek out high concentrations of soil moisture.  Insufficient soil moisture, to the point of causing wilting, will cause permanent damage and crop yields will suffer.

Only a small fraction (0.1% to 1%) of the water used by a plant is held within the plant. The majority is ultimately lost via transpiration, while evaporation from the soil surface is also substantial, the transpiration : evaporation ratio varying according to vegetation type and climate, peaking in tropical rainforests and dipping in steppes and deserts. 

Transpiration plus evaporative soil moisture loss is called evapotranspiration. Evapotranspiration plus water held in the plant totals to consumptive use, which is nearly identical to evapotranspiration.

Evaporation accounts for the movement of water to the air from sources such as the soil, canopy interception, and waterbodies. Transpiration accounts for the movement of water within a plant and the subsequent loss of water as vapor through stomata in its leaves. Evapotranspiration is an important part of the water cycle. 

Evapotranspiration is a significant water loss from drainage basins. Types of vegetation and land use significantly affect evapotranspiration, and therefore the amount of water leaving a drainage basin. Because water transpired through leaves comes from the roots, plants with deep reaching roots can more constantly transpire water. 

Factors that affect evapotranspiration include the plant's growth stage or level of maturity, percentage of soil cover, solar radiation, humidity, temperature, and wind.

Through evapotranspiration, forests reduce water yield, except in unique ecosystems called cloud forests. Trees in cloud forests collect the liquid water in fog or low clouds onto their surface, which drips down to the ground. These trees still contribute to evapotranspiration, but often collect more water than they evaporate or transpire.

Potential evapotranspiration is higher in the summer, on less cloudy days, and closer to the equator, because of the higher levels of solar radiation that provides the energy for evaporation. Potential evapotranspiration is also higher on windy days because the evaporated moisture can be quickly moved from the ground or plant surface, allowing more evaporation to fill its place.



Soil pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity (alkalinity) of a soil.




The optimum pH range for most plants is between 5.5 and 7.5

Many processes contribute to soil acidification. 

These include:--

Rainfall: Acid soils are most often found in areas of high rainfall. Rainwater has a slightly acidic pH (usually about 5.7) due to a reaction with CO2 in the atmosphere that forms carbonic acid. When this water flows through soil it results in the leaching of basic cations from the soil as bicarbonates; this increases the percentage of Al3+  and H+  relative to other cations.

Root respiration and decomposition of organic matter by microorganisms releases CO2 which increases the carbonic acid .

Plants take up nutrients in the form of ions and they often take up more cations than anions. However plants must maintain a neutral charge in their roots. In order to compensate for the extra positive charge, they will release H+  ions from the root. Some plants also exude organic acids into the soil to acidify the zone around their roots to help solubilize metal nutrients that are insoluble at neutral pH, such as iron (Fe).

Fertilizers react in the soil by the process of nitrification to form nitrate  and in the process release H+  ions.

The accumulation of alkalinity in a soil (as carbonates and bicarbonates of Na, K, Ca and Mg) occurs when there is insufficient water flowing through the soils to leach soluble salts. This may be due to arid conditions, or poor internal soil drainage; in these situations most of the water that enters the soil is transpired (taken up by plants) or evaporates, rather than flowing through the soil.

The soil pH usually increases when the total alkalinity increases, but the balance of the added cations also has a marked effect on the soil pH. For example, increasing the amount of sodium in an alkaline soil tends to induce dissolution of calcium carbonate, which increases the pH.

Plants grown in acid soils can experience a variety of stresses including aluminium (Al), hydrogen (H), and/or manganese (Mn) toxicity, as well as nutrient deficiencies of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg).

Aluminium toxicity is the most widespread problem in acid soils. Aluminium is present in all soils, but dissolved Al3+ is toxic to plants; Al3+ is most soluble at low pH; above pH 5.0, there is little Al in soluble form in most soils. 

Aluminium is not a plant nutrient, and as such, is not actively taken up by the plants, but enters plant roots passively through osmosis. Aluminium inhibits root growth; lateral roots and root tips become thickened and roots lack fine branching; root tips may turn brown. 

In the root, the initial effect of Al3+ is the inhibition of the expansion of the cells of the rhizodermis, leading to their rupture; thereafter it is known to interfere with many physiological processes including the uptake and transport of calcium and other essential nutrients, cell division, cell wall formation, and enzyme activity.

Strongly alkaline soils are sodic and dispersive, with slow infiltration, low hydraulic conductivity and poor available water capacity. Plant growth is severely restricted because aeration is poor when the soil is wet; in dry conditions, plant-available water is rapidly depleted and the soils become hard and cloddy (high soil strength).

Many strongly acidic soils, on the other hand, have strong aggregation, good internal drainage, and good water-holding characteristics. However, for many plant species, aluminium toxicity severely limits root growth, and moisture stress can occur even when the soil is relatively moist. 

Finely ground agricultural lime is often applied to acid soils to increase soil pH (liming). The buffering capacity of a soil depends on the clay content of the soil, the type of clay, and the amount of organic matter present, and may be related to the soil cation exchange capacity. 

Soils with high clay content will have a higher buffering capacity than soils with little clay, and soils with high organic matter will have a higher buffering capacity than those with low organic matter. Soils with higher buffering capacity require a greater amount of lime to achieve an equivalent change in pH.

Amendments other than agricultural lime that can be used to increase the pH of soil include wood ash, industrial calcium oxide (burnt lime), magnesium oxide, basic slag (calcium silicate), and oyster shells. Calcium silicate neutralizes active acidity in the soil by reacting with H+ ions

The pH of an alkaline soil can be reduced by adding acidifying agents or acidic organic materials. Acidifying fertilizers, such as ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and urea, can help to reduce the pH of a soil because ammonium oxidises to form nitric acid.

An acid is defined as a substance that tends to release hydrogen ions (H+). Conversely, a base is defined as a substance that releases hydroxyl ions (OH-). All acids contain hydrogen ions, and the strength of the acid depends upon the degrees of ionization (release of hydrogen ions) of the acid. 

The more hydrogen ions held by the exchange complex of a soil in relation to the basic ions (Ca, Mg, K) held, the greater the acidity of the soil.

Soils become acidic when basic elements such as calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium held by soil colloids are replaced by hydrogen ions. Soils formed under conditions of high annual rainfall are more acidic than are soils formed under more arid conditions..

Rainfall contributes to a soil’s acidity. Water (H2O) combines with carbon dioxide (CO2) to form a weak acid — carbonic acid (H2CO3). The weak acid ionizes, releasing hydrogen (H+) and bicarbonate (HCO3). 

The released hydrogen ions replace the calcium ions held by soil colloids, causing the soil to become acidic. The displaced calcium (Ca++) ions combine with the bicarbonate ions to form calcium bicarbonate, which, being soluble, is leached from the soil. The net effect is increased soil acidity.

Potassium fertilizers have little or no effect on soil pH.

As the ammonium-N in fertilizers undergoes nitrification (conversion of ammonium to nitrate in soils by bacteria), hydrogen (H+) is released, which can increase acidity.  As the percentage of ammonium increases in a given fertilizer the acidifying potential will also be increased, thus reducing pH.

Legumes like soybeans, alfalfa and clovers tend to take up more cations in proportion to anions. This causes H ions to be released from plant roots to maintain the electrochemical balance within their tissues. The result is a net soil acidification.

Even if the top 6 inches of soil show a pH above 6.0, the subsoil may be extremely acidic. When subsoil pH's drop below 5.0, aluminum and manganese in the soil become much more soluble, and in some soils may be toxic to plant growth.

Liming materials contain calcium and/or magnesium in forms, which when dissolved, will neutralize soil acidity. Not all materials containing calcium and magnesium are capable of reducing soil acidity.
Extremely and strongly acid soils (pH 4.0-5.0) can have high concentrations of soluble aluminum, iron and manganese which may be toxic to the growth of some plants.

Soils tend to become acidic as a result of: (1) rainwater leaching away basic ions (calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium); (2) carbon dioxide from decomposing organic matter and root respiration dissolving in soil water to form a weak organic acid; (3) formation of strong organic and inorganic acids, such as nitric and sulfuric acid, from decaying organic matter and oxidation of ammonium and sulfur fertilizers. Strongly acid soils are usually the result of the action of these strong organic and inorganic acids.

Lime is usually added to acid soils to increase soil pH. The addition of lime not only replaces hydrogen ions and raises soil pH, thereby eliminating most major problems associated with acid soils but it also provides two nutrients, calcium and magnesium to the soil.

Yellowing between the veins of young leaves indicates an iron deficiency, a condition arising not from a lack of iron in the soil but from insufficient soil acidity to put iron into a form that a plant can absorb. Most plants thrive in slightly acidic soil because that pH affords them good access to all nutrients.

The darker side of soil pH is plant poisoning.  Too low a pH level can render the plant nutrient manganese available at toxic levels.  A pH level that is too low also liberates aluminum—not a plant nutrient—in amounts that can stunt root growth and interfere with a plant’s uptake of nutrients.

Generally, limestone is used to raise a pH level, and sulfur is used to lower it.

 In acidic soils, the availability of nutrients such as potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) is reduced, while the amount of potentially toxic elements such as aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) is increased. In alkaline soils, iron, manganese (Mn), zinc, and boron (B) are commonly deficient.

Soil pH can be temporarily lowered by adding elemental sulfur. Bacteria in the soil act to change elemental sulfur into sulfuric acid, effectively neutralizing soil alkalinity. However, the effects of elemental sulfur are localized to the area that was amended, and the effect is temporary. Soil pH will begin to rise shortly after soil bacteria exhaust the added sulfur supply. This effect will require repeated applications of sulfur to ensure the soil remains at the desired pH.

If too much sulfur is added, or if it is added too frequently, it can actually injure or kill your plants.
 Well, the pH balance of your soil will let you know which plants you can grow with ease and which plants will be a struggle without amendments. Knowing your soil’s pH is the secret to knowing what nutrients will be in the soil to absorb into the roots of new plants..

Certain plants will thrive in acidic soils (0 – 6.5 pH) while others only perform well if the soil is alkaline (7.5 – 14). The ideal pH for garden soil is in the neutral range (right around 7). 

Once you know your soil’s pH, you can take measures to fix it, or you can choose to grow only the varieties of plants that thrive in your soil type. To amend acidic soil, simply mix in limestone. To amend alkaline soil, add in organic materials such as composted leaves, pine needles, and peat moss.

The effect of pH on a soil is to remove from the soil or to make available certain ions. Soils with high acidity tend to have toxic amounts of aluminium and manganese. Plants which need calcium need moderate alkalinity, but most minerals are more soluble in acid soils. Soil organisms are hindered by high acidity, and most agricultural crops do best with mineral soils of pH 6.5 and organic soils of pH 5.5.

Soil organic matter is made up of organic compounds and includes plant, animal and microbial material, both living and dead. A typical soil has a biomass composition of 70% microorganisms, 22% macrofauna, and 8% roots.

A small part of the organic matter consists of the living cells such as bacteria, molds, and actinomycetes that work to break down the dead organic matter. Were it not for the action of these micro-organisms, the entire carbon dioxide part of the atmosphere would be sequestered as organic matter in the soil.

Soils that hold generous amounts of water are less subject to leaching losses of nutrients Gravitational water is held in large soil pores and rapidly drains out under the action of gravity within a day or so after rain. Plants can only make use of gravitational water for a few days after rain.

Capillary water is held in pores that are small enough to hold water against gravity, but not so tightly that roots cannot absorb it. This water occurs as a film around soil particles and in the pores between them and is the main source of plant moisture. As this water is withdrawn, the larger pores drain first. 

The finer the pores, the more resistant they are to removal of water. As water is withdrawn, the film becomes thinner and harder to detach from the soil particles. This capillary water can move in all directions in response to suction and can move upwards through soil for up to two metres, the particles and pores of the soil acting like a wick. 

When soil is saturated, all the pores are full of water, but after a day, all gravitational water drains out, leaving the soil at field capacity. Plants then draw water out of the capillary pores, readily at first and then with greater difficulty, until no more can be withdrawn and the only water left is in the micro-pores. The soil is then at wilting point and without water additions, plants die.

The amount of water available to plants is therefore determined by the capillary porosity and is calculated by the difference in moisture content between field capacity and wilting point. This is the total available water storage of the soil. The portion of the total available moisture store, which can be extracted by plants without becoming stressed, is termed readily available water. 

The amount of soil water available to plants is governed by the depth of soil that roots can explore (the root zone) and the nature of the soil material. Because the total and available moisture storage capacities are linked to porosity, the particle sizes (texture) and the arrangement of particles (structure) are the critical factors. Organic matter and carbonate levels and stone content also affect moisture storage.

Organic matter regulates the supply of plant nutrients through its ability to form complexes with metal ions. The term ‘complex’ covers a number of chemical interactions between organic matter and metal ions. One of the more important interactions is called ‘chelation’ because of the way part of an organic molecule 'wraps' itself around a metal ion, holding it in a claw-like chemical combination. 

Available water is the difference between field capacity which is the maximum amount of water the soil can hold and wilting point where the plant can no longer extract water from the soil.
Water holding capacity is the total amount of water a soil can hold at field capacity.

Plant available water is the difference between field capacity (the maximum amount of water the soil can hold) and the wilting point (where the plant can no longer extract water from the soil) measured over 100 cm or maximum rooting depth . 

Beyond the wilting point there is still water in the soil profile, however it is contained in pores that are too small for plant roots to access. Soil texture, soil structure and plant rooting depth are the crucial factors in determining the amount of water available for plants to access. 

Increasing clay content in the soil profile is associated with greater water holding capacity. However, this does not mean more water is available for plants to use, as the clay helps create a complex soil matrix of smaller pores which hold water at greater suction pressures

Soil aggregates create pores which store water for plants to access. A poor or non-existent soil structure with high clay content will have a reduced volume of soil pores. The pores that are present are smaller so water is held at higher suction pressures, making the plant exert more energy to extract the water, rather than using that energy for yield.

Coarser textured soils will generally have larger pore sizes and little soil structure, resulting in rapid water drainage. A lack of soil structure can also mean poor infiltration and sometimes a compacted subsurface which can result in waterlogging in the root zone.

In many agricultural soils there are subsoil barriers which prohibit plant roots from accessing available water:-- 
Physical barrier – subsurface compaction which may allow the movement of water and nutrients, but restrict root growth.
Chemical barrier – factors like subsoil acidity and salinity prevents the plant roots from accessing the whole soil profile.

Soil acts as a sponge to take up and retain water. Movement of water into soil is called infiltration, and the downward movement of water within the soil is called percolation, permeability or hydraulic conductivity. Pore space in soil is the conduit that allows water to infiltrate and percolate. It also serves as the storage compartment for water.

Infiltration rates can be near zero for very clayey and compacted soils, or more than 10 inches per hour for sandy and well aggregated soils. Low infiltration rates lead to ponding on nearly level ground and runoff on sloping ground. Organic matter, especially crop residue and decaying roots, promotes aggregation so that larger soil pores develop, allowing water to infiltrate more readily.

Saturation is the soil water content when all pores are filled with water. The water content in the soil at saturation is equal to the percent porosity. Field capacity is the soil water content after the soil has been saturated and allowed to drain freely for about 24 to 48 hours.

 Free drainage occurs because of the force of gravity pulling on the water. When water stops draining, we know that the remaining water is held in the soil with a force greater than that of gravity. Permanent wilting point is the soil water content when plants have extracted all the water they can. At the permanent wilting point, a plant will wilt and not recover. 

Unavailable water is the soil water content that is strongly attached to soil particles and aggregates, and cannot be extracted by plants. This water is held as films coating soil particles. These terms illustrate soil from its wettest condition to its driest condition.

Several terms are used to describe the water held between these different water contents. Gravitational water refers to the amount of water held by the soil between saturation and field capacity. 

Water holding capacity refers to the amount of water held between field capacity and wilting point. Plant available water is that portion of the water holding capacity that can be absorbed by a plant. As a general rule, plant available water is considered to be 50 percent of the water holding capacity.

Water in the form of precipitation or irrigation infiltrates the soil surface. All pores at the soil surface are filled with water before water can begin to move downward. During infiltration, water moves downward from the saturated zone to the unsaturated zone. 

The interface between these two zones is called the wetting front. When precipitation or irrigation cease, gravitational water will continue to percolate until field capacity is reached. Water first percolates through the large pores between soil particles and aggregates and then into the smaller pores.

Available water is held in soil pores by forces that depend on the size of the pore and the surface tension of water. The closer together soil particles or aggregates are, the smaller the pores and the stronger the force holding water in the soil. 

Because the water in large pores is held with little force, it drains most readily. Likewise, plants absorb soil water from the larger pores first because it takes less energy to pull water from large pores than from small pores.

Medium textured soils (fine sandy loam, silt loam and silty clay loam) have the highest water holding capacity, while coarse soils (sand, loamy sand and sandy loam) have the lowest water holding capacity.

Soil porosity refers to the space between soil particles, which consists of various amounts of water and air. Porosity depends on both soil texture and structure. For example, a fine soil has smaller but more numerous pores than a coarse soil. A coarse soil has bigger particles than a fine soil, but it has less porosity, or overall pore space. Water can be held tighter in small pores than in large ones, so fine soils can hold more water than coarse soils.

Water infiltration is the movement of water from the soil surface into the soil profile. Soil texture, soil structure, and slope have the largest impact on infiltration rate. Water moves by gravity into the open pore spaces in the soil, and the size of the soil particles and their spacing determines how much water can flow in. 

Wide pore spacing at the soil surface increases the rate of water infiltration, so coarse soils have a higher infiltration rate than fine soils.

A soil's permeability is determined by the relative rate of moisture and air movement through the most restrictive layer within the upper 40 inches of the effective root zone. Water and air rapidly permeate coarse soils with granular subsoils, which tend to be loose when moist and don't restrict water or air movement.

 Slow permeability is characteristic of a moderately fine subsoil with angular to subangular blocky structure. It is firm when moist and hard when dry.

Water-holding capacity is controlled primarily by soil texture and organic matter. Soils with smaller particles (silt and clay) have a larger surface area than those with larger sand particles, and a large surface area allows a soil to hold more water. In other words, a soil with a high percentage of silt and clay particles, which describes fine soil, has a higher water-holding capacity.

Soils are made up of three main components: sand, silt and clay.  The proportion of each component determines the soil texture.  Each soil texture has its own Water Holding Capacity (WHC).  The amount of organic matter in the soil also affects water holding capacity to a degree.

Water Holding Capacity is the ability of a certain soil texture to physically hold water against the force of gravity.  It does this by soil particles holding water molecules by the force of cohesion. 

Clay particles have the ability to physically and chemically “hold” water molecules to the particle more tightly than sands or silts.  Sands “give up” the water between the pores much easier than silts or clays.  A good portion of the water – upwards of 50% – in any soil remains unusable to the plant. 

The amount of water soil can hold differs based on two variables: --

1. Soil texture, which indicates the content of particles of various sizes--such as sand, silt, and clay--in the soil
2. Soil organic matter, which is decayed material that originated from a living organism, plant or animal based

You can easily use the "texture by feel" method to help determine soil texture:

Sand - will feel gritty and therefore not hold a lot of water as a result because pores are so large. Water can rapidly move through it but not enough water available to plants.

Silt - will feel smooth and is the ideal soil texture because of its small pores, which can hold the maximum amount of water with the highest accessibility to plants.

Clay - will feel sticky. It can hold a lot of water but will do so tightly in pores so a lower % is available to plants.

IT WAS A PRACTICE FOR MILLINIUMS FOR HINDUS TO RECHARGE LAKES WITH CLAY USING LARGE GANESHA IDOLS . THIS IS NOT SUPERSTITION OF SAVAGES..


In terms of soil texture, those made up of smaller particle sizes, such as in the case of silt and clay, have larger surface area. The larger the surface area the easier it is for the soil to hold onto water so it has a higher water holding capacity. Sand in contrast has large particle sizes which results in smaller surface area. The water holding capacity for sand is low.

Dear Capt Ajit sir,
Here's a man from Kerala Mr RK Nair, settled in Gujarat and created new 40 forests in 7 states...using Miyawaki method...now building Pulwama forest in 40 days with 40000 trees and 40 varieties....receiving 'Glory of India' award...https://www.thenewsminute.com/article/green-hero-meet-malayali-businessman-whos-created-40-forests-7-states-99289
  1. SOIL EXPERTS MUST BE INVOLVED IN FOREST PLANTING-- OR IT WILL DO MORE HARM THAN GOOD

    YOU CANT PLANT TREES INDISCRIMINATELY LIKE WHAT SADGURU JAGGI VASUDEV DID--WITHOUT EVEN KNOWING LAWS OF TRANSPIRATION OR SOIL DYNAMICS

    capt ajit vadakayil
    ..
Soil organic matter (SOM)  can help increase water holding capacity. Soil organic matter has a natural magnetism to water. If the farm increases the percentage of soil organic matter, the soil water holding capacity will increase.

 SOM is decayed material that originated from a living organism. SOM can be increased by adding plant or animal material.

Sand plays a vital role in retaining the water-holding capacity of river and sand mining thus is a threat to the ecosystem as it not only disturbs the river flow but also affects the groundwater level.


Soil degradation due to artificial fertilisers / pesticides is slowly turning a third of the world into desert. At this rate, fertile soil will be depleted in 60 years.

Alluvial soil is fertile soil deposited by rivers on and near their banks.  The most fertile alluvial soil is found in the Ganga valley, where it is deposited by river Ganges. These soils cover almost 35% of the region of India.

These soils are rich in minerals especially potash. They are a dark shade of grey and are extremely suitable for agriculture. Some dark black alluvial soil can also be found in coastal areas.

Black Soil are characterized by their deep black colour. Their composition has a large amount of clay. This helps the black soil retain water, making them ideal for crops that require water year round. This also gives them a unique self-ploughing ability.

These soil are rich in lime, iron and magnesia. They are mainly found in the Deccan Plateau in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat etc. They are also known as Black Cotton Soil, since cotton grows exclusively in black soil, and is one of the main cash crops in India.

Red soil and yellow soil are distinct soils are named after their hues. Red soil gets its colour from the iron found in its composition in a crystallized form. The soil takes on a yellow colour when it is hydrated. These soils are generally found in the Western Ghats, Odisha and Chattisgarh.

The clay form of red soil is nutrient rich and viable for forestation. However coarse red or yellow soil has been completely leached of all its nutrients and is not fertile. Red soil actually has a very low level of humus and require fertilizers when used for farming.

Laterite soils are found in regions of high temperature and very high rainfall. The rains will wash all the nutrients from the soil, leaving it infertile. The leaching process will leave behind iron-rich soil, absent of silicon. The humus composition is also affected by bacteria and fungi that thrive in high temperatures.

Such soils are found in the hot and humid regions of Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, Malwa Plateau, Tamil Nadu, Kerala etc. While these soils are not entirely suitable for agriculture they have other uses.

These are the sandy soils that appear in extremely dry and arid regions of Rajasthan and Gujarat. These soils are completely void of any organic matter. They also have a very high saline content, making them largely infertile. Only desert vegetation (cacti, bushes etc) can grow in this type of soil.

Saline soils also known as Usara soils. As the name suggests they have a very high saline content in their composition. They also have large quantities of potassium and magnesium, making them infertile. These soils are found both in dry regions and in swamps.

Peaty soils have a very high content of organic matter and humus. They are seen in regions with high rainfall and average temperatures. If there is a lot of vegetation around the dead organic matter will accumulate, and in turn, enrich the soil with humus.

These soils also have a black colour and are loamy in texture. There are usually found in parts of Bihar, Uttranchal, Bengal and Tamil Nadu. And while they are suitable for agriculture, these soils need proper care so they do not leach away all their nutrients in the heavy rainfall. 


One way to keep track of the different types of soils found in the world is via soil mapping. These maps show the distribution of the different varieties of soil that can be found in a particular area. This helps the farmers with their agriculture, helps the government keep a check on soil pollution, helps environmental conversationalists, etc.



PHOSPHATES (containing PO43−) are the most common form of phosphorus in natural waters. Phosphates are only moderately soluble and, compared to nitrate, are not very mobile in soils and groundwater. Phosphates tend to remain attached to soil particles, but erosion can transport considerable amounts of  phosphate to streams and lakes.

THE FOAM ON LAKE WATER IN BANGALORE IS PRIMARILY DUE TO PHOSPHATES ( PHOSPHORUS ) 

Since ancient times Hindus have surcharges all the lakes in India with an annual load of PHOSLOCK ( phosphorus locking bentonite clay ) in the form of huge Ganesha clay idols .

GANESHA IDOLS IMMERSED IN LAKES AND RIVERS , ARE TRADITIONALLY MADE WITH BENTONITE CLAY FOR PHOSPHORUS LOCKING.

Phosphates are used indiscriminately by foreign multinationals( like Procter and Gamble )  in their detergents.   

Without declaring the amount or percentage they include more phosphate in detergent in places like Bangalore were borewell water yields only HARD WATER.  

So their detergents clean better ,  Indians buy more , soon they monopolise ,  and they laugh all the way to the bank.

But HEY, these rich western companies sell only PHOSPHATE FREE detergents in USA , Europe and developed countries—since at least 20 years.

The phosphate used in most powdered detergents is sodium triphosphate, or STPP, and it's used to soften hard water. 

But when it's introduced to waterways, phosphorous can cause environmental damage, including algae blooms, low oxygen levels , fish deaths—and the foam you see . 

There are atmospheric conditions which cause more foam on lakes like low atmospheric pressure,  wind ripple agitation,  rain etc.

Most of the lakes in India are green in colour due to algae. 

Phosphates consume large amounts of oxygen, in the lake literally killing all  aquatic organisms and ecosystems.

The Modi govt must introduce a law as soon as possible.

Give these multinational detergent companies a dead line in writing , mentioning the INITIAL FINE and the subsequent fine. 

After that make them close shop in India.

Make these multinationals pay for restoration of our lakes. They had double standards.

People is Bangalore stuck with hard borewell water may wonder, how the stains made by hard water on glass or stainless steel can be removed.  Try a little dilute vinegar. 

Local cottage industry detergent manufacturers must be helped by the Govt to find an alternative to phosphates to reduce water harness and for better wash. Phosphates can be replaced with zeolites (silicate minerals).

Zeolites are microporous silicate minerals. They bind calcium, magnesium and other metals present in the wash solution and soften the hardness of the wash water. This boosts the efficacy of the other cleaning ingredients and increases the effectiveness of the detergent. 

When used in automatic dishwashing detergents, phosphate helped to remove food and grease, reduce spotting and filming, control water hardness and suspend the bits of food so they were not redistributed on the dishes.

Too much phosphate in water leads to total reduction of good aquatic life, poor taste and odors in drinking water

Detergent makers have been competeing with each other to overdose phosphorus . It binds with dirt and keeps it suspended in water, allowing the other cleaning agents to do their best work.  

Phosphorus is more important in Bangalore where water is exceptionally hard and minerals like Calcium, magnesium etc  can interfere with cleaning agents.  

In the detergents, phosphates served as a "builder" to improve the detergent's cleaning efficiency.  

Builders, such as STPP, are important to the cleaning process, as they help to remove dirt from the clothes and to minimize soap scum (often seen as a ring on the tub, washing machine, or shirt collars).

Of the detergent builders, phosphates were the most popular, because of their CHEAPNESS and superior cleaning performance. Cheap at the expense of India’s lakes.

These multinationals saved the Western lakes—they did NOT care for India , despite excessive profits. 

Phosphate fertilizer is manufactured from rock phosphate. Rock phosphate is mined and processed into phosphate fertilizer. India imports lot of it. 

Ships I commanded have brought this from Tampa to Kochi.

Avoid phosphate artificial fertilizers near water bodies-  use organic fertilizers.

Today many companies worldwide manufacture lanthanum-modified bentonite clay (Phoslock) application to remove phosphorus from lake water.

Algae can be killed by any algecide .  But phosphorus is like sugar in water and has to be locked and removed by any nano technology.. 

Phoslock is a product designed for phosphate removal from water.  Its active component is lanthanum which reacts with phosphate forming an insoluble and biologically inert compound.  

Its ability to bind phosphate makes it an effective tool in lake restoration.  It is safe for natural aquatic systems.

When used in lake restoration, Phoslock is usually added to the lake as a slurry.  As this sinks through the water column it binds phosphate as it goes. 

Once settled on the sediment it can continue to bind phosphate released from the sediment, thus controlling one of the major blocks to lake restoration - sediment phosphorus release.

Phoslock can be used in lakes , ponds , dam reservoirs as well as other standing waters (e.g. reservoirs, fish hatcheries) where high phosphate levels are causing problems.  It is not usually applied to flowing waters.

Phoslock is comprised of 95% bentonite and 5% lanthanum.  It is manufactured through a controlled ion-exchange process whereby cations within the bentonite are exchanged with lanthanum cations.  

The result is that lanthanum held within the bentonite structure retains its ability to bind phosphate, but does not readily dissociate, i.e. will not form free ions in water.  Phoslock works by utilizing the ability of lanthanum to react with phosphate.   

Removal of phosphate by lanthanum is highly efficient and has a molar ratio of 1:1 which means that one ion of lanthanum will bind with one ion of phosphate .

The product of the reaction is lanthanum phosphate (LaPO4).  The important point is that lanthanum phosphate is highly insoluble which means it won't dissolve, which in turn means it is not biologically available.  

This is the process by which phosphate (which is dissolved and therefore biologically available) is rendered non-biologically available. 

One tonne of Phoslock is capable of removing 34 kg of phosphate (PO4) or 11 kg of phosphorus (P).  Phosphate is an important food source of algae (particularly blue green algae). 

By removing phosphate from the water column and preventing its release from sediments, Phoslock essentially deprives algae of an important food source and the proliferation of algae, particularly blue green algae, is reduced.

Both nitrogen and phosphorus are important nutrients for algal growth, however the growth of blue green algae is generally not limited by the concentration of nitrogen as many species of blue green algae can fix and store nitrogen from the atmosphere.

 The proliferation of blue green algae in a water body is related to the competitive advantage they have over other phytoplankton groups (such as diatoms and green algae) when excess phosphorus is available in the water. 

The kinetic uptake of phosphate by Phoslock varies to some degree according to water chemistry, however in most situations, more than 90% of available phosphate is bound within three hours of an application of Phoslock.

Unlike other methods of binding phosphate (such as iron and aluminium salts), an application of Phoslock will have no effect on either the pH or the conductivity of the water body.

Following the application of Phoslock to a water body, any phosphate that has reacted with the lanthanum in the clay will remain permanently bound.  Furthermore, any lanthanum sites in the clay matrix that have not reacted with phosphate remain active and will continue to bind phosphate (from both external and internal sources) until saturated. 

This means that an application of Phoslock can be designed to achieve a sustained reduction in phosphate levels. Phoslock is the commercial name for a bentonite clay in which the sodium and/or calcium ions are exchanged for lanthanum.

The addition of this element allows it to bind with phosphates to form rhabdophane and thereby remove them from the water column.

Phoslock permanently locks phosphorus into an inert mineral that sinks to the bottom and becomes part of the pond's natural sediments. Any unreacted lanthanum remains imbedded in the bentonite granules, which settle to the bottom of the pond, that will continue to bond and sequester phosphorus as it releases from the sediments. 

Cottage industries must be taught to replace phosphates from their products with non-phosphate alternatives, such as zeolite A, sodium carbonate, citrates, and sodium silicate.

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are can be caused by many different types of algae in freshwater ecosystems, and can be triggered by nutrient enrichment.

The most frequent and severe blooms typically are caused by cyanobacteria, the only known freshwater algae with the potential for production of toxins potent enough to harm human health. 

CyanoHABs can threaten human and aquatic ecosystem health.  Economic damages related to cyanoHABs include the loss of recreational revenue, decreased property values, and increased drinking-water treatment costs.

Soil organic matter (SOM) is the organic matter component of soil, consisting of plant and animal residues at various stages of decomposition, cells and tissues of soil organisms, and substances synthesized by soil organisms. 

SOM exerts numerous positive effects on soil physical and chemical properties, as well as the soil’s capacity to provide regulatory ecosystem services. Particularly, the presence of SOM is regarded as being critical for soil functions and soil quality.

Humic substances classification--
There is a classification into three groups, based on solubility in acids and alkalis, and also related to stability.

Fulvic acid is the group which contains the materials that have the lowest molecular weight, and are soluble in acids and alkali, and susceptible to microbial attack.

Humic acid group contains the intermediate materials, with medium molecular weight, soluble in alkali, but insoluble in acid, and intermediate resistance to microbial attack.

Humin is the generic name for the materials with highest molecular weight, that are darkest in color, insoluble in acid and alkali, and with the most resistance to microbial attack.

Crop rotation may be an effective means to prevent a parasitic population from becoming well-established, as an organism affecting leaves would be starved when the leafy crop is replaced by a tuberous type, etc.

Soil acidification reduces soil biodiversity. It reduces the numbers of most macrofauna, including, for example, earthworm numbers (important in maintaining structural quality of the topsoil for plant growth). Also affected is rhizobium survival and persistence. 

Decomposition and nitrogen fixation may be reduced, which affects the survival of native vegetation. Biodiversity may further decline as certain weeds proliferate under declining native vegetation.

Extended exposure to high sodium levels results in a decrease in the amount of water retained and able to flow through soil, as well as a decrease in decomposition rates (this leaves the soil infertile and prohibit any future growth). As the salinity of the soil rises, there is more stress on microbes because there is less available water available to them, leading to less respiration.

Green manure acts mainly as soil-acidifying matter to decrease the alkalinity/pH of alkali soils by generating humic acid and acetic acid.

The value of green manure was recognized by farmers in India for thousands of years, as mentioned in treatises like Vrikshayurveda.

COWS SUSTAINED ORGANIC AGRICULTURE AND OVER MILLENNIUMS WE CREATED SIX FEET THICK TOP SOIL TEEMING WITH HEALTHY MICROBES/ FUNGI --WHILE THE REST OF THE PLANET HAS TOP SOIL ONLY A FEW INCHES THICK..

NOW THE WHITE JEW WANTS TO USE INDIAN TOP SOIL AS A GUINEA PIG FOR TESTING THEIR GM SOIL MICROBES AND GM FUNGI..

CO2 IS A GOOD GAS..  INCREASED CO2 IN THE ATMOSPHERE INCREASES THE LEVELS OF GLOMALIN

GLOMALIN REDUCED NITROGEN LOSSES FROM THE SOIL- AND HENCE THERE IS NO NEED TO APPLY EXCESS ARTIFICIAL FERTILISERS AND UREA TO PROVIDE NITROGEN..

Crop stubble burning becomes essential because combine harvester leaves crop residue behind. Combines are machines that harvest the crops as well as thresh, means separation of the grain, and it's cleaning together, but it leaves stubble behind because it doesn't cut close enough to the ground.  

These residues put a burden on farmer's back because these residues are not so useful for the farmer and there is pressure on the farmer to sow the next crop in time. Therefore, they clear the field by burning the stubble.

This crop stubble burning process has been going on in India for milliniums.. SMOG in Delhi is not due to crop stubble burning.. Delhi is situated in an area where temperature inversion takes place..

The residues of rice and wheat crops are major contributors to the total stubble loads in India. There are two main reasons for crop residue burning-  

First one is that there is a very short window of time between the harvesting of paddy and sowing of wheat, at the end of the Kharif season. 

Secondly, the removal of the paddy stalk that remains on the field is a labor-intensive process. With labor being unavailable and the time window between the harvesting of paddy and sowing of wheat is limited, the only easiest option that the farmer has is burning the residue right on the field. 

For farmers, burning of residues is cheaper and requires less effort.

AND MOST IMPORTANT IT PRODUCED BIOCHAR , WHICH IS AN ESSENTIAL FOR ORGANIC AGRICULTURE..

Tall grasses burn quick and hot, however, close to the ground where the roots start, air is excluded so the base of the grasses will pyrolyze and not burn…

This is how biochar is made and we Indians have been doing it millenniums before the era when the white man was living in caves and running around naked doing GRUNT GRUNT for language.. We knew what we were doing !


BELOW: WITHOUT LIVING SOIL-WE CANT GET GOOD DRINKING WATER

ARTIFICIAL FERTILIZERS AND PESTICIDES "KILLS" THE MICROBES AND FUNGI..



Carbon is the most essential element of soil fertility. When organic matter is added to agricultural soils to increase carbon levels, most of it rapidly decomposes to carbon dioxide and escapes to the atmosphere...

Only a very small percentage eventually becomes stable humic matter...

Humification is the natural process of changing organic matter into humic substances (humus, humate, humic acid, fulvic acid, and humin) by geo-microbiological mechanisms.


Humification takes decades to centuries..  The process creates a fine-grained, highly porous charcoal that helps soils retain nutrients and water….



SOM is formed by the biological, chemical and physical decay of organic materials on the soil surface and below the ground.

Organic matter is a catch all phrase used to describe a wide range of molecules including starches, proteins, sugars, carbohydrates, amino acids etc.

When organic matter starts to decompose these molecules are broken down into smaller and smaller molecules by the micro-organisms in the soil (mostly bacteria and fungi).




 INDIA MUST FORM COMPULSORY ORGANIC FARMING ZONES TO KICK AWAY GREEN REVOLUTION.. THIS MUST BE DONE IN STAGES.. 

ORGANIC FARMERS MUST BE GIVEN SUBSIDY..  




INDIA HAS LOST 65% OF OUR BEE POPULATION IN JUST 55 YEARS OF GREEN REVOLUTION INVOLVING ARTIFICIAL FERTILIZERS AND PESTICIDES..










ORGANIC AGRICULTURE CANNOT BE DONE BY MONO CROPPING.

THE GOVT MUST KEEP A RECORD OF CROPS GROWN BY FARMERS WITH PHOTOS  ..

THE DISTRICT COLLECTOR MUST BE PART OF THIS CRITICAL EFFORT, AS WE CANT TRUST POLITICIANS TO BE HONEST ABOUT THIS...





INTERCROPPING is the growing of two or more crops together in proximity on the same land. As a result, two or more crops are managed at the same time. It differs from crop rotation in which two or more crops are grown one after the other. There are at least four types of intercropping according to spatial arrangement

ROW INTERCROPPING is the growing of two or more crops at the same time with at least one crop planted in rows. In farms grown to perennial crops, annual crops like corn, rice and pineapple are commonly grown as intercrop between the rows of the main crop. This strategy is an efficient way of maximizing the use of farm land by utilizing vacant spaces while at the same time suppressing the growth of weeds during the juvenile stage of the main crop.

With annuals, the component crops are planted at the same time or the other crop(s) are planted during the juvenile stage of growth (before flowering) of the first crop. In India, pigeon pea is traditionally planted with sorghum. The pigeon pea starts flowering after the sorghum plants are harvested.

 In the United States, velvet bean or cowpea is planted in standing corn at the last corn cultivation. When the corn plants mature, the corn stalks become natural trellis for the beans or peas. Both the corn and the intercrop are harvested together.

STRIP INTERCROPPING is the growing of two or more crops together in strips wide enough to allow separate production of crops using mechanical implements, but close enough for the crops to interact. Examples of successful strip intercropping practices in the United States are: alternating strips of wheat, corn and soybean 6 rows wide each; oat, corn and soybean; and 6 rows of corn with 12 rows of soybean.

MIXED INTERCROPPING OR MIXED CROPPING is the growing of two or more crops at the same time with no distinct row arrangement.

RELAY INTERCROPPING OR RELAY CROPPING is a system in which a second crop is planted into an existing crop when it has flowered (reproductive stage) but before harvesting. There is thus a minimum temporal overlap of two or more crops. The relay crop should be fairly tolerant to shade and trampling. Examples of relay crops are cassava, cotton, sweet potato and sesban with corn; chickpea, lentil and wheat with upland rice.

IN CROP ROTATION OR SEQUENTIAL CROPPING, two or more crops are grown one after the other in the same piece of land. It is advantageous that the succeeding crop belongs to a family different from that of the previous crop. The period of crop rotation may be for two to three years or longer. Farm income significantly increased by alternating lowland rice with high-value crops like garlic, onion, melons, bell pepper and other vegetables.

ADVANTAGES OF CROP ROTATION COMPARED TO MONOCULTURE

In addition to increased crop yields and profit, the following are the advantages of crop rotation over monoculture, the continuous growing of a single crop.

Better control of weeds. Crop rotation is intended to break the life cycle and suppress the growth of weeds. The sequential planting of different crops may check the development of any weed species and reduce weed growth especially if cover crops or green manures  and tall-growing row crops are used as component rotation crops. It improves the soil structure

 Some crops have strong, deep roots. They can break up hardpans, and tap moisture and nutrients from deep in the soil. Others have many fine, shallow roots. They tap nutrients near the surface and bind the soil. They form many tiny holes so that air and water can get into the soil. Planting the same crop season after season encourages certain weeds, insects and diseases. Planting different crops breaks their life cycle and prevents them from multiplying.

Better control of pests and diseases. Some pests and causal organisms of plant diseases are host specific. They attack certain crop species or those belonging to the same family but not others. For example, the problem with rice stem borer will continue if rice is not rotated with other crops of a different family. This is because food will be always available to the pest. However, if legume is planted as the next crop, then corn, beans and bulbs, the build up of the pest will be disrupted because they will be deprived of food.

Improved soil structure and organic matter content. The alternate planting of deep and shallow rooted plants will break up the soil and reduce the effects of plow pan. The planting of soybean, other grain legumes, sweet potato and vegetables will return sufficient quantities of plant residues to the soil as their leaves drop on the ground or body parts are left on the field after harvest, instead of being burned as is commonly practiced with sugarcane. Green manures will add significant amounts of organic matter.

Improved soil fertility. The continuous growing of a single crop will result to the depletion of certain soil nutrients. With crop rotation, soil fertility will be promoted through alternate planting of crops having different nutrient needs. This will prevent the depletion of any one essential element present in the soil. 

Leguminous plants, because of their ability to accumulate nitrogen by fixing it from the air in association with Rhizobium bacteria, will improve soil fertility. Legumes (such as groundnuts and beans) fix nitrogen in the soil. When their green parts and roots rot, this nitrogen can be used by other crops such as maize. The result is higher, more stable yields, without the need to apply expensive inorganic fertilizer.

It produces different types of output Growing a mix of grain, beans, vegetables and fodder means a more varied diet and more types of produce to sell.

It reduces risk A single crop may fail because of drought. It may be attacked by pests. Or its market price may be low when time comes to sell it. Producing several different crops reduces these risks.


Plants can only process a certain amount of nitrogen and the remaining amount acidifies the soil and affects groundwater. High concentrations of ammonia are harmful to humans and animals.
The largest use of ammonia is in fertilizers , which are applied to the soil

Urea, which is made from ammonia and carbon dioxide , is being used as a feed supplement for humpledd cows, aiding in the rapid building of protein by the animals. This make their dung and urine emit fantastic amounts of potent greenhouse gas Nitrous Oxide

The average urine from a healthy adult will release 11g nitrogen/urea, 1g phosphorus/super-phosphate and 2.5g potassium. The normal range for a 24-hour urine output is 800 to 2000 milliliters (ml) per day with a normal fluid intake of about 2 liters per day. That’s an average of 1400 ml per person, per day!

Fresh human urine is sterile and so free from bacteria. Only when it is older than 24 hours, the urea turns into ammonia, which is what causes the distinctive smell.

Urine ( without antibiotics ) can be used in a number of ways, such as a solution that is applied to plants to provide a quick, short-term boost in growth or as a nitrogen additive to the carbon-based material, facilitating the composting process.

It is too strong to be used neat on most plants and should be diluted. Dilute one part fresh urine to 10-15 parts water for application on plants in the growth stage. Dilute one part fresh urine to 30-50 parts water for use on pot plants, which are much more sensitive to fertilisers of any kind.

Excess diluted urine ( san antibiotics ) can be used on lawns and trees.

Human urine contains nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium —The relative ratios are typically around 11 parts nitrogen to 1 part phosphorus to 2.5 parts potassium.

While pee is almost always sterile, feces contains dangerous pathogens. North Koreans have been forced to use human shit for fertilizer.. Most Koreans have gut health problems.

Nitrogen is so vital because it is a major component of chlorophyll, the compound by which plants use sunlight energy to produce sugars from water and carbon dioxide (i.e., photosynthesis).
Chlorophyll is a green photosynthetic pigment found in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria.

Chlorophyll absorbs mostly in the blue and to a lesser extent red portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, hence its intense green color.

Green substance in producers that traps light energy from the sun, which is then used to combine carbon dioxide and water into sugars in the process of photosynthesis Chlorophyll is vital for photosynthesis, which helps plants get energy from light.

Green plants are green because they contain a pigment called chlorophyll. Chlorophyll absorbs certain wavelengths of light within the visible light spectrum.  Chlorophyll absorbs light in the red (long wavelength) and the blue (short wavelength) regions of the visible light spectrum. Green light is not absorbed but reflected, making the plant appear green.

Chlorophyll is found in the chloroplasts of plants. Chloroplasts are the food producers of the cell. The organelles are only found in plant cells and some protists such as algae. Animal cells do not have chloroplasts. Chloroplasts work to convert light energy of the Sun into sugars that can be used by cell
Some symptoms of nitrogen deficiency (in absence or low supply) are given below :

The chlorophyll content of the plant leaves is reduced which results in pale yellow color. Older leaves turn completely yellow.

Flowering, fruitings, protein and starch contents are reduced. Reduction in protein results in stunted growth and dormant lateral buds.

Nitrogen is part of every protein in the plant, so it's required for virtually every process—from growing new leaves to defending against pests. Nitrogen is part of the chlorophyll molecule, which gives plants their green color and is involved in creating food for the plant through photosynthesis. 

Because nitrogen can move around in the plant, older growth often yellows more than the new growth.

A plant with a nitrogen deficiency is more susceptible to suffer from diseases and insects

A nitrogen deficiency can have several causes:
- Excess potassium, zinc and manganese in the soil or substrate.
- Too much chloride in the soil
- Too little nitrogen available in the soil or substrate
- Too high pH level in the root environment
- Dysfunctional root system due to damage, disease or low temperatures of the soil
- Nitrogen is easily soluble and therefore easy to wash out


Nitrogen  is also a major component of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. Without proteins, plants wither and die. Some proteins act as structural units in plant cells while others act as enzymes, making possible many of the biochemical reactions on which life is based. 

Nitrogen is a component of energy-transfer compounds, such as ATP (adenosine triphosphate). ATP allows cells to conserve and use the energy released in metabolism. Finally, nitrogen is a significant component of nucleic acids such as DNA, the genetic material that allows cells (and eventually whole plants) to grow and reproduce. 

Without nitrogen, there would be no life as we know it. Soil nitrogen exists in three general forms: organic nitrogen compounds, ammonium (NH4+) ions and nitrate (NO3-) ions.

The nitrate form of nitrogen is so soluble that it leaches easily when excess water percolates through the soil. This can be a major loss mechanism in coarse-textured soils where water percolates freely, but is less of a problem in finer-textured, more impermeable soils, where percolation is very slow.

Plants absorb nitrogen from the soil as both NH4+ and NO3- ions, but because nitrification is so pervasive in agricultural soils, most of the nitrogen is taken up as nitrate. Nitrate moves freely toward plant roots as they absorb water. 

Once inside the plant, NO3- is reduced to an NH2 form and is assimilated to produce more complex compounds. Because plants require very large quantities of nitrogen, an extensive root system is essential to allowing unrestricted uptake. 

Plants with roots restricted by compaction may show signs of nitrogen deficiency even when adequate nitrogen is present in the soil. Most plants take nitrogen from the soil continuously throughout their lives, and nitrogen demand usually increases as plant size increases. 

A plant supplied with adequate nitrogen grows rapidly and produces large amounts of succulent, green foliage. Providing adequate nitrogen allows an annual crop, such as corn, to grow to full maturity, rather than delaying it. 

A nitrogen-deficient plant is generally small and develops slowly because it lacks the nitrogen necessary to manufacture adequate structural and genetic materials. It is usually pale green or yellowish because it lacks adequate chlorophyll. 

Older leaves often become necrotic and die as the plant moves nitrogen from less important older tissues to more important younger ones.

On the other hand, some plants may grow so rapidly when supplied with excessive nitrogen that they develop protoplasm faster than they can build sufficient supporting material in cell walls. Such plants are often rather weak and may be prone to mechanical injury. Development of weak straw and lodging of small grains are an example of such an effect.

Nitrogen fertilizer is one of the more expensive soil inputs, so farmers may be spending money they do not need to spend. Another reason is the environment. When more nitrogen is added than plants can use, it can run off the land and cause problems for bodies of water downstream.

An estimated 80 percent of soil carbon in heavily farmed areas has been lost due to the use of carbon-depleting chemical fertilizers and pesticides.   Organic carbon is stored in soil by exclusively binding to certain soil structures, and the soil's capacity to absorb carbon dioxide is directly related to its 

Topsoil destruction, erosion and desertification are all exacerbated by artificial fertilizer / chemical use, monocropping and not using cover crops. 


At the current rate of topsoil degradation, all the world’s topsoil will be gone in less than 60 years.  

At that point, it’ll be GAME OVER ( like in the Hollywood movie INTERSTELLAR ) because without topsoil you cannot grow food no matter how many chemicals you add. 

IMAGINE , THAT IDIOT PC CHACKO WAS PRAISING THE GREEN REVOLUTION OF THE CONGRESS PARTY..


Closely related problems are the loss of soil fertility and biodiversity, which is directly related to the loss of natural carbon in the soil.  The importance of carbon sequestration simply cannot be overstated. Not only will it reduce the carbon dioxide (CO2) load in the atmosphere, but once sequestered in the soil, the carbon actively nourishes soil health and improves water retention.

The biological component of soil is an extremely important carbon sink since about 57% of the biotic content is carbon. Even on desert crusts, cyanobacteria, lichens and mosses capture and sequester a significant amount of carbon by photosynthesis. Poor ARTIFICIAL farming and grazing methods have degraded soils and released much of this sequestered carbon to the atmosphere.

Many foreign soils have an organic matter content in the top 10cm (expressed as organic carbon) of >3%. If the organic matter falls below this level, the fertility will be greatly reduced.

SOC levels result from the interactions of several ecosystem processes, of which photosynthesis, respiration, and decomposition are key. Photosynthesis is the fixation of atmospheric CO2 into plant biomass. SOC input rates are primarily determined by the root biomass of a plant, but also include litter deposited from plant. 

When carbon inputs and outputs are in balance with one another, there is no net change in SOC levels. When carbon inputs from photosynthesis exceed C losses, SOC levels increase over time. Photosynthesis, decomposition, and respiration rates are determined partly by climatic factors, most importantly soil temperature and moisture levels.

Despite the much larger size of the oceanic carbon pool relative to the soil carbon pool, the rate of exchange between the atmosphere and the soil is estimated to be higher than that between the atmosphere and the ocean.  

Again, soil carbon sequestration is a process in which CO2 is removed from the atmosphere and stored in the soil carbon pool. This process is primarily mediated by plants through photosynthesis, with carbon stored in the form of SOC.  In the ground, carbon is useful.

Loss of topsoil releases carbon into the air. 


One of the problems with chemical fertilizers is they seep through the soil into the groundwater and other water sources, leading to contamination. Now, NPK can  kill the balance of nature in various ways.   Nitrogen in the water can persist for many years, so it will continue to affect the environment even without adding more.

Chemical fertilizers can make the topsoil acidic, because nitrogen lowers the pH of the soil. The ideal pH for maximum plant growth and crop yield is between 5.5 and 8. If the soil is too acidic (pH lower than 5.5), it will yield less crops.

Food crops produced using chemical fertilizers are poor in nutrition. This is because chemical fertilizers trade fast growth for health in plants, resulting in crops that have less nutritional value.

Today's vegetables may be larger but they typically do not contain more nutrients. Jumbo-sized produce often contains more dry matter than anything else, which dilutes mineral concentrations.

The richly colored “Indian corn” contains far more disease-fighting antioxidants and less sugar than today’s popular pale yellow GM sweet corn.

WHEN QUANTITY INCREASES QUALITY REDUCES –THIS IS A UNIVERSAL LAW.

The humpless cow gives plenty of toxic A1 milk which causes most of the diseases of the gut.

AN IDIOT NAMED PC CHACKO WAS PRAISING THE WHITE REVOLUTION OF CONGRESS PARTY—JUST BECAUSE THE FATHER OF THE WHITE REVOLUTION VERGHESE KURIAN  IS A KERALA CHRISTIAN LIKE HIM.. SAME  CHURCH  PARTY.


Plants will grow on little more than NPK, but they will be missing or developing less of essential nutrients such as calcium, zinc, and iron. This can have a small but cumulative effect on the health of people that consume them.


Chemical-based agriculture has resulted in the destruction of rural economies, water and air pollution, depletion of aquifers, destruction of pollinators and biodiversity, soil erosion and loss of soil fertility, climate destabilization, food contamination, nutrient degradation and the deterioration of public health.

 Even the government admits about half of all American adults now live with one or more chronic diseases, many of which are rooted in a nutrient-poor diet caused due to food grown in chemical laden soil sans healthy microbes..

Organic foods contain higher amounts of antioxidants,  and an antioxidant-rich diet is associated reduced risks for chronic diseases.  To improve health we really need to improve nutrition, and to do that we must address food at its literal roots. 

Healthy microbe-rich soil associated with regenerative, soil-centered, organic practices produces crops with higher levels of nutrients, without which maintaining health is difficult if not impossible.





Plants’ natural symbiotic relationship with soil microorganisms is disrupted by the use of synthetic fertilizer

The use of synthetic fertilizers results in higher yields and bigger produce that is less nutrient-dense
The mineral content of fruits and vegetables has declined by 48% over the last five decades IN India..
Chemical fertilizers increase the risks of developing cancer in adults and children and adversely affecting fetal brain development..

The rhizosphere is the area immediately around a plant’s root. It contains microorganisms that thrive on chemicals released from the plant’s roots. These chemicals, known as exudates, include carbohydrates, phytochemicals and other compounds.

In exchange for the exudates, the root microbiome supplies the plant with important metabolites for health, which, along with exposure to pests and pathogens, helps plants produce phytochemicals. A well-fed root microbiome will also supply plants with ample nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

Nitrous oxide emissions from ARTIFICIAL FERTILISER managed soils account for almost 45% of agricultural emissions in the EU. This is particularly important because the impact of 1 kilo of nitrous oxide on warming the atmosphere is about 300 times greater than the impact of 1 kilo of carbon dioxide.


NPK fertilizers translate into lower phytochemical levels. When plants grow explosively they tend to cut back on making phytochemicals.. Many phytochemicals produced by plants act as a natural defense system to protect plants from predators. When a bug such as a caterpillar chews on a plant's leaf, the plant "hears" the vibrations of the chewing and produces a phytochemical to defend itself from further harm.

When crops are sprayed with pesticides, herbicides, and fungicides, however, the plant has less of a need to produce these in-house phytochemical weapons.

Fertilizer companies claim their products are necessary to feed the world, but research poves and demands  working with nature instead of against it — via agroecology or “ecological farming” — can produce as much food without the need for chemical fertilizers. Cutting out chemical fertilizers could reduce annual global greenhouse emissions by as much as 23 %..

The shift from chemical fertilizers to agroecological practices would allow farmers to rebuild organic matter in the world's soils, and thus capture a possible two- thirds of the current excess CO2 in the atmosphere within 40 years.

TILL THE GREEN REVOLUTION CAME TO INDIA, INDIA WAS CARBON NEGATIVE..


Nitrification inhibitors delay the bacterial oxidation of the ammonium ion (NH4+) by depressing over a certain period of time (four to ten weeks) the activity of Nitrosomonas bacteria in the soil. These bacteria transform ammonium ions into nitrite (NO 2–), which is further transformed into nitrate (NO3 –) by Nitrobacter and Nitrosolobus bacteria.

The objective of using nitrification inhibitors is to control the loss of nitrate by leaching or the production of nitrous oxide (N2O) by denitrification from the topsoil by keeping N in the ammonium form longer and thus increasing N-use efficiency. 

Furthermore, nitrification inhibitors – by delaying the conversion of ammonium to nitrate – avoid undesirable high nitrate levels in plants used for human and animal nutrition.

“Neem Oil “is a proven nitrification inhibitor. It slows down the process of nitrogen release from Nitrogenous Fertilisers.    PM Modi keeps boasting about urea coated with neem oil- but he has no idea how it works.. He thinks it is to prevent hijacking of urea to make explosives..








When you apply urea to the soil as source of nitrogen fertilizer, it will hydrolyze into ammonia very fast. Ammonia is a gas under normal temperature and pressure condition. The loss of this gas into the atmosphere is economically substantial. 

This hydrolysis process is facilitated by the enzyme urease. So, urease inhibition is the process of slowing down this hydrolysis process to minimize N loss. The mechanism is that those chemicals considered as urease inhibitors will bind the enzyme urease thus slowing down its effect in urease hydrolysis.

Urease Inhibitor is a substance which inhibits hydrolytic action on urea by urease enzyme. When applied to soils  a urease inhibitor results in less urea nitrogen lost by ammonia volatilization Urease inhibitors block the conversion  of urea to ammonia for a period of one to two weeks..

Nitrogen Stabilizer is a substance added to a fertilizer which extends the time the nitrogen component of the  fertilizer remains in the soil in the [urea or] ammoniacal  form




WE MUST RECLAIM OUR HOLY TOP SOIL WHICH PRODUCED DIVINE FOOD WITH VEDIC GOLDEN MEAN 1.618 INHERENT..


JUST 55 YEARS OF GREEN REVOLUTION ( ARTIFICIAL FERTILISERS / PESTICIDES ) OF DESH DROHI MS VISHWANATHAN -FATHER OF GREEN REVOLUTION-- HAS KILLED 90% OF INDIAN LAKES WHICH WERE IN PRISTINE CONDITION FOR MORE MILLIONS OF YEARS ..


  1. STUPID FELLOW PC CHACKO WAS PRAISING THE GREEN AND WHITE REVOLUTION OF THE CONGRESS..

    HE MUST READ THE BLOG POST BELOW-- TWO PARTS..

    https://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2019/03/india-must-revert-to-organic_26.html

    https://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2019/04/questions-from-capt-ajit-vadakayil.html


    IN SIX DECADES IF THE PLANET DOES NOT GO BACK TO ORGANIC FARMING, WE WILL LAND UP IN A "INTERSTELLAR" MOVIE SCENARIO WHERE THE TOPSOIL OF THE PLANET IS TOTALLY DEPLETED, UNABLE TO PRODUCE FOOD..

    THE WHITE REVOLUTION IN INDIA IS THE REASON WHY EVIL PHARMA IS SINGING ALL THE WAY TO THE KOSHER BANKS AS AYURVEDA SAYS 90% DISEASES ORIGINATE IN THE HUMAN GUT..

    IF JAGAN MOHAN REDDY BECOMES CM OF ANDHRA HE MUST SCRAP THE CAPITAL CITY PLANS FOR AMARAVATHI.. CHANDRABABU NAIDU WAS IN A TEARING HURRY FOR PERSONAL BENEFIT..

    FIRST OF ALL AMARAVATHI ANCIENT BUDDHIST CENTRE IS A COOKED UP HOAX..

    THE SOIL OF AMARAVATHI IS SOFT AND UNSUITABLE .. 15% EXTRA MONEY WILL HAVE TO BE WASTED IN BUILDING STRONG FOUNDATIONS OF BUILDINGS..

    THE SOIL IS PRONE TO LIQUEFACTION. DONT WE HAVE THINKERS IN INDIA?..

    https://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2018/10/soil-liquefaction-during-earth-quakes.html


    THE KRISHNA RIVER WILL DIE IF AMARAVATHI CITY COMES UP..

    WHY ARE WE SACRIFICING A FERTILE AREA WHICH IS THE FOOD BOWL OF ANDHRA WITH THREE CROPS A YEAR ?..

    capt ajit vadakayil
    ..

    PUT ABOVE COMMENT IN WEBSITES OF--
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While the development of top soil is Considered a slow millennial process, losses of top soil by erosion  can be more rapid devastating and dramatic. Top soil erosion losses  can easily overrun the natural capacity to generate fertile top soil.  

While erosion has been viewed as a physical process, everything in  the soil is affected by the life within it. Indeed soil organic matter is  the signature of life activity in the soil itself.   The living ability of microbes can greatly augment physical and chemical processes  without the intervention of biological forces. 

During the 1930’s in the United States the Great Depression coincided with massive soil erosion known as the Great Dust bowl ecosystem analysis shows that primary plant productivity increases in relation to increase of mycorrhizal fungi measured in glomalin related soil protein content as well as mycorrhizal  colonization values.. .  

The microbial world is co-dependent with the plant – together they can both thrive. Every 27 tonnes of carbon sequestered biologically in soil represents 100 tonnes of carbon dioxide removed from the atmosphere. As a bonus, it also enables more reliable and profitable production of nutritious food.. 

A biology-friendly approach to crop production – and carefully planned grazing of pastures and rangeland - would enable agricultural land to  become a net carbon sink (that is, soil sequestering more carbon than it was losing). 

In one thimbleful of healthy soil, you can find several MILES of fungal filaments, all releasing powerful enzymes that help dissolve tightly bound soil nutrients, such as organic nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron. 

Indeed, the top 6 inches of soil are the most precious yet least understood ecosystem on Earth. To fully appreciate its importance to our survival, you need to understand the role carbon plays in maintaining the ecological balance. 

Importantly, carbon-rich organic matter is what gives soil its water-retention capacity, its structure and fertility, so it’s really imperative to add organic matter back into the soil. Nitrogen applied in excess of crop demand is lost through volatilization, denitrification and leaching. 

Fertilizer N (urea) application beyond recommended rates enhances crop succulence, thus making the plants prone to disease and pest infestation, and to lodging. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are the three major nutrients required for healthy plant growth. 

Cow urine contains significant amounts of both nitrogen and potassium. In 24 hours a cow or buffalo can give 6 litres of urine. If a farmer can have 2 cows or buffaloes inhis house it gives 4380 litres of urine in one year which equals 65 kg nitrogen; that amount of nitrogen equals to 136 kg urea. 

If cow urine is used in field continuously for three years then there will be no need of chemical fertilizer. Losses of nitrogen from the soil/plant system not only reduce soil fertility and plant yield but Ammonia emissions into the atmosphere contribute to acid rain and represent an indirect source of nitrous oxide greenhouse gas emissions.. Nitrate contamination of drinking water supplies can cause health risks..

Excess applied N ( Urea )) can be lost to the environment through nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions, which contribute to global warming..

Once in the nitrate form, the nitrogen is subject to loss. Nitrate moves freely throughout the soil profile with moisture. In coarse-textured, well-drained soils, nitrate can leach below the root zone and become unavailable to the crop. 

Nitrate is also subject to denitrification, a biological process that converts nitrate to a gas that is lost to the atmosphere. This occurs in waterlogged soils. Another nitrogen loss avenue is volatilization—the loss of free ammonia to the atmosphere. This process has several steps. 

First, an enzyme (urease) in the soil and organic residue act on urea and convert it to an unstable form, which can quickly change to ammonia and carbon dioxide. With ideal conditions, this unstable form is converted to ammonium and is available for plant take-up.

However, when conditions are less than ideal, the ammonia can be lost into the atmosphere. Factors that influence this process are urease activity, temperature, soil moisture, application method, soil pH and cation exchange capacity, a measure of the soil’s ability to hold positively charged ions.

The greatest potential for loss occurs when there are high amounts of residue on the soil surface and the nitrogen source is applied on top of the field.

Your body creates ammonia when it breaks down protein from foods. Ammonia contains nitrogen, which mixes with other elements in your body, including carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, to form urea. 

Urea is a waste product that is excreted by the kidneys when you urinate. The urine urea nitrogen test determines how much urea is in the urine to assess the amount of protein breakdown. 

The test can help determine how well the kidneys are functioning and whether your intake of protein is too high or low. Additionally, it can help diagnose whether you have a problem with protein digestion or absorption from the gut.

Purines are nitrogen-containing compounds, which are made inside the cells of your body (endogenous).

Or it comes from outside of your body, from intake of foods containing purine (exogenous).  Purines are components of nucleosides, the building blocks of DNA and RNA.



Relatively low price of N fertilizers ( urea )   facilitates overuse. An attempt to overcome the problem is the use of slow-release N fertilizers or the combined use of urea and nitrification inhibitors (Ca). ...

When manure and urine mix, ammonia is formed. If it is released into the air, it can precipitate in nature, causing large amounts of nitrogen to end up on the ground.


Organic crops perform better in weak-acidic to weak-alkaline soils—soils with pH between 5.5 and 8.0. This happens because of the difficulty in managing phosphorus in organic systems. Under strong alkaline and acidic conditions, phosphorus is less readily available to plants as it forms insoluble phosphates

Bone meal is a mixture of finely and coarsely ground animal bones and slaughter-house waste products. It is used as an organic fertilizer for plants and as a nutritional supplement for animals. As a slow-release fertilizer, bone meal is primarily used as a source of phosphorus and protein. 

As a fertilizer, the N-P-K (Nitrogen-Phosphorus-Potassium) ratio of bone meal can vary greatly, depending on the source. From a low of 3-15-0 to as high as 2-22-0. , though some steamed bone meals have N-P-Ks of 1-13-0.. 

Plants can only get phosphorus from bone meal if the soil pH is below 7.0 (acidic soil).. Organic fertilizers usually require the use of a variety of fungi in the soil to make the nutrients in the fertilizer bioavailable to the plant. 

For plants needing phosphorus, the fungi mycorrhiza penetrate the roots and break down the compounds containing the phosphorus for easier absorption and utilization, and in turn the plants supply the mycorrhizae with amino acids and sugars..

Fish Meal (FM) has been used for milliniums in India hundreds of years as an organic fertilizer. It is high in nitrogen and phosphorus, and also contains important trace elements making it an excellent broad-based organic fertilizer. Mix it thoroughly into the four inches of the soil. Bone meal is a slow-release form of phosphorus (P) that may be expressed as phosphate or phosphorus. 

Phosphorus as a percentage is 2.3 times higher than numbers shown for phosphate, so 10 per cent phosphate is the same as 23 per cent phosphorus. The calcium infusion from bone meal helps plants develop strong and healthy cells and seeds. It also strengthens the stems and aids in the development of new shoots in perennial crops and shrubs. 

Plants use calcium from bone meal and other sources to produce cell walls and root ends. Calcium deficiency shows itself in the roots, leaves and fruits of plants, although it may be hard to detect if it is only affecting the roots.


All plants need phosphorus, which bone meal supplies, especially when developing roots. It is one of the three essential macronutrients, along with nitrogen and potassium. Adequate amounts of phosphorus in the soil are essential for optimal crop yields. 

Cow dung is high in organic materials and rich in nutrients. It contains about 3 percent nitrogen, 2 percent phosphorus, and 1 percent potassium (3-2-1 NPK). Too much phosphorus will continue to promote root growth, but in excess, it interferes with the roots’ relationships with mycorrhizal fungi. 

Without the mycorrhizal fungi, the roots have a more difficult time developing and using the nutrients that surround it.



The Food Safety and Standards (Organic Foods) Regulations, 2017 recognize already established two systems of certification i.e. Participatory Guarantee System (PGS) implemented by Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare and National Programme for Organic Production (NPOP) implemented by Ministry of Commerce and Industry.

Which food products can be labelled as ‘Organic ‘?

Under NPOP system:
-- In case of single ingredient product where all requirements been met as per the  specified standards can be labelled as ‘Organic’.
-- In case of multi ingredient product where min. 95% of ingredients are of  certified origin, can be labelled as ‘Certified Organic’.

Under PGS-India system:
-- In case of single ingredient product where all requirements have been met, may  be labelled as ‘PGS- Organic’.
-- In case of multi ingredient product where min. 95% of ingredients are organic, it  may be labelled as ‘PGS- Organic’.


The consumer shall look for Food Safety and Standard Authority of India’s organic  logo (Jaivik Bharat) and FSSAI Logo License number.


THERE IS LOT OF BRAINWASH FROM WHITE JEWS THAT INDIA MUST NOT TILL OUR SOIL.. 

FUCK OFF YOU CUNTS !

YOU YOUR NO TILL AGRICULTURE IN ISRAEL WHERE YOU HAVE SHIT SOIL WITH ONLY A COUPLE OF INCHES OF TOP SOIL — WE DON’T NEED IT IN INDIA.. OUR TOP SOIL IS THICK ENOUGH AND WE DO SHALLOW TILLING ..

INDIA INTRODUCED THE CONCEPT OF TILLING TO THIS PLANET

Tilling allows you to prepare a farming space fast.

Tilling the soil  helps enrich the toil by speeding up the decomposition of remaining crops, weeds and other organic matter that may be lying on the surface.  It loosens and aerates the top layer of soil or horizon A, which facilitates planting the crop. Loosening the soil not only provides a good footing for newly germinated roots but it helps water, nutrients and oxygen reach those roots.

Tilling breaks up hard soil and delivers nutrients deep into the soil. Plants need loose soil for their roots to grow and spread, and tilling is the most efficient way to break up a densely packed bed.

Tilling mechanically destroys weeds.. With no-till a farmer has lost the ability to mechanically control weeds through tillage.  Tilling or cultivating your garden helps tear weeds apart and break down their root systems. 

Without tillage, weeds have more time to establish themselves and grow.

Tilling increases air in soil and stimulates the activity of aerobic bacteria. That helps break down organic matter more quickly, releasing heat as energy. Air pockets that are created by the deep loosening of soil facilitate air and water penetration for plants to use. Air penetration is also important to the micro-organisms in the soil that perform all kinds of important tasks creating nutrients for the plants


Compost, leaf litter, grass clippings and other organic amendments are powerful sources of nitrogen and carbon, two elements necessary for plant growth and good soil composition. Tilled soils have pockets that can secrete water but they also allow excess water to percolate down through soil which avoids sodden roots.

SOMEONE ASKED ME— WHY PUT KERALA NENDRAN AND COCONUT WATER BANANA IN PACHGAVYA

WELL THEY ARE A GREAT SOURCE OF POTASSIUM


Potassium (K) is an essential nutrient for plant growth. 

It's classified as a macronutrient because plants take up large quantities of K during their life cycle. Potassium is associated with the movement of water, nutrients and carbohydrates in plant tissue. It’s involved with enzyme activation within the plant, which affects protein, starch and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. 

The production of ATP can regulate the rate of photosynthesis. Potassium helps regulate the opening and closing of the stomata, which regulates the exchange of water vapor, oxygen and carbon dioxide. If K is deficient or not supplied in adequate amounts, it stunts plant growth and reduces yield. 

In the soil itself, potassium appears in three forms: (1) in the soil solution; (2) as the exchangeable ion K+ adsorbed to, or released from, the surfaces of clay particles; and (3) in organic matter. Potassium plays a most important role in regulating the water status of plants by lowering water potential.


  1. SOMEBODY ASKED ME—WHAT IS THIS IR8 RICE YOU HAVE MENTIONED IN YOUR BLOG..

    WELL IT SACRIFICED QUALITY FOR QUANTITY.. THE NUTRITIONAL VALUE IS VERY POOR.

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2015/09/gm-ir8-rice-high-amylose-content.html

    IN KERALA ITSELF WE HAD MORE THAN 1.82 LAKH ( 180,000 ) VARIETIES OF RICE.. RICE LIKE NJAVARA WAS PREVENTIVE MEDICINE.

    THE IR8 WAS A CONSPIRACY ON THE THIRD WORLD BY ROTHSCHILD USING HIS FRONTS—THE FORD AND ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATIONS..

    FAMINE WAS DELIBERATELY CREATED AS A HEGELIAN DIALECTIC TO PUSH THSE USELESS VARIETIES OF RICE WHICH GIVE YOU BRAIN FOG AND REDUCED FERTILITY OF WOMEN..

    The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is an international agricultural research and training organization with headquarters in Los Baños, Laguna in the Philippines and offices in seventeen countries with more than 1500 staff.

    THE WHOLE IDEA WAS TO CONTROL FOOD .

    STERILE / TERMINATOR SEEDS WAS THE FIRST STEP..

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2012/05/monsanto-and-farmer-suicides-in-india.html

    SO SO SO-- In 1960, the KOSHER DEEP STATE established and funded the IRRI, the International Rice Research Institute, in the Philippines with Dr. Robert Chandler as its director. Henry Beachell became IRRI's chief rice breeder.

    They imported seeds for over 10,000 varieties of rice from around the world. Many of these were dwarf varieties to cross with taller varieties.

    In 1962, Dr. Peter Jennings made 38 crosses of various varieties at IRRI. The eighth was between a Chinese dwarf variety known as Dee-geo-woo-gen (DGWG) and a tall variety from Indonesia, Peta. This eighth cross was promising, but only 130 seeds were produced. How those 130 seeds became the famous IR8 variety was a DELIBERATE process –

    The 130 seeds were planted in pots to produce the first generation (F1) of plants. All were tall.

    The F1 seeds were planted and produced about 10,000 second-generation (F2) plants. One-quarter of those plants were dwarf. That meant that dwarfism was controlled by a single gene in the DGWG variety, making the job of producing a commercial variety a lot easier.

    All of the tall plants from the F2 generation were discarded, and the short plants were planted to become the F3 generation.

    From the F3 plants, Beachell used his plant judging skills to select 298 individual plants. Seeds from each of those plants were planted in individual "pedigree rows" to produce the fourth (F4) generation.

    In that F4 generation, Beachell again selected the best individual plants. In row 288, the third plant in looked the best to him. He dubbed it IR8-288-3 and this F5 plant became the source for the revolutionary variety that became known simply as IR8.

    By 1980, IR36 resisted pests and grew fast enough to allow two crops a year instead of just one, doubling the yield. Less time in chemical laden soil means less quality.. And by 1990, using more advanced genetic manipulation techniques, IR72 was outperforming even IR36

    By employing "Terminator" genes, seed manufacturers can exercise patent enforcement techniques not too different from software activation. You can grow the plants fine, but the engineered traits require chemical activation, thus enforcing annual license fees from farmers.. Because genetically engineered seeds are patented, the seed company can maintain strict control over how the seeds are used.

    CONTINUED TO 2--
    1. CONTINUED FROM 1--


      THE GREEN REVOLUTION ELIMINATED MORE THAN 1.8 LAKH VARIETIES OF RICE IN KERALA ALONE.. NJAVARA RICE IS A SURVIVOR— PUT NOW EVEN THIS PRICELESS RICE IS GM..

      DESPITE RAPING INDIAN SOIL WITH GREEN REVOLUTION AND MAKING PRICELESS SEEDS EXTINCT, MS SWAMINATHAN IS STILL PRAISING HIS DESH DROHI GREEN REVOLUTION..

      PM MODI IS STILL SINGING THE PRAISES OF GM SEEDS.. HE HOPES TO GET THE NOBEL PRIZE SOON.. ALREADY HE IS "CHAMPION OF EARTH" FOR HIS SLIMY EFFORTS TOWARDS MOTHBALLING INDIAN COAL..

      IN A SCHOOL DEBATE WHEN I WAS 12 YEARS OLD, I TALKED ABOUT IR8 RICE AND CALLED IT A CONSPIRACY. NOT EVEN ONE SOUL IN THE HALL HEARD ABOUT IR8 RICE..

      The taste and texture of the rice. IR8 was chalky and hardened after cooking: it may have been plentiful, but it wasn't nutritious or palatable.

      I COMMANDED SHIPS WITH FILIPINO CREW.. I HAVE TRIED A DELIBERATE EXPERIMENT—JUST WITHHOLD RICE— AND THE FILIPINOS GET BRAIN FOGGY AND PANICKY..

      REASON?

      THE USELESS GREEN REVOLUTION RICE WHICH WAS SHOVED DOWN THE THROATS OF PHILLIPINES.

      FOOD MUST NEVER GIVE "WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS"..

      THIS PLANET MUST GO BACK TO ORGANIC AGRICULTURE..

      https://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2019/03/india-must-revert-to-organic.html

      https://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2019/03/india-must-revert-to-organic_26.html


      capt ajit vadakayil
      ..

    2. PUT ABOVE COMMENT IN WEBSITES OF—

      PRESIDENT OF PHILLIPINES DUTERTE ( ONE TIME SPECIAL PERMISSION)
      INDIAN AMBASSADOR TO PHILLIPINES
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      NGT
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      HOME MINISTRY
      AMIT SHAH
      ALL BJP SPOKESMEN
      RAM MADHAV
      MADHAV GADGIL
      K KASTURIRANGAN
      MS SWAMINATHAN
      SPEAKER LOK SABHA
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      CMs OF ALL INDIAN STATES
      DGPs OF ALL STATES
      GOVERNORS OF ALL STATES
      PRESIDENT OF INDIA
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      EVERY MP OF LOK SABHA AND RAJYA SABHA
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      SPREAD ON SOCIAL MEDIA EVERY WHICH WAY






  1. SOMEBODY ASKED ME

    CAPTAIN, YOU SAID THAT THE WHITE MAN STOLE AGRICULTURE FROM VEGAN INDIA .. CAN YOU AUTHENTICATE IT..

    INDIA NEVER FACED FAMINE TILL THE WHITE INVADER CAME TO INDIA. WE PRODUCED PLENTIFUL FOOD..

    WE GAVE AWAY FOOD GRAINS FREE TO THE DESERT NATIONS FROM KERALA..WE TOOK MONEY ONLY FOR SPICES AND TRANSLATED KNOWLEDGE..

    THERE ARE MANY WHITE MEN WHO STOLE AGRICULTURAL IDEAS AND SEEDS FROM INDIA..

    ONE EXAMPLE ?

    A PORTUGUESE JEW NAMED GARCIA DE ORTA , BASED IN GOA WAS IN KERALA FOR YEARS SCROUNGING FOR NUGGETS OF KNOWLEDGE.. HE KNEW MALAYALAM.

    One of his books is available in Indian libraries..

    His book published in 1563 Colóquios dos simples e drogas da India, was a treatise on the medicinal and economic plants of India. A postal stamp of Garcia de Orta was released by Portugal in 1963..
    JEW GARCIA DE ORTA is the one who took Indian agricultural practices to the west.. 

    Now the white man tries to prove that he taught India agriculture..

    capt ajit vadakayil
    ..


  1. Dear Capt Ajit sir,

    Looks like Acharya Vinobha Bhave is getting second life....with foreword from Daaji - Current spiritual head of Heartfulness.org and Sahaj Marg.
    Release of the book "Talks on the Gita" by Acharya Vinoba Bhave
    https://www.shpt.in/index.php?route=product/product&product_id=2825
    Sahaj Marg Information Service to: sahajnet.in 04/06/2019 10:57 PMSent by: sahajnet.IN-owner@sahajmarg.infoPlease respond to "Sahaj Marg Information Service"
    1. VINOBHA BHAVE BHOODAN MOVEMENT WAS ALL ABOUT GRABBING AND LAUNDERING LANDS

      K.F.Rustomji, one of the senior-most cops of India while writing 50 years of policing in India has recorded “ Telugu Communists were the first terrorists in Independent India.”

      Bhoodan was one of the greatest CRIMINAL events which happened in Independent India.

      A low flying Chitpavan Jew nay Brahmin messiah with a Gandhian legacy ( see my shit does not smell ) was used to distribute grabbed land .

      These lands could NEVER EVER be sold as there were NO land deeds –all were burnt .

      It could be only distributed under a LIE by using a LOW FLYING MESSIAH .

      After all Chitpavan Jew nay Brahmin Vinobha Bhave was the heir to the Gandhian legacy .

      Only commie cadres benefited.

      Land was grabbed by Rothschild’s agents every which way. Chitpavan Jew nay Brahmin Acharya Vinoba Bhave, ( drawing from Gandhi’s legacy ) grabbed land in a OFFICIAL manner .

      He kick started the Bhoodan ("gift of land") movement in Andhra Pradesh to appeal to landlords to relinquish a portion of their property to be given to the landless. Walking from village to village, Chitpavan Jew nay Brahmin Vinobha Bhave accumulated more than 5.1 million acres of fertile land .

      One of Vinoba Bhave's followers, Jayaprakash Narayan ( on official record as a CIA spook ) , together with a former Chief Justice of the Bombay High Court, V.M. Tarkunde, later founded the civil liberties organization and Citizens for Democracy.

      In 1958 Vinoba Bhave was the first recipient of the Magsaysay Award . He was awarded the Bharat Ratna posthumously in 1983. Jayaprakash Narayan would also grab a Magsaysay award and a Bharat Ratna .

      Bhoodan movement created extreme land hunger among landless. Subdivision and fragmentation of fertile land did NOT help.

      Telugu commie leaders duped the commie cadre to apply for land multiple times in the name of wives, children , cat , dog etc. to get more and more free land. And then the duped commie cadre had no option but to sell back the illegally received land FREE to commie leaders--give it back or go to jail .

      CHOOOO CHIMPLE !

      And now the commies want to use BLOCKHAIN to make this process irreversible..

      We ask the Modi govt—NAIL THE BHOODAN MAFIA !

      It is very simple to find out the EVIL Telugu Commie leader landowners , who had NO land before 1942 .

      It is a LIE that Vinobha Bhave went around on foot collecting land. This is just commie propaganda.

      Almost all Bhoodan workers were commie political agents controlled by foreign forces .

      Some landlords / Ex-Zamindars donated land as ‘bribe’ to Bhoodan workers- with hope of getting favourable returns e.g. ticket in local election, road-contracts, building contracts etc.


      Well well—what do you know !

      CONTINUED TO 2--

    2. CONTINUED FROM 1-

      Commie cadre were forced to sell back land to Commie leaders at throw away prices by twisting their arms.

      These commie leaders made sure that the commie cadre land recipient could NOT make a profit by tilling his piece of land .

      The small commie farmers were starved off seeds, fertilizer, irrigation etc.

      The average size of land given to beneficiary ranged from 0.5 to 3 acres. With severe land fragmentation , NO profits could ever be made by the poor commie cadre . They had NO option but to sell the land to Telugu Commie leaders.

      Some of these EVIL commie and congress leaders became great respected political leaders .

      The Sarvodaya and Gramdan movement of Vinobha Bhav and JP created thousands of farmers with too small lands, they sold back to Telugu commie leaders .

      These descendants of these poor farmers are now the ones living in Mumbai chawls and slums .

      These vulnerable people would be employed in the industries of rich crypto Jew Marwaris and Chitpavan Jews nay brahmins and Parsis .

      You see , they were UNCHAINED from small unproductive lands obtained as “gifts” and they are blessed to be workers in alien cities , living in dirt and slime.

      Hey, JNU commie historians , your bullshit ends now !
      WHY WAS THE ITALIAN WAITRESS AND COMMIES SO KEEN TO DIVIDE UP INDIAs MINERAL RICH LANDS TO DISTRIBUTE IT AMONG TRIBALS ?

      WHY ARE ZIONIST JEWS SO KEEN THAT TRIBALS MUST OWN LANDS ?

      THE NO 1 PROBLEM OF INDIA IS SUBDIVISION AND FRAGMENTATION OF FERTILE FOOD PRODUCING LANDS

      WHEN A LAND AREA BECOMES TOO SMALL YOU CANT MAKE A PROFIT AS LABOUR COSTS ARE TOO HIGH. FARMERS THEN GO TO CITIES TO BECOME BUILDING WATCHMEN

      LORD PARASHURAMA WAS THE FIRST TO RECOGNIZE THIS 6000 YEARS AGO IN KERALA.. HE STOPPED SUB DIVISON AND FRAGMENTATION OF LANDS. ONLY THE ELDEST NAMOODIRI BROTHER COULD OWN LAND.

      http://ajitvadakayil-1.blogspot.com/2011/10/the-worst-racists-on-planet-earth-capt.html

      FARMERS SUICIDES ARE DUE TO "SUBDIVISION AND FRAGMENTATION OF FERTILE LAND

      THE HOLY TOP SOIL ( ONCE HUMUS LADEN )—ONE SIX FEET DEEP HAS IN JUST 55 YEARS OF GREEN REVOLUTION BECOME ONE FOOT DEEP , DEVOID OF MICROBES AND TOO THIRSTY.

      Capt ajit vadakayil
      ..




WHY DO YOU THINK CHANDRABABU NAIDU WAS PALPITATING TO USE BLOCKCHAIN FOR LAND POOLED UNDER AMARAVATI CAPITAL SCHEME ?..

IN ONE DECADE OF EXISTENCE THE ONLY SINGLE DEED OF BLOCKCHAIN IS TO REGULARIZE GRABBED LAND ( BY JEWS ) IN ISRAEL AND GEORGIA..IRREVERSIBLY !

https://qz.com/india/1325423/indias-andhra-state-is-using-blockchain-to-build-capital-amaravati/

READ ALL 18 PARTS OF MY BLOCKCHAIN SERIES..

http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2018/04/blockchain-bitcoin-must-be-kicked-out.html

PUT THIS COMMENT IN WEBSITES OF--
JAGAN MOHAN REDDY
GOVERNOR OF ANDHRA
KCR
GOVERNOR OF TELENGANA..
RAJNATH SINGH
HOME MINISTRY
PMO
PM MODI
NITI AYOG
AMITABH KANT
AJIT DOVAL
ED
NIA
CBI
AW MINISTER
LAW MINISTRY
AMIT SHAH
RAM MADHAV
CJI GOGOI
ALL SUPERME COURT JUDGES
HIGH COURT CHIEF JUSTICE ANDHRA

capt ajit vadakayil
..

The Protection of Plant Variety and Farmers Right Act, 2001 (PPVFR Act) is an Act of the Parliament of India that was enacted to provide for the establishment of an effective system for protection of plant varieties, the rights of farmers and plant breeders, and to encourage the development and cultivation of new varieties of plants. This act received the assent of the President of India on the 30 October 2001.




NOT A SINGLE DAM IN INDIA HAS BEEN FITTED WITH DESILTING CAPABILITY..

ALMOST ALL OF INDIAs MAJOR DAMS ARE SILTED BETWEEN TO TO 70%

BUILDING DAMS IN INDIA WAS  A WAY FOR CORRUPT POLITICIANS TO MAKE MONEY

MOST OF INDIAs DAMS ARE MERE WHITE ELEPHANTS..

WE MUST HAVE THE CAPABILITY TO BUILD DREDGERS SUITABLE FOR DESILTING

REMOVED SILT CAN BE CONVERTED TO FANTASTIC ORGANIC FERTILIZER  BY USING ORGANIC CATALYSTS..










BELOW:  ORGANIC  PESTICIDE OF HUMPED COW URINE AND NEEM LEAVES
























































THIS POST IS NOW CONTINUED TO PART 3 BELOW--





CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL
..

135 comments:

  1. Dear Captain,
    I follow and recommend to my friends that they take time to gain some valuable information on wide range of topics.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Captain
    I am searching for mail for all of the people you mentioned who we should send comment.
    So i just semd your comments on their mail or just paste comment on their twitter account?
    I am searching for their mail but i am not able to find all of these people's mail.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2011/02/gratitude-noblest-of-all-virtues-capt.html?m=1

      See at end of this post some of emails complied by other readers

      Delete
    2. Hi,

      Please find below list of email id's compiled.

       cm@maharashtra.gov.in,
      connect@mygov.nic.in,
      gaur_piyush@rediffmail.com,
      eam@mea.gov.in,
      ajaitley@sansad.nic.in,
      manoharparrikar@yahoo.co.in,
      nsab.nscs@nic.in,
      kkvenu@vsnl.com,
      rajev.c@sansad.nic.in,
      mosvks@mea.gov.in,
      governor@rajbhavangoa.org,
      sharma.rekha@gov.in,
      drhrshvardhan@gmail.com,
      srinivas.rn@nic.in,
      Yogi.Adityanath@sansad.nic.in,
      mib.inb@nic.in,
      minister.yas@nic.in,
      2009vidisha@gmail.com,
      rattanlalkataria.bjp@gmail.com,
      amitabh.kant@nic.in,
      csoffice@nic.in,
      cs@punjab.gov.in,
      spprabhu1@gmail.com,
      supremecourt@nic.in,
      swamy39@gmail.com,
      mvnaidu@sansad.nic.in,
      smritizirzni@gmail.com,
      smritizirani@sansad.nic.in,
      jsncw-wcd@nic.in,
      jsrev@nic.in,
      jscpg-mha@nic.in,
      jsabc-dea@nic.in,
      office@arunjaitley.com,
      piyush@bjp.org,
      orajagopalbjp@gmail.com,
      chairperson-ncw@nic.in,
      nitin.gadkari@nic.in,
      vaibhav.dange@nic.in,
      jpnadda@gmail.com,
      narendramodi1234@gmail.com,
      17akbarroad@gmail.com,
      palkrishangurjar2014@gmail.com,
      nsitharaman@gmail.com,
      sethi.niranjan@gmail.com,
      ravis@sansad.nic.in,
      rsprasad.bjp@gmail.com,
      secy.inb@nic.in,
      cmup@nic.in,
      pseam@mea.gov.in,
      pstohrm@gov.in,
      pp.chaudhary@sansad.nic.in,
      sushma.sahu@gov.in,
      request-hrd@gov.in,
      rawat.alok@gov.in,
      rsdalal@hry.nic.in,
      ms-ncw@nic.in,
      m.subbarayan@nic.in,
      kashish.mittal@ias.nic.in,
      wim-dfs@nic.in,
      wio-commerce@nic.in,
      lk-admin@nic.in,
      ambuj.sharma38@nic.in,
      admin@nic.in,
      feedback-mha@nic.in,
      minister.hrd@gov.in,
      dr.mahesh@sansad.nic.in,
      office-hcm@gov.in,
      supremecourt@hub.nic.in,
      yogiadityanath72@gmail.com,
      contact@yogiadityanath.in,
      advanilk@sansad.nic.in,
      lk.advani@sansad.nic.in,
      murli@sansad.nic.in,
      jp.nadda@sansad.nic.in,
      indiaportal@gov.in,
      contact@amitshah.co.in,
      amitshah.bjp@gmail.com,
      ramvilas.paswan@sansad.nic.in,
      hsgima@gmail.com,
      jse@nic.in


      drhrshvardhan@gmail.com,
      rsdalal@hry.nic.in,
      request-hrd@gov.in,
      rawat.alok@gov.in,
      ravis@sansad.nic.in,
      pp.chaudhary@sansad.nic.in,
      pstohrm@gov.in,
      pseam@mea.gov.in,
      jscpg-mha@nic.in,
      jsabc-dea@nic.in,
      jsncw-wcd@nic.in,
      jsrev@nic.in,
      sushma.sahu@gov.in,
      secy.inb@nic.in,
      supremecourt@nic.in,
      sharma.rekha@gov.in,
      Sushma Swaraj <2009vidisha@gmail.com>,
      manoharparrikar@yahoo.co.in,
      m.subbarayan@nic.in,
      mvnaidu@sansad.nic.in,
      mib.inb@nic.in,
      ms-ncw@nic.in,
      minister.yas@nic.in,
      feedback-mha@nic.in,
      chairpersonncw@nic.in,
      cmup@nic.in,
      chairperson-ncw@nic.in,
      cs@punjab.gov.in,
      csoffice@nic.in,
      office@arunjaitley.com,
      Info@sureshprabhu.in,
      urijitpatel@rbi.org.in,
      lk-admin@nic.in,
      amitabh.kant@nic.in,
      ambuj.sharma38@nic.in,
      17akbarroad@gmail.com,
      ajaitley@sansad.nic.in,
      admin@nic.in,
      kashish.mittal@ias.nic.in,
      kkvenu@vsnl.com,
      smritizirzni@gmail.com,
      smritizirani@sansad

      Delete
  3. Captain, I know this comment won't be published but I came to know that twitter account is locked as soon as a link of your blog or comment this posted. Maybe, certain keywords are blocked so its always better to use url shortners.

    ReplyDelete
  4. Namastey Captain,
    Do vedic cow dung contain gut friendly bacteria.Can we consume it to improve gut health

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2013/08/probiotics-prebiotics-friendly-gut.html

      Delete

  5. https://www.quora.com/What-is-up-with-Quora-deleting-questions-regarding-Ajit-Vadakayil

    WARN QUORA CEO ANGELA D ADAMS THAT QUORA IS GUILTY OF ALLOWING FOUL ATTACKS ON INDIA AND HINDUS ..

    QUORA MODERATION TEAM IS GUILTY OF ALLOWING PERSONAL ATTACKS ON CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL AND FOUL SEXUAL INNUENDO AGAINST HIS WIFE ..

    QUORA IS A PROPAGANDA MOUTHPIECE ( JUST LIKE WIKIEPDIA ) FOR THE KOSHER DEEP STATE ..

    WHETHER QUORA/ WIKIPEDIA/ TWITTER / FACEBOOK LIKES IT OR INDIA INDIA WLLL BE THIS PLANETS NO 1 SUPERPOWER IN 14 YEARS..

    QUORA CEO IS BEING REFERRED TO THE INDIAN GOVT FOR BEING RACIST LIE JACK DORSEY.. THERE WILL BE RETRIBUTION..

    capt ajit vadakayil
    ..

    ReplyDelete
  6. SOMEBODY ASKED ME

    WHAT WAS THE REASON FOR THAT SWIPE AT VANDANA SHIVA

    WELL , SHE IS THE “CATs WHISKERS “ IN THE FIELD OF ORGANIC FARMING..

    She received the Right Livelihood Award in 1993, an honor known as an "Alternative Nobel Prize".

    IF I WERE TO PUT HER THROUGH AN OBJECTIVE EXAM ON BASICS , SHE WONT EVEN SCORE 3%..

    Capt ajit vadakayil
    ..

    ReplyDelete
  7. https://www.trustnodes.com/2019/03/02/us-seizes-2-1-billion-isis-gold-no-bitcoin

    US HAS STOLEN MORE THAN 43 TONNES OF ISIS GOLD-- IN IEU OF ALLOWING TOP ISIS COMMANDERS TO ESCAPE WITH SNIPER GUNS..

    ReplyDelete
  8. SOMEBODY CALLED ME UP--

    HE SAID "THAT PRO-PAKISTANI SUWAR NAMED RAZIMAN TV RIDICULED THE TOE RING CULTURE OF HINDU WOMEN.. AND YOU REPLIED THAT IT IS A AYURVEDIC MARMA POINT "

    LISTEN MARMAS AND MERIDIANS ARE USED IN AYURVEDA ( TO HEAL ) AND KALARI ( TO KILL ).

    ALL ACUPRESSURE AND ACUPUNCTURE REMEDIES IN MODERN TIMES IS LIFTED FROM AYURVEDA AND KALARI.

    SEE THE VIDEO BELOW-- AN OLD MAN WHO SUFFERED FROM KNEE PAIN FOR 40 YEARS SAYS HE GOT CURED IN A FEW MINUTES BY APPLICATION ON A PENCIL POINT ON A SPOT OF HIS RING FINGER..

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q_W_iKT5CI4

    WELL I CAN VOUCH FOR THIS..

    MY BROTHER IN LAW , WENT FOR SAME SUJOK TREATMENT ( KOCHI ) FOR ACUTE KNEE PAIN HE SUFFERED FOR DECADES..JUST YESTERDAY..

    THEY PUT A MOONG GRAM ( CHERUPAYAR ) SEED ON A SPOT OF THE RING FINGER AND TIED A CELLO TAPE AROUND IT.. HE SAT THERE WATCHING THE SEED THROUGH THE TAPE AND FOUND THAT HIS KNEE PAIN JUST VANISHED..

    AFTER TWO HOURS HE WAS TOLD TO REMOVE THE TAPE --AND HE WALKED OUT WITH NO PAIN..

    YES-- WHO CARES IF QUORA OR WIKIPEDIA DOES NOT AGREE.

    WHO CARES OF THEY CALL MUDRAS AND MARMAS PSEUDO SCIENCE..

    SUJOK IS KOREAN

    REIKI IS JAPNES

    ACUPUNCTURE IS CHINESE

    THE ORIGIN IS INDIAN -- MILLINIUMS BEFORE KOREANS / JAPANESE/ CHINESE LEARNT TO SPEAK ..

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2011/07/secrets-of-mudras-capt-ajit-vadakayil.html

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2011/08/reiki-capt-ajit-vadakayil.html

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2012/06/reiki-and-weight-management-capt-ajit.html

    SOMEBODY HAD ASKED ME-- WHY THREE AND A HALF COILS FOR YOUR FIRST DEEKSHA?

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2018/02/sanatana-dharma-hinduism-exhumed-and_7.html

    A CRIMINAL OR HOMOSEXUAL WHO SOULD CANNOT RISE BEYOND THE FIRST ASTRAL LAYER WILL HAVE ONLY TWO COILS IN HIS INNER EAR COCHLEA..

    A MAN OF HIGH SOUL FREQUENCY WILL HAVE 3 COILS IN HIS COCHLEA SPIRAL--WORTHY OF SIXTH ASTRAL LAYER.

    A JIVAN MUKT ( MOKSHA SOUL ) SAGE WHOSE SOUL HAS ATTAINED HIGHEST FREQUENCY --SAME AS BRAHMAN THE MORPHOGENETIC CONSCIOUSNESS FIELD -- WILL HAVE THREE AND A HALF COILS IN HIS INNER EAR..

    THE MAHARISHI CAN HEAR COSMIC SOUNDS.. HE CAN DOWNLOAD VEDAS FROM AKASHA .. HE WILL HAVE AURAS OF VIBGYOR ENCASED IN A GOLDEN SHEATH..

    Vedic seers used the inner ear method for bending space time.

    MY REVELATIONS NOW JUMP TO 59.44%..

    capt ajit vadakayil
    ..

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Pranaam Elderly Ajit Sir, I am grateful to you for this revelation.

      Delete
    2. Dear Capt Ajit sir,
      Which is the best Aura detector and gives consistent good results if you have seen and experienced so far. I would like to check it myself and also recommend to others so that they know where they stand and work to improve their aura.
      How can you detect the inner ear cochlea spiral thru x-rays or any other equipment, so that we can get some of the so called saints like Nithyananda, Jaggi Vasudev, Sri Sri checked up and given their due status ?

      Delete
  9. BJP MUST KNOW THIS...

    MAJORITY OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN , NON-MUSLIM POPULATION OF WAYANAD ARE AYYAPPA BHAKTS..

    REMIND PEOPLE OF WHAT HAPPENED AT SABARIMALA THIS SEASON..

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Dear Capt Ajit sir,

      I had inkling of standing as an independent from Bangalore South, but when they announced Mrs Tejaswini Ananthkumar, I sort of reclined to contest for some reason. But, when they changed overnight to Tejaswini Surya, I sort of struggled within, my heart telling to contest...but could not do so. Now, when Rahul was sort of aligned to contest from Wayanad, I have strong inner urge to even contest there for the last 3-4 days, yesterday, it's even more intense and today morning had imagined even asking for Ayyappa jyothi to be lit every day till elections get over in Wayanad to remind Rahul and also contest against Rahul Gandhi even as an independent. Need your guidance and even had the idea of requesting CM Pinarayi Vijayan to ask CPI to withdraw and let's see if Rahul can win against an independent. I know this is wild...but my family especially my wife are totally against contesting, when I told them about it. But my friends and others in office are confident that I have that urge to do something right to make India#1. What to do ?

      Delete
    2. Murthy Sir, I am also confident what you are doing is right. Your family is saying no, may be that's out of care towards you. They will understand.

      I love that India #1.

      Your above post, Hahaha. You want to expose every rogue gurus. For such fake gurus, I think a little interview on tv will do. Just basic questions.

      Those kirlean eyes of Maharishis, I am guessing they used that facility to resolve tricky cases or may be to save the time.

      Delete
  10. Ajit Sir, tweeted to Mr. Donald Trump and US-India embassies.

    https://twitter.com/Sashwatdharma/status/1112568531084816386

    Tweeted to Quora, other social media platforms, Indian authorities.

    ReplyDelete
  11. Namaskaaram nobeatingaroundthebush - I am grateful for your presence here.

    ReplyDelete
  12. AMBULANCES WILL BE MISUSED FOR FERRYING CASH AND LIQUOR DURING ELECTIONS..

    IT HAS ALREADY STARTED !

    ReplyDelete
  13. https://www.quora.com/Is-Quora-losing-its-credibility-because-of-its-propaganda-of-being-anti-India-anti-Hindu

    I WANT MY READERS TO BLAST QUORA.. PUT THE LINK BELOW IN YOUR COMMENT

    https://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2019/03/questions-from-capt-ajit-vadakayil.html

    DECLARE THAT WE IN INDIA DO NOT TRUST RACIST QUORA ANYMORE.. DECLARE THAT QUORA IS KOSHER DEEP STATE MOUTHPIECE –JUST LIKE WIKIPEDA..

    capt ajit vadakayil
    ..

    ReplyDelete
  14. https://edition.cnn.com/2019/04/01/asia/china-us-fentanyl-trump-intl/index.html

    KHALISTANI MOVEMENT IS KICK STARTED BY CHINESE FENTANYL INTO PUNJAB-- VIA PAKISTANI ISI..

    ReplyDelete
  15. Dear Capt Ajit sir,
    41 yr old Zelinskiy leads exit polls in Ukraine...the Kiev people are saying... why not vote for a comedian to get something better... A Rothschild signature at play. He's linked to business tycoon Komilinsky.

    ReplyDelete
  16. http://www.uawire.org/us-special-representative-predicts-fall-of-maduro-regime-within-year

    WHAT ELSE - EVIL JEW ELLIOTT ABRAMS ?

    ReplyDelete
  17. Dear Capt Ajit sir,

    Here's the classsic civilizational showcasing of Modi's Varanasi v/s Rahul's second constituency Wayanda depicts reviving Hinduism v/s reviving Islam ...https://www.opindia.com/2019/03/while-modi-chose-varanasi-rahul-chooses-wayanad-both-made-a-civilisational-point-that-should-not-be-missed/

    ReplyDelete
  18. Sir, My account got locked once again.

    Message: We ask pm modi and the security of agencies of India

    Tweeted to American President, US-India Embassy, some Indian authorities.
    https://twitter.com/Sashwatdharma/status/1112934271562452992

    ReplyDelete
  19. Captain

    Posted the following comment in Quora under Rajiv Sahni’s comment today. Still no action taken. This is my 4th comment so far. My objective is not to fight with Quora now as it is clear that Quora just doesn’t care but personally I wanted this specific comment to be removed somehow. Will keep trying as long as my account is active. Let me see.

    Quora moderation team, please have this personal comment removed immediately. This doesn’t belong to high standards of Quora that I trust. This violates quora’s policy clearly.

    ReplyDelete
  20. https://photogallery.indiatimes.com/celebs/bollywood/malaika-aroras-pictures/articleshow/68668497.cms

    HERE IS SOME FACE LOTION FOR THE BIMBETTES

    AAAARRRGGHHH PPPTTHHEEOOOYYYYYYYYYY

    ReplyDelete
  21. https://www.indiatimes.com/technology/science-and-future/mission-shakti-created-400-pieces-of-dangerous-debris-that-can-harm-space-station-says-nasa-364702.html?utm_source=TOInewHP_TILwidget&utm_medium=ABtest&utm_campaign=TOInewHP

    CHECK OUT YANK HYPOCRISY AND EXCEPTIONALISM..

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2019/02/america-caused-global-warming-with.html

    The basis most commonly cited for American exceptionalism is the idea that the United States and its people hold a special place in the world, by offering opportunity and hope for humanity, derived from a unique balance of public and private interests governed by constitutional ideals that are focused on personal and economic freedom. …..

    This position is driven by a (usually implicit) premise that the United States cannot violate international law (and in particular international human rights norms), bcoz UNCLE SAMs EXCEPTIONAL SH1T DOES NOT SMELL…

    American exceptionalism has metamorphosed in a foul manner from an ideal DREAM to arrogant / immoral moral superiority … American exceptionalism is now construed as nak#d imperialism, laying down their own laws , striking unilaterally and riding rough-shod over people's cultures and beliefs…

    LOOK MAA –THESE DIRTY INDIANS WASH THEIR ASSH0LES AFTER DROPPING THE DUNG !.....

    Americans revel in the mindless exceptionalism. … Root cause is terrific ignorance… Intellectuals of USA listen up… This term has now swung to the other extreme….

    AMERICAN EXCEPTIONALISM which you were so proud of, is now a term to be SPAT on ashamed of… It is NO longer about HONOUR and GLORY OF HUMAN SPIRIT … It is now about DIABOLICAL HYPOCRISY most foul…

    HILLARY CLINTON AS THE AGENT OF JEW ROTHSCHILD CREATED , ARMED AND FUNDED ISIS . …. SHE KNEW HER CRYPTO JEW DONORS SAUDI AL SAUD KING ( re-elected to UN Human Rights Council ) AND QATARI AL THANI KING FUNDED ISIS….

    HERE COMES THE EPITAPH ON THE TOMBSTONE OF THE GRAVE OF AMERICAN EXCEPTIONALISM... THIS FROM CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL, THE NO 1 ON SOCIAL MEDIA ……

    AARRGGHH FUCK1N’ PTTHHEEOOOYYYY !....

    The term AMERICAN EXCEPTIONISM has come to describe the belief that the United States has an exceptional position among countries, and should not be bound by international law except where it serves American interests….

    All this nonsense of America behaving as a "nation above nations" imposing its hegemony on the rest of the world, acting in its own interest, with no concern for others, will soon come to a grinding halt…..

    AMERICA -- SH0VE YOUR “SUPER DELEGATE” EXCEPTIONAL DEMOCRACY !.... AND SH0VE IT GOOD !!... WE DON’T WANT IT !!!

    SPARE US THIS “WE DROP ONLY GOOD BOMBS SH1T “!!...

    This planet shall see through this BULLSH1T of American exceptionalism … -- the CH0OTIYA belief that the United States differs qualitatively from other developed nations because of its national credo, historical evolution, or distinctive political and religious institutions…..

    I can understand if India does this, as we ruled this planet before 7000 BC by giving and never taking.

    Only India has moral authority on this planet.......

    capt ajit vadakayil. ..

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. these whites almost never have any genuine praise for us when it could mean that their own position is threatened. They take us for idiots who want to shoot satellites without factoring in the consequences, never mind that we knew it would burn out within 6 months. So too those ignoramuses who used wrong angles to prove tht the Balakot strike missed it's target which was again debunked when it was pointed out that the images used and the angles that they assumed were all wrong. I mean we can launch and shoot down satellites but we cannnot compute the elevation of a few buildings in a forested area we want to hit with missiles because it's hardly ever been done and how can Indians ever do it so we obviously missed the target. Lol.

      Delete
  22. https://www.quora.com/Is-Adam-DAngelo-a-genius

    I WANT MY READERS TO COMMENT HERE THAT ANGELO D ADAMS IS A RACIST AND THE MALE VERSION OF XAVIERA HOLLANDER BY STARTING A SEX FANTASY QUORA SECTION WHICH INCLUDES INCEST AND PEDOPHILIA..

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. https://www.quora.com/Is-Adam-DAngelo-a-genius

      Done

      Delete
    2. PUT THE SAME IN THESE LINKS TOO..

      https://www.quora.com/How-did-Adam-DAngelo-improve-so-fast-in-TopCoder

      https://www.quora.com/What-has-Adam-DAngelo-learned-from-Mark-Zuckerberg

      https://www.quora.com/How-rich-is-Adam-D%E2%80%99Angelo

      https://www.quora.com/What-websites-does-Adam-DAngelo-visit-regularly

      https://www.quora.com/Why-is-Adam-DAngelo-so-good

      https://www.quora.com/Does-Adam-DAngelo-have-a-girlfriend-1

      https://www.quora.com/Is-Adam-DAngelo-a-billionaire

      https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-things-Adam-DAngelo-taught-Mark-Zuckerberg

      https://www.quora.com/Who-is-a-better-programmer-Mark-Zuckerberg-or-Adam-DAngelo

      MY ELDER SON CAN BEAT BOTH HYPED UP TUFTS MARK BABY AND ANGELO BABY IN CODING ANY DAY.. ASK ANGELO BABY IF HE EVER HEARD OF DIVYA NARENDRA..

      https://www.quora.com/Is-it-true-that-Adam-DAngelo-taught-Mark-Zuckerberg-how-to-code

      https://www.quora.com/How-did-Adam-DAngelo-transition-to-being-a-CEO

      https://www.quora.com/How-technical-is-Adam-DAngelo

      https://www.quora.com/How-did-Adam-DAngelo-and-his-team-validate-Quora

      https://www.quora.com/Why-didnt-Adam-DAngelo-completely-fund-Quora

      https://www.quora.com/unanswered/Adam-DAngelo-What-is-you-vision-beyond-Quora

      https://www.quora.com/At-what-age-did-Adam-DAngelo-create-Quora

      https://www.quora.com/What-percent-of-Quora-does-Adam-DAngelo-own

      https://www.quora.com/Why-did-Adam-DAngelo-invest-his-own-money-in-Quora

      https://www.quora.com/How-much-money-did-Adam-DAngelo-make-from-Facebook

      https://www.quora.com/Did-Mark-Zuckerberg-call-in-his-buddy-Adam-DAngelo-in-order-to-scale-Facebook-Would-Friendster-have-beaten-Facebook-if-it-hired-Adam-DAngelo-instead

      capt ajit vadakayil
      ..

      Delete
    3. After answering in all above quora links, I am totally banned from quora.

      Delete
  23. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vPPSangaJ-4

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H3HubRc3820


    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a0zH7kSxEAI

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lYDFh8B7S40

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ykc7pFcCPq4

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QBlKn_cwYZQ

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jsYsbi3GPjY

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U7TioAV6J-4

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zkpI3h-e0NY

    MADAN MOHAN ( WHO KAUN THI – LAG JA GALE – RAGA PAHADI ) LOST TO LAXMIKANT PYARELAL ( DOSTI ) IN 1964 FILM FARE AWARDS .

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tjB61sfhojo

    people who walk away hark - turn back and look at me – i too am a human, just like you -- he created everyone from his own form - i too am his symbol just like you – this is my fate in this unusual world--

    SANGAM SONG ALSO LOST OUT --

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3NJU9aPB7E4

    my friend, did not remain my friend-- my love, did not remain my love- I trusted my friend to look after my love -- if that was not you then who was it ? it was you- my high has subsided, my intoxication remains no more.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Sir, all instrumentals are great.

      Feeling refreshed. :-)

      Delete
  24. https://www.haaretz.com/us-news/.premium.MAGAZINE-israel-will-decline-and-jews-will-be-persecuted-those-who-can-will-flee-1.6848498

    ReplyDelete
  25. Request to all readers specially south indian share below post on social media & expose congress party/ngo/christian evanglesist etc.

    At the end of the post captain expose congress party & write--

    "Many innocent people and police died along with Rajiv Gandhi. But nothing happened to any of the congress party members not even a minor injury".

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2012/08/aidmk-dmk-misplaced-support-for-ltte.html


    no one deshbhakt give vote to congress party if they know congress party big fish aware of rajiv gandhi assasination.

    ReplyDelete
  26. ALL RIGHT--

    TIME FOR NEW QUORA QUESTIONS UNDER "IS CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL RIGHT WHEN HE SAYS BLAH BLAH BLAH ".

    https://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2019/04/questions-from-capt-ajit-vadakayil.html

    NEW QUESTIONS –
    87 -- IS CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL RIGHT WHEN HE SAYS – RACISTS ANGELO D ADAMS AND MARK ZUCKERBERG PRETEND THAT THEY HAVE NEVER HEARD OF DIVYA NARENDRA..

    88 -- IS CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL RIGHT WHEN HE SAYS – STONEHENGE WAS BUILT BY INDIAN SAGES AND IS A REPRESENTATION OF HINDU KING MANTRA OM WHOSE DIGITAL VALUE IS 108. STONEHENGE HAS 27 NAKSHATRA PORTALS OF 4 PADAS MAKING THE NUMBER 108..

    89-- IS CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL RIGHT WHEN HE SAYS – HINDU SAGES FROM KERALA INDIA AT THE FIRST COUNCIL OF NICEA IN 325 AD, PROVIDED THE COSMIC ALLEGORY PART OF THE BIBLE..

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2018/10/sanatana-dharma-hinduism-exhumed-and_10.html

    90 --- IS CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL RIGHT WHEN HE SAYS – 12 DISCIPLES OF JESUS CHRIST WHO NEVER EXISTED ARE THE 12 ZODIACS IN SANSKRIT AND MALAYALAM ( Mesa , Vrishabha, Mithunam, Karkatakam, Simha, Kanya, Tulam , Vrisksikam, Danu, Makaram, Kumbham, Meenam )..

    91- IS CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL RIGHT WHEN HE SAYS – DALTON STOLE HIS ATOMIC THEORY FROM VEDANTA..

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2011/02/daltons-atomic-theory-sage-kashyapa-and.html

    92- IS CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL RIGHT WHEN HE SAYS – NEWTONS THREE LAWS OF MOTION WERE LIFTED FROM VAISHESHIKA SUTRA OF KANADA MUNI PENNED IN 6500 BC..

    Capt ajit vadakayil
    ..

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. PUT ABOVE COMMENT IN WEBSITES OF--

      QUORA CEO ANGELO D ADAMS
      QUORA MODERATION TEAM
      KURT OF QUORA
      JACK DORSEY
      MARK ZUCKERBERG
      THAMBI SUNDAR PICHAI
      CEO OF WIKIPEDIA
      ANURAG THAKUR
      PARLIAMENTARY COMMITEE
      BBC
      NCERT
      EDUCATION MINISTER
      EDUCATION MINISTRY
      PMO
      PM MODI
      NITI AYOG
      AMITABH KANT
      COL RATHORE
      I&B DEPT
      CJI GOGOI
      ALL SUPREME COURT JUDGES
      ATTORNEY GENERAL
      SWAMY
      GURUMURTHY
      RAJIV MALHOTRA
      DAVID FRAWLEY
      STEPHEN KNAPP
      KONRAED ELST
      WALLIAM DARYLMPLE
      AJIT DOVAL
      RAW
      NIA
      IB
      CBI
      ED
      RAJNATH SINGH
      HOME MINISTRY
      RAJEEV CHANDRASHEKHAR
      MOHANDAS PAI
      RAM MADHAV
      RAJ THACKREY
      UDDHAV THACKREY
      CMs OF ALL INDIAN STATES
      DGPs OF ALL STATES
      GOVERNORS OF ALL STATES
      PRESIDENT OF INDIA
      VP OF INDIA
      SRI SRI RAVISHANKAR
      SADGURU JAGGI VASUDEV
      BABA RAMDEV
      MATA AMRITANANDA MAYI
      NCM
      NHRC
      SPEAKER LOK SABHA
      SPEAKER RAJYA SABHA
      EVERY MP OF LOK SABHA AND RAJYA SABHA
      EVERY CENTRAL MINISTER / MINISTRY
      SOLI BABY
      SALVE BABY
      FALI BABY
      KATJU BABY
      KIRON KHER
      MEENAKSHI LEKHI
      SMRITI IRANI
      ARUN SHOURIE
      PC GEORGE
      JANAM TV
      GEN GD BAKSHI
      SAMBIT PATRA
      RSN SINGH
      SHASHI THAROOR
      CHETAN BHAGAT
      AMISH TRIPATHI
      DEVDUTT PATTANAIK
      CLOSET COMMIE ARNAB GOSWMI
      RAJDEEP SARDESAI
      NAVIKA KUMAR
      ZAKKA JACOB
      ANAND NARASIMHAN
      VIKRAM CHANDRA
      NIDHI RAZDAN
      PRANNOY JAMES ROY
      AROON PURIE
      VINEET JAIN
      RAGHAV BAHL
      SEEMA CHISTI
      DILEEP PADGOANKAR
      VIR SANGHVI
      PRASOON JOSHI
      LEELA SAMSON
      PRITISH NANDI
      ASHISH NANDI
      ALL CONGRESS SPOKESMEN
      RAHUL GANDHI
      SONIA GANDHI
      PRIYANKA GANDHI
      SHOBHAA DE
      ARUNDHATI ROY
      SURESH GOPI
      MOHANLAL
      BARKHA DUTT
      SHEKHAR GUPTA
      SIDHARTH VARADARAJAN
      N RAM
      MANI SHANKAR AIYERAN
      ROMILA THAPAR
      IRFAN HABIB
      NIVEDITA MENON
      AYESHA KIDWAI
      PAVAN VARMA
      RAMACHANDRA GUHA
      DANIEL RAJA
      BRINDA KARAT
      PRAKASH KARAT
      SITARAM YECHURY
      SUMEET CHOPRA
      DINESH VARSHNEY
      ANNA VETTIKAD
      SUDHEENDRA KULKARNI
      KANCHA ILAIH
      JOHN DAYAL
      KAVITA KRISHNAN
      TEESTA SETALVAD
      SWARA TRRR BHASKAR ( OR IS IT PRRRR ? )
      RANA AYYUB
      SNEHLA RASHID
      PAGALIKA GHOSE
      JOHN BRITTAS
      KAMALAHASSAN
      DILIP CHERIAN
      SWAMYs VIRAAT SENA
      VC OF JNU
      VC OF DU/ JU/ TISS
      DEAN OF FTII
      IRA BHASKAR
      ADMIRAL LN RAMDAS
      KAVITA RAMDAS
      LALITA RAMDAS
      NAYANTARA SEHGAL

      WEBSITES OF DESH BHAKT LEADERS
      SPREAD ON SOCIAL MEDIA EVERY WHICH WAY

      Delete
  27. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/live/2019/apr/02/trump-news-today-latest-nato-puerto-rico-mueller-border-us-politics-

    EX-VP JOE BIDEN IS A PEDOPHILE TARGETING GIRLS UNDER THE AGE OF TEN..

    HE RUBS HIS HARD-ON ON THE YOUNG GIRLS EVEN IN PUBLIC..

    CHECK OUT 8.30

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b3ir0GY5Mr0

    CHECK OUT 1.30 BELOW -- THIS BASTARD DESERVES TO BE HUNG..

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=51GbHQMoSxw

    ReplyDelete

  28. https://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2019/04/questions-from-capt-ajit-vadakayil.html

    PUT THE LINK ABOVE IN ALL THE BELOW LINKS --

    ADD A COMMENT THAT QUORA CEO ANGELO D ADAMS IS A RACIST AND THE MALE VERSION OF XAVIERA HOLLANDER BY STARTING A SEX FANTASY QUORA SECTION WHICH INCLUDES INCEST AND PEDOPHILIA..

    #########################################


    https://www.quora.com/How-did-Adam-DAngelo-improve-so-fast-in-TopCoder

    https://www.quora.com/What-has-Adam-DAngelo-learned-from-Mark-Zuckerberg

    https://www.quora.com/How-rich-is-Adam-D%E2%80%99Angelo

    https://www.quora.com/What-websites-does-Adam-DAngelo-visit-regularly

    https://www.quora.com/Why-is-Adam-DAngelo-so-good

    https://www.quora.com/Does-Adam-DAngelo-have-a-girlfriend-1

    https://www.quora.com/Is-Adam-DAngelo-a-billionaire

    https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-things-Adam-DAngelo-taught-Mark-Zuckerberg

    https://www.quora.com/Who-is-a-better-programmer-Mark-Zuckerberg-or-Adam-DAngelo


    https://www.quora.com/Is-it-true-that-Adam-DAngelo-taught-Mark-Zuckerberg-how-to-code

    https://www.quora.com/How-did-Adam-DAngelo-transition-to-being-a-CEO

    https://www.quora.com/How-technical-is-Adam-DAngelo

    https://www.quora.com/How-did-Adam-DAngelo-and-his-team-validate-Quora

    https://www.quora.com/Why-didnt-Adam-DAngelo-completely-fund-Quora

    https://www.quora.com/unanswered/Adam-DAngelo-What-is-you-vision-beyond-Quora

    https://www.quora.com/At-what-age-did-Adam-DAngelo-create-Quora

    https://www.quora.com/What-percent-of-Quora-does-Adam-DAngelo-own

    https://www.quora.com/Why-did-Adam-DAngelo-invest-his-own-money-in-Quora

    https://www.quora.com/How-much-money-did-Adam-DAngelo-make-from-Facebook

    https://www.quora.com/Did-Mark-Zuckerberg-call-in-his-buddy-Adam-DAngelo-in-order-to-scale-Facebook-Would-Friendster-have-beaten-Facebook-if-it-hired-Adam-DAngelo-instead

    ###############

    MY ELDER SON FROM CORNELL CAN BEAT BOTH HYPED UP HARVARD TUFTS MARK BABY AND ANGELO BABY IN CODING ANY DAY..THEY CAN CHOOSE THE LANGUAGE JAVA 9/ C SHARP WHATEVER -- ASK ANGELO BABY IF HE EVER HEARD OF DIVYA NARENDRA..

    capt ajit vadakayil
    ..

    ReplyDelete
  29. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/at-2-5m-india-china-had-50-of-world-foul-air-deaths/articleshow/68696545.cms

    BY PERCENTAGE INDIA HAS THE LEAST POLLUTION DEATHS ON THIS PLANET..

    THESE CUNTS FORGET THAT INDIA IS A PENINSULA ..

    ReplyDelete
  30. Dear Capt Ajit sir,

    AJ says it's a tukde tukde manifesto...to weaken AFSPA, embolden Naxal/communist/terrorist forces and give leniency to corrupt.

    Chowkidar Arun Jaitley
    ‏Verified account @arunjaitley
    17h17 hours ago

    The Congress Manifesto 2019 – A Charter to Weaken India http://bit.ly/2CKQP0r

    Also, everyone is using your coined word ' round tripping' for shell companies and now corruption....as AJ used so nicely on recent IT raids against corrupt people :

    Chowkidar Arun Jaitley
    ‏Verified account @arunjaitley
    Mar 29

    The Bengaluru case is a text book method of the UPA on 2 fronts : use Government money, round trip it through Contractors & beneficiaries to enrich themselves & then lip sympathy for federalism destroying it whenever the opportunity arises. This is a very transparent self goal.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. RIGHT FROM CONCEPTION TILL INDEPENDENCE 1947 , INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS WAS A PARTY OF TRAITORS CREATED BY JEW ROTHSCHILD TO SIT ON THE DRIVERS SEAT OF FREEDOM MOVEMENT-- ALWAYS TO STEER AWAY FROM THE GOAL..

      http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2013/02/the-indian-navy-mutiny-of-1946-only-war.html

      INDIA DID NOT GET INDEPENDENCE DUE TO THE EFFORTS OF GANDHI NEHRU OR PATEL..

      FIRST THE ARMED FORCED MUTINIED AGAINST THE WHITE INVADER.. THESE SOLDIERS WERE BATTLE HARDENED LEFTOVERS FROM WW1 AND WW2..

      Gandhi recruited 13 lakh ( 1.3 million ) Indian soldiers in the first world war – out of which 111000 ( 1.11 lakh ) Indian soldiers were killed .

      Gandhi recruited 25 lakh ( 2.5 million ) Indian soldiers in the second World war. Out of this 243000 ( 2.43 lakh) soldiers were killed.

      STILL ROTHSCHILD DID NOT CARE--AS HE HAS THE LOYALTY OF THE INDIAN POLICE.

      THAT FEELING EVAPORATED WHEN THE 800 STRONG ELITE MALABAR REGIMENT REVOLTED..AND ROTHSCHILD KNEW THAT HIS GAME IN INDIA WAS OVER..

      WE NEED TO INCLUDE THIS IN OUR NCERT SYLLABUS..

      GANDHI/ NEHRU/ PATEL WERE ALL FREEMASONS..

      BR AMBDEDKARs GRANDFATHER WAS A FREEMASON.. BR AMBEDKAR WAS A STAR KID DYNAST..

      http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2011/08/freemason-lodge-of-calicut-capt-ajit.html

      IT WAS INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS WHO DIVIDED INDIA..

      THE ONLY WAY TO GET BACK PAKISTAN IS TO INVITE PAKISTAN TO NUKE INDIA WITH THEIR WEE TACTICAL NUKE PHATAKAS..

      AFTER THAT CONVERT PAKISTAN TO RADIOACTIVE WASTELAND --AND WAIT FOR THE TINDERLAND TO COOL DOWN..

      capt ajit vadakayil
      ..

      Delete
  31. Dear Capt Ajit sir,
    What's this non-sensucal bitin from US - 2.2 billion $ ASW helicopters...Was it signed bu Nirmala or AJ when he's in US ?
    https://www.wionews.com/world/us-approves-anti-submarine-helicopter-sale-to-india-207615

    ReplyDelete
  32. Gurudev,
    I have sent he link
    https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-horrible-secret-of-your-life-that-you-want-to-share-with-everyone
    with the request to make quora accountable to chairperson of national commission for protection of child rights

    regards
    charishma

    ReplyDelete
  33. Guruji,
    I have sent 3 reuests to quora mediation to completely delete defamatory comment about your wife.They bothered to respond to only one and that too they asked me to report harassment and downvote it.When i replied them that i have already done that and asked them to delete that comment completely otherwise which i would complain to ncw and nhrc they did not send me any reply back.So i sent complaint to ncw with request to make the quora accountable and delete that comment which is against the womens right to dignity.I have to watch whether i get any response or not.
    regards
    charishma

    ReplyDelete
  34. http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2012/06/murder-of-pazhassi-raja-capt-ajit.html

    IF TUSHAR VELLAPALLY HAS TO WIN AGAINST RAHUL GANDHI AND THE COMMIE CANDIDATE IN WAYANAD, HE MUST USE PAZHASSI RAJA IN HIS ELECTION POSTERS..

    PROJECT THE ITALIAN FAMILY AS ALIENS..

    THE THIYYA / EZHAVA VOTE MUST NO LONGER GO TO COMMIE PINARAYI VIJAYAN .. HENCE THE SABARIMALA INJUSTICE HAS TO BE RAKED UP EVERY HOUR WITH STATISTICS -

    THE KANNUR LOBBY OF CPM IS THIYYA...

    HOW MANY INNOCENT PILGRIMS WERE ARRESTED--HOW ANY LOST THEIR JOBS-- HOW MANY FALSE CASES WERE REGISTERED WITH PET COLLECTOR/ PET POLICE/ PET MAGISTRATES IN CAHOOTS..

    TEN YEARS AGO, 50% OF WAYANAD HINDUS ( LOT OF TRIBALS/ THIYYAS / EZAHAVAS ) WERE ATHEISTS..

    VAST TRACTS OF LAND USURPED FROM TEMPLES/ SNAKE GROVES WERE FRAGMENTED AND GIVEN AWAY TO CHRISTIAN CONVERTS BY BRITISH INVADER..

    AFTER COMMIE GOVT STARTED RULING KERALA MASSIVE HINDU LANDS WERE GRABBED IN THE GARB OF "MICHA BHOOMI PIDICHEDUKKUM " ( WE SHALL GRAN SURPLUS HINDU LANDS ) AND GIVEN AWAY TO COMMIE CADRE ..

    EVEN TODAY IN CPM STRONGHOLDS IN NORTH KERALA, THERE IS A GANG OF DEDICATED COMMIES , WHO KEEP RECORDS AND STATISTICS OF GOD FEARING HINDUS ( TO ARM TWIST THEM - IF YOU PRAY, BE PREPARED TO LOSE GOVT LARGESSE ) ..

    1) WHO GOES TO TEMPLES
    2) WHICH HINDU HOUSES LIGHT EVENING SANDHYAVANDHANAM LAMPS ( KEPT AT FRONT ENTRANCE )..

    WAYANAD WAS THIS PLANETs MOST VALUABLE PIECE OF LAND .. TODAY SNAKE GROVES WHICH SUSTAINED THE AYURVEDIC HERBAL BANK ARE ALL GONE IN THE NAME OF ELIMINATING SUPERSTITION.. 90% OF AYURVEDIC HERBS ARE EXTINCT..

    CONSERVATION HAS TO BE DONE.. OR WE WILL LOSE WAYANAD IN JUST ANOTHER TEN YEARS.. WAYANAD WAS THE SPICE BANK OF THIS PLANET..

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2018/08/the-vadakayil-report-ecological.html

    CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL ASKS THIYYAS AND EZHAVAS OF KERALA -- DO NOT LISTEN TO TUSHAR VELLAPPALI FATHER SNDP CHIEF VELLAPALLI NATESAN WHO IS A SLAVE OF ATHEIST COMMIE PINARAYI VIJAYAN ( VICE GRIP DUE TO SOME SCAM CASE ) ..

    CPM CAN NEVER WIN IN KERALA WITHOUT THIYYA/ EZAHAVA VOTES..AND TODAY THIS VOTE BANK HAS SEVERELY ERODED DUE TO THE SABARIMALA EPISODE..

    KERALA COMMIES ARE NO LONGER ATHEISTS.. THOSE DAYS ARE LONG GONE..

    PUNISH CHIEF ELECTORAL OFFICER TR MEENA WHO WARNED HINDUS NOT TO RAKE UP THE SABARIMALA ISSUE.. SORRY ELECTIONS ARE FOUGHT ON ISSUES.. TR MEENA DOES NOT HAVE ANY POWERS TO CURB FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS OF HINDUS..

    capt ajit vadakayil
    ..

    PUT ABOVE COMMENT IN WEBSITES OF--
    PMO
    PM MODI
    AMIT SHAH
    JANAM TV
    RSS
    VHP
    AVBP
    RAM MADHAV
    K RAJASHEKHARAN
    SURESH GOPI
    PADMA PILLAI
    HIGH COURT CHIEF JUSTICE KERALA
    AJIT DOVAL
    CBI
    NIA
    ED
    HOME MINISTRY
    RAJNATH SINGH
    LAW MINISTER
    LAW MINISTRY
    CJI GOGOI
    INDU MALHOTRA
    ROHINGTON NARIMAN
    KHANWILKAR
    CHANDRACHUD
    ALL SUPREME COURT JUDGES
    K ALPHONS
    GOVERNOR P SATHASIVAM
    ALL MEDIA OF KERALA
    PRESIDENT OF INDIA
    VP OF INDIA
    SPEAKER LOK SABHA
    SPEAKER RAJYA SABHA
    PC GEORGE MLA
    RAHUL EASHWAR
    SRIDHARAN PILLAI
    PARASARAN
    SAI DEEPAK
    VIDYASAGAR GURUMURTHY
    I&B DEPT
    COL RATHORE
    SWAMY
    GURUMURTHY
    AMITABH KANT
    NITI AYOG
    CEC
    EC OFFICE

    SPREAD ON SOCIAL MEDIA

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Your Registration Number is : PMOPG/E/2019/0173884

      Delete
    2. hii capt. send to PMOPG/E/2019/0173917 & http://www.amitshah.co.in/

      Delete

  35. xxx
    April 3, 2019 at 11:47 AM

    Sure captain I am away from her from 7 months...also gonna recite Maha mritunjaya mantra..hope I will be back on my track
    Regards

    ReplyDelete
    Replies


    Capt. Ajit Vadakayil
    April 3, 2019 at 12:15 PM

    MANTRAS ARE EFFECTIVE ONLY IF RECITED THE RIGHT WAY BY HUMANS OF VERY HIGH SOUL FREQUENCY.. ( SIXTH AND SEVENTH ASTRAL LAYERS SOULS )

    THIS WOMAN DOES NOT HAVE SUCH POWERS..

    capt ajit vadakayil
    ..

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. normal people are what frequency Captain?

      Delete
    2. CRIMINALS AND HOMOSEXUALS ( FIRST ASTRAL LAYER PARTY WHO KEEPS COMPANY WITH LOWER FORMS OF LIFE --LOWEST SOUL FREQUENCY ) HAVE ONLY RED AURA RIDDLED WITH BLACK HOLES.

      THE JIVAN MUKT ( MOKSHA SOUL--7TH ASTRAL LAYER PARTY--HIGHEST SOUL FREQUENCY ) HAS A BRILLIANT AURA ALL VIBGYOR COLOURS ENCLOSED IN A GOLDEN SHEATH..

      WHEN A JIVAN MUKT BLESSES OR CURSES--IT HAS EFFECT..

      IN INDIA LOT OF ANAL SEX RECEIVING FAKE GURUS HAVE PRETENDED TO BE JIVAN MUKTS..

      Delete
    3. Captain,

      I have some major medical problem and i chant mrityunjay mantra daily. I am sure I am not a person with high soul frequency. Will my daily chants have the desired effect?

      Delete

  36. MY FOREIGN CREW LOVED IT WHEN I SANG THIS SONG IN SHIPBOARD PARTIES.. THEY NEVER KNEW THE MEANING--

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HAnT1-iwS20

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hUXGHQpA_OE

    Pukarata Chala Hoon Main
    Seeking and calling out have I embarked

    Gali gali bahaar ki
    On roads of spring that are forked

    Bas ek chaon zulf ki
    One momentary shadow of your tresses I seek

    Bas ek nigaah pyar ki
    I crave from my love an endearing peek

    Ye dillagi ye shokhiyaan salaam ki
    That heartfelt flirt , that stylish bow out

    Yahin to baat ho rahi hai kaam ki
    Yup, that's what we are talking about

    Koi to mudh ke dekh legaa is taraf
    There must be someone who shall spare me a glance

    Koi nazar to hogi mere naam ki
    There must be a lovely sight in my life's game of chance

    Suni meri sadaa to kis yaqin se
    Such earnest has my prayer been heard

    Ghataa utar ke aa gayi zamiin pe
    The clouds have descended on this parched earth

    Rahi yahi lagan to ae dil-E-jawaan
    This passion of the tender heart, if it continues

    Asar bhi ho rahega ek hasin pe
    One beautiful lady must be by it amuse

    ReplyDelete
  37. The 'Green Revolution' of the 1960s and 70s which was sold as a means to feed
    the poor countries of the world was, in truth, a means to steal the natural plant varieties used there and replace them with hybrids dependent on chemical inputs
    which the same companies monopolise. The chemical inputs are killing the land and the body, in another form of population control. Control and dependency was
    the plan. The Rockefeller Foundation collected the seeds from 95% of the world's major cereal crops in the years leading up to the GATT Agreement and the Plant
    Breeder's Rights Bills. The multinationals are phasing out the varieties they do not have rights to and making the world dependent on those that they do. UN statistics
    estimate that 75% of genetic diversity in agricultural crops has been lost in this century and what is left is now in great danger. (from book Truth shall set you free)

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. INDIA HAS A SEED BANK IN THE HIMALAYAN ICE

      I SUSPECT THESE SEEDS ARE GM..

      SAB KO CHOOTIYA BANAYA ..

      Delete
    2. ALL GMO for sure -- WWF has 3 such seed vaults, also there is this this “Doomsday Seed Vault” in the Arctic - Bill Gates, Rockefeller and the GMO giants know something we don’t - https://www.globalresearch.ca/doomsday-seed-vault-in-the-arctic-2/23503

      Delete
  38. Namaste Captain sir,

    I was watching Arnab Goswami's debates for past few days and I observed a pattern where in he talks about our politics as if he just picked from your blogs.For ex: In one debate he said "Journalist praised by Hafiz" and in the other "Children of NGO's and Congress party leaders got funded education in USA".Seems that he's an active reader of your blog

    Regards,
    Sriganesh

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/elections/news/lok-sabha-elections-2019-who-all-is-digvijaya-singh-pleasing/articleshow/68700337.cms

      MODI SHOULD FIND OUT HOW DIG VIJAY SINGHs SON GOT ADMISSION INTO COMMIE COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY..

      THE JNU PROFESSORS OF SOCIAL SCIENCES ARE CHOSEN AND HANDPICKED BY COLUMBIA UNIVESITY..IT IS A COLLEGIUM SYSTEM..

      Delete
  39. https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/1113041708730802176?ref_src=twsrc%5Egoogle%7Ctwcamp%5Eserp%7Ctwgr%5Etweet

    DONALD THE TRUMP

    WHY HAS 91 BILLION USD BEEN ADDED TO THE GDP OF USA ?

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2016/06/gpi-dog-shall-wag-gdp-tail-not-vice.html

    capt ajit vadakayil
    ..

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. OUR DAYS BEFORE THE HURRICANE HIT PUERTO RICO I WARNED DONALD TRUMP

      DO NOT LET YOUR TRANSFORMERS BLOW..

      THE CUNTS LET THE TRANSFORMERS BLOW ENMASSE.

      IT TOOK 14 MONTHS FOR THESE TRANSFORMERS TO BE REPLACED IN SOME AREAS..

      I CAN VOUCH THAT PUERTO RICO IS FULL OF LAZY FAT PEOPLE..

      Delete
  40. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2cSh_Wo_mcY

    https://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2019/03/crash-of-boeing-737-max-flight-root.html

    IT TAKES A CUNT TO CREATE AUTMATION WHICH WILL VETO A PILOT !

    ReplyDelete
  41. Respected Captain , Love it when you suddenly post soul touching songs amid all the serious comments (if i may say that)..please keep doing so....jai ho prabhu..

    Charasparsh

    ReplyDelete
  42. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=66bzuxipQmE

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Da-Ydpw9-UU


    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DAdio1kkqcI

    These memories of yore wont leave me— those days are gone never to return --- can my heart ever forget – if those days are birds I would cage them— I would nurture them and keep them close to my heart - I could hide her picture – but those which are ensconced in my heart , can I erase them --- for she now belongs to another man

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Sir, Last Manjit Singh's instrumental. Nice. I spotted something - Ship Anchor Clock.

      I am grateful to you.
      I am grateful to sea which made you world's toughest Captain. :-)

      Delete
  43. Blocked And Banned By Quora For Being Straight, And Calling Adamdangelo A Homosexual And That He Is A Racist And Male Version Of Xaviera Hollander Who Is Into Kids Porn And A Bloody Liar For Calling Himself A Coder, Bloody Napunsaks In Their Moderation Team Pretending To Be Thors With A Mice for Hammer. Quora Will Bite The Dust For Sure, Soon!!

    ReplyDelete
  44. https://twitter.com/ashutosh83B/status/1112931852443140097

    POOR ASUTOSH BABY..

    HE HAD TO GO BACK 7 DECADES TO FIND ONE HINDU TERRORIST..

    BY THE WAY NATURAM GODSE WAS A HOMOSEXUAL JEW --NAY-- CHITPAVAN BRAHMIN..

    IN ENTIRE HISTORY-- HINDUS HAVE ONLY REACTED-- NEVER PRO-ACTIVELY ATTACKED ANYBODY..

    HINDUS HAVE DECIDED NOT TO BE COWARDS ANYMORE-- WE WILL GIVE BACK AS GOOD AS WE GOT..

    THE WARRIOR BLOOD OF MIGHTY BHISHMA , KARNA, ARJUNA, DRONA ETC COURSE THROUGH OUR VEINS ..

    BEWARE !

    HINDUS DONT NEED TO TAKE DRUGS LIKE ISIS OR KASHMIRI SEPARATISTS TO BECOME BRAVE..

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2012/11/babri-masjid-demolition-mughal-emperor.html

    capt ajit vadakayil
    ..

    PUT ABOVE COMMENT IN WEBSITES OF--
    ASUTOSH
    OWAISI
    QUORA CEO ANGELO D ADAMS
    QUORA MODERATION TEAM
    KURT OF QUORA
    JACK DORSEY
    MARK ZUCKERBERG
    THAMBI SUNDAR PICHAI
    CEO OF WIKIPEDIA
    ANURAG THAKUR
    PARLIAMENTARY COMMITEE
    BBC
    NCERT
    EDUCATION MINISTER
    EDUCATION MINISTRY
    PMO
    PM MODI
    NITI AYOG
    AMITABH KANT
    COL RATHORE
    I&B DEPT
    CJI GOGOI
    ALL SUPREME COURT JUDGES
    ATTORNEY GENERAL
    SWAMY
    GURUMURTHY
    RAJIV MALHOTRA
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    KONRAED ELST
    WALLIAM DARYLMPLE
    AJIT DOVAL
    RAW
    NIA
    IB
    CBI
    ED
    RAJNATH SINGH
    HOME MINISTRY
    RAJEEV CHANDRASHEKHAR
    MOHANDAS PAI
    RAM MADHAV
    RAJ THACKREY
    UDDHAV THACKREY
    CMs OF ALL INDIAN STATES
    DGPs OF ALL STATES
    GOVERNORS OF ALL STATES
    PRESIDENT OF INDIA
    VP OF INDIA
    SRI SRI RAVISHANKAR
    SADGURU JAGGI VASUDEV
    BABA RAMDEV
    MATA AMRITANANDA MAYI
    NCM
    NHRC
    SPEAKER LOK SABHA
    SPEAKER RAJYA SABHA
    EVERY MP OF LOK SABHA AND RAJYA SABHA
    EVERY CENTRAL MINISTER / MINISTRY
    SOLI BABY
    SALVE BABY
    FALI BABY
    KATJU BABY
    KIRON KHER
    MEENAKSHI LEKHI
    SMRITI IRANI
    ARUN SHOURIE
    PC GEORGE
    JANAM TV
    GEN GD BAKSHI
    SAMBIT PATRA
    RSN SINGH
    SHASHI THAROOR
    CHETAN BHAGAT
    AMISH TRIPATHI
    DEVDUTT PATTANAIK
    CLOSET COMMIE ARNAB GOSWMI
    RAJDEEP SARDESAI
    NAVIKA KUMAR
    ZAKKA JACOB
    ANAND NARASIMHAN
    VIKRAM CHANDRA
    NIDHI RAZDAN
    PRANNOY JAMES ROY
    AROON PURIE
    VINEET JAIN
    RAGHAV BAHL
    SEEMA CHISTI
    DILEEP PADGOANKAR
    VIR SANGHVI
    PRASOON JOSHI
    LEELA SAMSON
    PRITISH NANDI
    ASHISH NANDI
    ALL CONGRESS SPOKESMEN
    RAHUL GANDHI
    SONIA GANDHI
    PRIYANKA GANDHI
    SHOBHAA DE
    ARUNDHATI ROY
    SURESH GOPI
    MOHANLAL
    BARKHA DUTT
    SHEKHAR GUPTA
    SIDHARTH VARADARAJAN
    N RAM
    MANI SHANKAR AIYERAN
    ROMILA THAPAR
    IRFAN HABIB
    NIVEDITA MENON
    AYESHA KIDWAI
    PAVAN VARMA
    RAMACHANDRA GUHA
    DANIEL RAJA
    BRINDA KARAT
    PRAKASH KARAT
    SITARAM YECHURY
    SUMEET CHOPRA
    DINESH VARSHNEY
    ANNA VETTIKAD
    SUDHEENDRA KULKARNI
    KANCHA ILAIH
    JOHN DAYAL
    KAVITA KRISHNAN
    TEESTA SETALVAD
    SWARA TRRR BHASKAR ( OR IS IT PRRRR ? )
    RANA AYYUB
    SNEHLA RASHID
    PAGALIKA GHOSE
    JOHN BRITTAS
    KAMALAHASSAN
    DILIP CHERIAN
    SUHEL SETH
    SWAMYs VIRAAT SENA
    VC OF JNU
    VC OF DU/ JU/ TISS
    DEAN OF FTII
    IRA BHASKAR
    ADMIRAL LN RAMDAS
    KAVITA RAMDAS
    LALITA RAMDAS
    NAYANTARA SEHGAL

    WEBSITES OF DESH BHAKT LEADERS
    SPREAD ON SOCIAL MEDIA EVERY WHICH WAY

    ReplyDelete

  45. https://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2019/04/questions-from-capt-ajit-vadakayil.html

    HEY VIVEK OBEROI..

    I SAW YOU TALKING TO DESH DROHI RAJDEEP SARDESAI ABOUT MODIs BIOPIC..

    VIVEK, YOU SOUND LIKE A DESH BHAKT AND PROUD HINDU TO ME..

    TEL YOUR FATHER SURESH OBEROI, NOT TO GIVE FALTHU IMPORTANCE TO THAT STUPID WOMAN SHIVANI VERMA WHO MAKES ROCKET SCIENCE OUT OF EVERYTHING..ON ARRON PURI TV CHANNEL..

    BRAHMAKUMARI SECT WAS CREATED BY JEW ROTHSCHILD WHO RULED INDIA.

    THERE WAS THIS FILTHY RICH DIAMOND AGENT OF JEW ROTHSCHILD..DADA LEKHRAJ...WHO SUPPLIED YOUNG WIDOWS AND ATTRACTIVE MARRIED YOUNG WOMEN TO WHITE BRITISH OFFICERS..

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dada_Lekhraj

    3 YEARS AFTER OM MANDI WAS FOUNDED BY LEKHRAJ BABY - THE PLACE WAS RAIDED BY POLICE AT NIGHT ON REPORTS OF AN ONGOING SEXUAL ORGY WITH MINORS ( WHICH INCLUDED WHITE RULERS)!

    The next day it was banned by the Govt of Sindh- as this incident was splashed by newspapers .

    This was in British India.

    I quote the British newspaper--

    ###########
    Daily Mail, 13 March 1939 wrote:

    Five thousand angry husbands, parents, and guardians yesterday marched on the Sind Government secretariat in protest against the activities of the Om Mandli celibacy cult here.

    The cult has aroused fierce indignation by inducing young girls to refuse to marry and wives to leave their husbands.

    A clash seemed inevitable as the march had been banned by the Government.

    The crowd, led by the crippled Hindu leader Vaswani in a wheel chair, came face to face with a cordon of police.

    Then the Minster of Public Works, Mr Vazirani, intervened. He gave a written guarantee that the Government would order the cult to discontinue certain practises. The crowd dispersed.

    ##########################

    http://www.brahmakumaris.info/forum/viewtopic.php?f=19&t=2417

    Check out this link to see a SCAN of the above report . this is NOT bull.

    Lekhraj Khubchand Kripalani was touted by the white invader as an avatar of Shiva .

    Our Rothschild media and waitress sponsored President Pratibha Patil ( Puran Poli ) had famously said in 2007 -- she had received a message from Lekhraj Khubchand Kripalani stating that a “great responsibility” was headed her way.

    DID AN ANGEL DELIVER THIS MESSAGE ?

    LET ME QUOTE WIKI-

    QUOTE --In 2008, the movement claimed to have more than 825,000 regular students, with over 8,500 centers in 100 countries...The Brahma Kumaris at the United Nations is an international non-governmental organisation (NGO) in general consultative status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations.[65] and UNICEF. UNQUOTE

    WHO CAN OPEN 100 CENTRES WORLDWIDE FOR YOU ?

    AND WHAT ABOUT THE GRANDFATHER OF RABINDRANATH TAGORE-- HIS GRANDFATHER , DWARAKNATH TAGORE , A PIR ALI MUSLIM , AN OPIUM DRUG RUNNING AGENT OF JEW ROTHSCHILD OWNED THE BIGGEST WHOREHOUSE ON THIS PLANET --SONAGACHI CALCUTTA..

    THEY HAD A PEDOPHILE SECTION-- OF YOUNG BOYS WHICH CATERED TO DEVIANT TASTE OF ELITE BRITISH OFFICER..

    I HAD AN OLD BENGALI QUARTERMASTER OF MY WATCH AS THIRD OFFICER IN 1975 .. HIS MOTHER WAS BORN IN SONAGACHI BROTHEL.. ONE DAY I HAD ASKED HIM WHY HE IS FAIR AND TALL..

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2011/08/opium-drug-running-tagore-family-capt.html

    capt ajit vadakayil
    ..

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. PUT ABOVE COMMENT IN WEBSITES OF
      VIVEK OBEROI
      SURESH OBEROI
      GAUTAM GAMBHIR
      SHIVANI BABY
      PMO
      PM MODI
      NITI AYOG
      AMITABH KANT
      COL RATHORE
      I&B DEPT
      CJI GOGOI
      ALL SUPREME COURT JUDGES
      ATTORNEY GENERAL
      SWAMY
      GURUMURTHY
      RAJIV MALHOTRA
      DAVID FRAWLEY
      STEPHEN KNAPP
      KONRAED ELST
      WALLIAM DARYLMPLE
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      IB
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      ED
      RAJNATH SINGH
      HOME MINISTRY
      RAJEEV CHANDRASHEKHAR
      MOHANDAS PAI
      RAM MADHAV
      RAJ THACKREY
      UDDHAV THACKREY
      SRI SRI RAVISHANKAR
      SADGURU JAGGI VASUDEV
      BABA RAMDEV
      MATA AMRITANANDA MAYI
      NCERT
      EDUCATION MINISTER
      EDUCATION MINISTRY
      WEBSITES OF DESH BHAKT LEADERS
      SPREAD ON SOCIAL MEDIA EVERY WHICH WAY

      Delete
    2. https://twitter.com/ayogesh03/status/1113487194705014784?s=20
      https://twitter.com/ayogesh03/status/1113491834595086336?s=20
      https://twitter.com/ayogesh03/status/1113492801730359298?s=20

      Delete
  46. https://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2019/04/questions-from-capt-ajit-vadakayil.html

    FEW YEARS AGO, I WAS SHOPPING IN CALICUT..

    A MIDGET CAME TO ME AND GAVE ME A PAMPHLET IN MALAYALAM..

    I ASKED HIM TO GIVE ME THE GIST--AS I DONT HAVE THE TIME TO READ THOUGH WHAT HE HAS WRITTEN..

    IT SO TRANSPIRED THAT HE WAS CONTESTING ELECTIONS AS AN INDEPENDENT..

    I GAVE HIM A PIECE OF ADVISE--

    THIS WAY , NOBODY IN GONNA NOTICE YOU..

    BE VOCAL.. SOUND CONFIDENT ..

    AS YOU HAND OUT YOUR PAMPHLET-- ANNOUNCE THAT " IF I COME TO POWER I WILL ABOLISH ALL TAXES AND TRIPLE SALARIES "..

    PEOPLE ARE BOUND TO NOTICE YOU.. THEY WONT BELIEVE YOU BUT AT LEAST THEY HAVE NOTED YOU FOR YOUR OUTRAGEOUS MUNGERILAL STATEMENT..

    THE CONGRESS MANIFESTO OF THE ITALIAN WAITRESS HAS A CONDITION " IF WE COME TO POWER"..

    ITALIAN MADAME -- WHO EVER TOLD YOU THAT YOU WILL COME TO POWER?.. TEE HEEEE.

    AND HULLO, HINDU HATING MADAME --

    CONGRATULATIONS FOR RUNNING THE GRAND OLD PARTY INTO THE GROUND..

    AND BY YOUR LATEST MANIFESTO WHERE TRAITORS ARE THE SALT NAY BOUNTY OF THE WATAN-- YOU HAVE DRIVEN THE LAST NAIL INTO THE ITALIAN COFFIN..

    TEE HEEEEEEE..

    capt ajit vadakayil
    ..

    PUT ABOVE COMMENT IN WEBSITES OF--
    SONIA GANDHI
    RAHUL GANDHI
    PRIYANKA GANDHI
    ROBERT VADRA
    CHID BABY
    DIG VIJAY BABY
    SHINDE BABY
    MALLIKARJUN KHARGE
    AK ANTONY
    PC CHACKO
    SASHI THAROOR
    RANDEEP SURJEWAALAH
    KAPIL SIBAL
    ABHISHEK MANU SINGHVI
    MANISH TIWARI
    PRIYANKA CHATURVEDI
    AMIT SHAH
    RAM MADHAV
    PMO
    PM MODI
    ALL BJP SPOKESMEN

    ReplyDelete
  47. Respected Sir,
    Nice of you to put links of different instrumental versions of lag ja gale....my personal favourite is that of the Havana band though a panpipe version of this haunting melody would have been great i guess!!vibhavari Apte is awesome!!
    Thank you

    ReplyDelete
  48. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VXQtdRPv-qo speech by bm hegde

    ReplyDelete
  49. ALL RIGHT--

    TIME FOR NEW QUORA QUESTIONS UNDER "IS CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL RIGHT WHEN HE SAYS BLAH BLAH BLAH ".

    https://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2019/04/questions-from-capt-ajit-vadakayil.html

    NEW QUESTIONS –
    101 -- IS CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL RIGHT WHEN HE SAYS – QUEEN ELIZABETH 1 WAS A MAN WITH PRICK AND BALLS, A LARGE ADAMs APPLE , NARROW HIPBONES AND WIDE SOULDERS.. HENCE THE REASON FOR HER RIDICULOUS DRESSES..

    102 -- IS CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL RIGHT WHEN HE SAYS- MRS WALLI SIMPSON WHO MARRIED KING EDWARD VIII ( ABDICATION OF THRONE FOR LOVE FAME ) WAS A HERMAPHRODITE WITH A PRICK SANS BALLS AND A TWAT..LOVE MAKING WAS REVERSE WITH THE QUEEN HUMPING THE KING..

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2010/11/great-romance-and-curse-of-kohinoor.html

    103 -- IS CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL RIGHT WHEN HE SAYS- THE FATHER KING GEORGE VI OF THE CURRENT BRITISH QUEEN ELIZABETH II COULD NOT SPEAK MORE THAN THREE WORDS IN A ROW WITHOUT STAMMERING , ROTHSCHILDs AGENT JEW CHURCHILL CONTROLLED HIM THROUGH WW2 , AND THAT CHURCHILL WHEN UPSET WITH THE KING , USED TO PINCH THE KINGs AMPLE BOTTOM SO HARD IN PUBLIC THAT THE KING USED TO CRY LOUDLY LIKE A SMALL BOY ?..

    104-- IS CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL RIGHT WHEN HE SAYS- QUEEN MARY I BEHEADED MARY STUART QUEEN OF SCOTS , AND ARRANGED FOR HER SMALL PET DOG TO ESCAPE FROM UNDER HER DRESS AS THE HEAD FELL DOWN ON THE THIRD STROKE .. THE FRIGHTENED DOG COVERED WITH BLOOD YELPED PITIFULLY AND RAN INTO THE SHOCKED CROWD..

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2010/11/mary-mary-quite-contrary-bloody-mary.html

    104-- IS CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL RIGHT WHEN HE SAYS- SPANISH ARMADA DID NOT LOSE A SINGLE SHIP IN NAVAL BATTLE OF 1588 AD IN THE ENGLISH CHANNEL, OTHER THAN TWO SHIPS WHICH RAN AGROUND DUE TO RUDDER FAILURE, AND ALL SPANISH NAVAL SHIPS REACHED BACK SPAIN SAFELY, TO LAUNCH A SECOND ATTACK THE NEXT YEAR AND WIN..

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2014/12/exhumed-truths-of-spanish-armada-and.html

    capt ajit vadakayil
    ..

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. PUT ABOVE COMMENT IN WEBSITES OF--

      QUORA CEO ADAM D ANGELO
      QUORA MODERATION TEAM
      KURT OF QUORA
      JACK DORSEY
      MARK ZUCKERBERG
      THAMBI SUNDAR PICHAI
      CEO OF WIKIPEDIA
      ANURAG THAKUR
      PARLIAMENTARY COMMITEE
      BBC
      NCERT
      EDUCATION MINISTER
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      PM MODI
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      COL RATHORE
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      ATTORNEY GENERAL
      SWAMY
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      CMs OF ALL INDIAN STATES
      DGPs OF ALL STATES
      GOVERNORS OF ALL STATES
      PRESIDENT OF INDIA
      VP OF INDIA
      SRI SRI RAVISHANKAR
      SADGURU JAGGI VASUDEV
      BABA RAMDEV
      MATA AMRITANANDA MAYI
      NCM
      NHRC
      SPEAKER LOK SABHA
      SPEAKER RAJYA SABHA
      EVERY MP OF LOK SABHA AND RAJYA SABHA
      EVERY CENTRAL MINISTER / MINISTRY
      SOLI BABY
      SALVE BABY
      FALI BABY
      KATJU BABY
      KIRON KHER
      MEENAKSHI LEKHI
      SMRITI IRANI
      ARUN SHOURIE
      PC GEORGE
      JANAM TV
      GEN GD BAKSHI
      SAMBIT PATRA
      RSN SINGH
      SHASHI THAROOR
      CHETAN BHAGAT
      AMISH TRIPATHI
      DEVDUTT PATTANAIK
      CLOSET COMMIE ARNAB GOSWMI
      RAJDEEP SARDESAI
      NAVIKA KUMAR
      ZAKKA JACOB
      ANAND NARASIMHAN
      VIKRAM CHANDRA
      NIDHI RAZDAN
      PRANNOY JAMES ROY
      AROON PURIE
      VINEET JAIN
      RAGHAV BAHL
      SEEMA CHISTI
      DILEEP PADGOANKAR
      VIR SANGHVI
      PRASOON JOSHI
      LEELA SAMSON
      PRITISH NANDI
      ASHISH NANDI
      ALL CONGRESS SPOKESMEN
      RAHUL GANDHI
      SONIA GANDHI
      PRIYANKA GANDHI
      SHOBHAA DE
      ARUNDHATI ROY
      SURESH GOPI
      MOHANLAL
      BARKHA DUTT
      SHEKHAR GUPTA
      SIDHARTH VARADARAJAN
      N RAM
      MANI SHANKAR AIYERAN
      ROMILA THAPAR
      IRFAN HABIB
      NIVEDITA MENON
      AYESHA KIDWAI
      PAVAN VARMA
      RAMACHANDRA GUHA
      DANIEL RAJA
      BRINDA KARAT
      PRAKASH KARAT
      SITARAM YECHURY
      SUMEET CHOPRA
      DINESH VARSHNEY
      ANNA VETTIKAD
      SUDHEENDRA KULKARNI
      KANCHA ILAIH
      JOHN DAYAL
      KAVITA KRISHNAN
      TEESTA SETALVAD
      SWARA TRRR BHASKAR ( OR IS IT PRRRR ? )
      RANA AYYUB
      SNEHLA RASHID
      PAGALIKA GHOSE
      JOHN BRITTAS
      KAMALAHASSAN
      DILIP CHERIAN
      SUHEL SETH
      SWAMYs VIRAAT SENA
      VC OF JNU
      VC OF DU/ JU/ TISS
      DEAN OF FTII
      IRA BHASKAR
      ADMIRAL LN RAMDAS
      KAVITA RAMDAS
      LALITA RAMDAS
      NAYANTARA SEHGAL

      WEBSITES OF DESH BHAKT LEADERS
      SPREAD ON SOCIAL MEDIA EVERY WHICH WAY

      Delete
  50. https://www.ndtv.com/india-news/lok-sabha-election-2019-over-200-writers-appeal-in-open-letter-to-vote-for-a-diverse-equal-india-2016554

    ALL ABOVE WRITERS ARE SPONSORED BY THE KOSHER DEEP STATE..

    AND RAJDEEP SARDESAI IS TOM TOMMING TM KRISHNA , A MAGSAYSAY AWARD WINNER , A RABIDLY ANTI-HINDU COMMIE..

    ROTHSCHILDs MAGSAYSAY AWARDS ARE GIVEN ONLY TO ANTI-INDIA , ANTI-WATAN TRAITORS..

    KEEP THE ANTI-MODI OPEN LETTERS COMING- WE ADD THE SIGNATORIES INTO THE NATIONAL DATABASE OF DESH DROHIS..

    THE LAXMAN REKHA HAS BEEN CROSSED.. THE LAW OF PARADOX HAS TAKEN OVER.. MORE SHIT THROWN ON MODI MAKES HIM MORE POWERFUL ..

    capt ajit vadakayil
    ..

    ReplyDelete

  51. https://www.ndtv.com/india-news/lok-sabha-election-2019-over-200-writers-appeal-in-open-letter-to-vote-for-a-diverse-equal-india-2016554

    ALL ABOVE WRITERS ARE SPONSORED BY THE KOSHER DEEP STATE.. BALLS THEY ARE INTELLECTUALS ..

    AND RAJDEEP SARDESAI IS TOM TOMMING TM KRISHNA , A MAGSAYSAY AWARD WINNER , A RABIDLY ANTI-MODI COMMIE..

    ROTHSCHILDs MAGSAYSAY AWARDS ARE GIVEN ONLY TO ANTI-INDIA , ANTI-WATAN TRAITORS..

    KEEP THE ANTI-MODI OPEN LETTERS COMING- WE ADD THE SIGNATORIES INTO THE NATIONAL DATABASE OF DESH DROHIS STRAIGHT AWAY ..

    THE LAXMAN REKHA HAS BEEN CROSSED.. THE LAW OF PARADOX HAS TAKEN OVER.. MORE SHIT THROWN ON MODI MAKES HIM MORE POWERFUL .. TEE HEEEE

    capt ajit vadakayil

    ..

    ReplyDelete
  52. https://www.quora.com/unanswered/IS-CAPT-AJIT-VADAKAYIL-RIGHT-WHEN-HE-SAYS-LORD-KRISHNA-DID-NOT-DEFLOWER-16-000-VIRGIN-MILKMAIDS-of-BRINDAVAN-RATHER-IT-IS-AN-ALLEGORY-for-1000-PETALLED-SAHASRARA-CHAKRA-with-16-KALAS-MAKING-16000-DHATUS-2?__filter__=all&__nsrc__=3&__sncid__=2599995726
    Please follow this link

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. https://www.quora.com/Was-Lord-Krishna-a-womanizer

      BLASPHEMY ALLOWED BY BASTARD ADAM D ANGELO.. HE WONT DARE TO DO TH SAME WITH ISLAM...

      capt ajit vdakayil
      ..

      Delete
  53. STUPID FELLOW PC CHACKO WAS PRAISING THE GREEN AND WHITE REVOLUTION OF THE CONGRESS..

    HE MUST READ THE BLOG POST BELOW-- TWO PARTS..

    https://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2019/03/india-must-revert-to-organic_26.html

    https://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2019/04/questions-from-capt-ajit-vadakayil.html

    IN SIX DECADES IF THE PLANET DOES NOT GO BACK TO ORGANIC FARMING, WE WILL LAND UP IN A "INTERSTELLAR" MOVIE SCENARIO WHERE THE TOPSOIL OF THE PLANET IS TOTALLY DEPLETED, UNABLE TO PRODUCE FOOD..

    THE WHITE REVOLUTION IN INDIA IS HE REASON WHY EVIL PHARMA IS SINGING ALL THE WAY TO THE KOSHER BANKS AS AYURVEDA SAYS 90% DISEASES ORIGINATE IN THE HUMAN GUT..

    IF JAGAN MOHAN REDDY BECOMES CM OF ANDHRA HE MUST SCRAP THE CAPITAL CITY PLANS FOR AMARAVATHI.. CHANDRABABU NAIDU WAS IN A TEARING HURRY FOR PERSONAL BENEFIT..

    FIRST OF ALL AMARAVATHI ANCIENT BUDDHIST CENTRE IS A COOKED UP HOAX..

    THE SOIL OF AMARAVATHI IS SOFT AND UNSUITABLE .. 15% EXTRA MONEY WILL HAVE TO BE WASTED IN BUILDING STRONG FOUNDATIONS OF BUILDINGS..

    THE SOIL IS PRONE TO LIQUEFACTION. DONT WE HAVE THINKERS IN INDIA?..

    https://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2018/10/soil-liquefaction-during-earth-quakes.html

    THE KRISHNA RIVER WILL DIE IF AMARAVATHI CITY COMES UP..

    WHY ARE WE SACRIFICING A FERTILE AREA WHICH IS THE FOOD BOWL OF ANDHRA WITH THREE CROPS A YEAR ?..

    capt ajit vadakayil
    ..

    PUT ABOVE COMMENT IN WEBSITES OF--
    JAGAN MOHAN REDDY
    CHANDRABABU NAIDU
    PMO
    PM MODI
    MS SWAMINATHAN
    HEALTH MINISTER JP NADDA
    HEALTHY MINISTRY CENTRAL
    ALL STATE HEALTH MINISTER
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    EVERY CENTRAL MINISTER / MINISTRY
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    RAHUL GANDHI
    SONIA GANDHI
    PRIYANKA GANDHI

    WEBSITES OF DESH BHAKT LEADERS
    SPREAD ON SOCIAL MEDIA EVERY WHICH WAY

    ReplyDelete
  54. Captain,

    Love these blah blah questions. Gives a summary of the truth exhumed without going through the entire blog again. Please keep them coming.

    ReplyDelete
  55. Respected Captain , Twitter account locked for the nth time after tweeting against Quora degenerating Sanatana Dharma , it will unlock easily no worries...
    On a side note captain , I love it when you suddenly post soul stirring songs amid your posts..just love it..

    Charansparsh

    ReplyDelete
  56. Pranaam Elderly Ajit Sir,

    Mookambika Temple must have been constructed by Kerala sages. You have said this great temple was once submerged under water, so its construction is similar to pyramids.

    You have advised when you are going to pray, look at the spire. Now at the spire there is trinity with divine harmony inherent. Intention with gratitude
    does the work here.

    Now I have question. What is blue plasma which emits from spire pyramid like construction? What is orgone?

    ReplyDelete
  57. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/elections/news/rahuls-emotional-link-with-wayanad/articleshow/68724335.cms

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2012/06/edakkal-caves-phantom-rock-meenmutty.html

    ReplyDelete
  58. Sir
    https://www.quora.com/When-lord-Hanumanji-went-to-propose-to-Karnas-wife-Uruvi-why-did-she-spit-on-his-face-and-reject-him-Did-hanuman-smell-bad/answer/Venkat-497?ch=10&share=0b73c6f4&srid=348KG

    Quora denigrating Sanathana Dharma..
    Quora at its best..

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. MF HUSSAIN WITH A DEEP STATE DARLING SHOBHAA DE DENIGRATED RAMA AND SITA USING HIS PAINTINGS..

      SHOBHAA DE CALLED MF HUSSAIN AN ANGEL

      THE KSHATRIYA BLOOD IN HINDU VEINS HAS EVAPORATED..

      WE ALLOW OUR GODS TO BE SEXUALLY ABUSED

      capt ajit vadakayil
      ..

      Delete
  59. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  60. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/elections/news/bjp-never-regarded-those-who-disagree-with-it-as-anti-national-enemies-l-k-advani/articleshow/68725667.cms

    SPENT FORCE TALKIN'...

    TEE HEEEEEEEEE

    ReplyDelete
  61. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/kochi/sabarimala-pilgrim-assault-kerala-hc-orders-action/articleshow/68727139.cms

    HINDUS WILL PROTECT THEIR FAITH ... REHANA FATIMA WANTED TO THROW USED MENSES SANITARY NAPKIN ON THE IDOL ..

    NAXAL LIBBY WANTED TO THROW ALCOHOL...

    WE KNOW WHY JUDICIARY SUPPORTS THESE NAXALS

    ReplyDelete
  62. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/advani-reminds-bjp-adversaries-are-not-anti-national/articleshow/68728542.cms
    ..shame on advani who wants to be pm at any cost.. accepting gaathbandamm.. funded by cha!t!ham house (aka east-in!dia!-co!m!pany-in!-nu=botal).phoren=funds=fun!neled!me!thinks!actually was!on!inter!net!=d!hi!ru!bye!=aam!ba!n!i=funded-observer=foundation-that=hires=bolton=us=nsa=as=guest=speakor=of-!o!f!=sudhir=kulkarni=advani=3d-company=overground=plus=underground==enjoy ..methinks apri8 -910crucial to pm =modi survival=chances!!)..for what it is worth=my two=cents)jai=sri=ram..

    ReplyDelete
  63. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/after-yogi-adityanath-mukhtar-abbas-naqvi-in-soup-over-modiji-ki-sena-remark/articleshow/68726685.cms
    desh needs yogi a. more than anyone else least of all vk singh spent force retored army chief..

    ReplyDelete
  64. Sir
    https://www.quora.com/Is-Rahul-Gandhi-the-incarnation-of-Lord-Vishnu/answer/Ananya-377?ch=10&share=9160cd2c&srid=348KG

    Quora at its best..

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. RAHUL GANDHIs GRANDFATHER WAS FEROZ KHAN ( A JEW )..

      RAHUL GANDHIs MOTHER IS A ITALIAN CATHOLIC WOMAN..

      MOTILAL NEHRUs FATHER WAS THE LAST POLICE CHIEF OF THE LAST MOGHUL EMPEROR.. BOTH WERE JEWS.. THE KOTWALs RESIDENCE WAS AT NEHR ( YAMUNA CANAL ), HENCE THE NAME NEHRU..

      capt ajit vadakayil
      ..

      Delete

  65. ALL RIGHT--

    TIME FOR NEW QUORA QUESTIONS UNDER "IS CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL RIGHT WHEN HE SAYS BLAH BLAH BLAH ".

    https://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2019/04/repeated-blasphemy-against-hindu-gods.html

    https://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2019/04/questions-from-capt-ajit-vadakayil.html

    105-- IS CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL RIGHT WHEN HE SAYS- THAT HISTORICALLY THE ROOT CAUSE OF ENDLESS CONFLICT BETWEEN ARYANS AND SEMITES WAS A CLASH OF TWO HOLY HINDU SYMBOLS , THE SWASTIKA AND THE SIX POINTSED STAR ?..

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2011/10/worst-racists-on-planet-earth-capt-ajit.html

    106-- IS CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL RIGHT WHEN HE SAYS- THE ARYAN WHOSE SYMBOL IS THE SWASTIKA, IS THE ELDEST KERALA NAMBOODIRI BROTHER..AND THE SEMITES WHOSE SYMBOL IS THE SIX POINTED STAR ARE THE YOUNGER BROTHERS OF THE NAMBOODIRI CLAN..

    107-- IS CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL RIGHT WHEN HE SAYS- ARYANS CONVEYED THE VEDAS ON ORAL ROUTE FOR 330 CENTURIES BEFORE IT WAS PENNED DOWN 70 CENTURIES AG.. ADI SHANKARACHARYA BORN 4000 YEARS AGO WAS AN ARYAN…

    108-- IS CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL RIGHT WHEN HE SAYS- ARYAN IS A REVERED TITLE , AND ANCIENT ARYAN KERALA NAMBOODIRIS WERE VISITING PROFESSORS ON DEPUTATION FROM KODUNGALLUR UNIVERISTY TO FOREIGN UNIVERSITIES AND INDIAN UNIVERSITIES.. AN EXAMPLE IS CHANKAYA WHO WAS ON DEPUTATION TO TAXILA AND ARYAN BHATTATHIRIPAD ( ARYABHATTA ) WHO WAS ON DEPUTATION TO NALANDA....

    109 -- IS CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL RIGHT WHEN HE SAYS- SWASTIKA REPRESENTS THE KALACHAKRA OR THE CIRCUMPOLAR MOVEMENT SAPT RISHIS ( GREAT BEAR ) AROUND DHRUV ( POLARIS ).. EVERY HINDU PUJA ROOM HAS IT..

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2011/08/polaris-and-great-bear-capt-ajit.html

    110-- IS CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL RIGHT WHEN HE SAYS- THE SIX POINTED STAR IS THE PURUSHA ( CONSCIOUSNESS ) / PRAKRITI ( ENERGY ) MERGE OF SANKHYA VEDANTA , OR INTERLOCKING OF TWO TRIANGLES WHICH CAUSES THE COSMS TO EVOLVE..EVERY SHIVA TEMPLE HAD IT ON TOP OF PARIKRAMA STONES.

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2018/09/sanatana-dharma-hinduism-exhumed-and.html

    LIES WONT WORK ANY MORE.. A BROWN BLOGGER IS IN TOWN.. RIGHT NOW THE QUOTA QUESTIONS IS 110, ALL DELETED BY QUORA CEO ADAM D ANGELO.. I WILL TAKE IT TO 50,000 ..

    IF GOOGLE DOES NOT PUT DEEP STATE TOOLS QUORA/ WIKIPEDIA ON THE FRONT PAGE –WHO WILL READ IT ?

    Capt ajit vadakayil
    ..

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. PUT ABOVE COMMENT IN WEBSITES OF--

      QUORA CEO ANGELO D ADAMS
      QUORA MODERATION TEAM
      KURT OF QUORA
      JACK DORSEY
      MARK ZUCKERBERG
      THAMBI SUNDAR PICHAI
      CEO OF WIKIPEDIA
      INDIAN AMBASSADOR TO USA
      ANURAG THAKUR
      PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEE
      CNN
      BBC
      EVERY INDIAN MEDIA
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      CMs OF ALL INDIAN STATES
      DGPs OF ALL STATES
      IGs OF ALL STATES
      GOVERNORS OF ALL STATES
      PRESIDENT OF INDIA
      VP OF INDIA
      SRI SRI RAVISHANKAR
      SADGURU JAGGI VASUDEV
      BABA RAMDEV
      MATA AMRITANANDA MAYI
      NCM
      NHRC
      SPEAKER LOK SABHA
      SPEAKER RAJYA SABHA
      EVERY MP OF LOK SABHA AND RAJYA SABHA
      EVERY CENTRAL MINISTER / MINISTRY
      EVER MLA OF EVERY STATE ASSEMBLY
      SPEAKERS OF ALL STATE ASSEMBLIES
      SOLI BABY
      SALVE BABY
      FALI BABY
      KATJU BABY
      KIRON KHER
      MEENAKSHI LEKHI
      SMRITI IRANI
      ARUN SHOURIE
      MADHI TREHAN
      MADHU KISHWAR
      SUDHIR CHAUDHARY
      PC GEORGE
      PADMA PILLAI
      JANAM TV
      GEN GD BAKSHI
      SAMBIT PATRA
      RSN SINGH
      SHASHI THAROOR
      ANUPAM KHER
      CHETAN BHAGAT
      AMISH TRIPATHI
      DEVDUTT PATTANAIK
      N NARAYANA MURTHY
      SUDHA MURTHY
      CLOSET COMMIE ARNAB GOSWMI
      RAJDEEP SARDESAI
      NAVIKA KUMAR
      ZAKKA JACOB
      ANAND NARASIMHAN
      SRINIVASAN JAIN
      SONAL MEHROTRA KAPOOR
      VIKRAM CHANDRA
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      RAVISH KUMAR
      PRANNOY JAMES ROY
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      VINEET JAIN
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      VIR SANGHVI
      PRASOON JOSHI
      LEELA SAMSON
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      JEAN DREZE
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      NANDITA DAS
      ANAND PATWARDHAN
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      ALL CONGRESS SPOKESMEN
      RAHUL GANDHI
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      PRIYANKA GANDHI
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      MURLI MANOHAR JOSHI
      SHOBHAA DE
      ARUNDHATI ROY
      SURESH GOPI
      MOHANLAL
      BARKHA DUTT
      SHEKHAR GUPTA
      SIDHARTH VARADARAJAN
      N RAM
      MANI SHANKAR AIYERAN
      ROMILA THAPAR
      IRFAN HABIB
      NIVEDITA MENON
      AYESHA KIDWAI
      KARAN THAPAR
      CNR RAO
      PM BHARGHAVA
      KIRAN MAJUMDAR SHAW
      SHAZIA ILMI
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      RANA AYYUB
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      VC OF JNU
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      IRA BHASKAR
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      NAYANTARA SEHGAL
      PRITISH NANDY
      ASHISH NANDY
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      EVERY HINDU ORGANISTAION
      VC COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY
      VC CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY
      VC OXFORD UNIVERSITY


      WEBSITES OF DESH BHAKT LEADERS
      SPREAD ON SOCIAL MEDIA EVERY WHICH WAY

      Delete
  66. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/lt-gen-hooda-says-need-to-review-afspa-in-jk-amidst-bjps-strong-attack-on-congress/articleshow/68728629.cms

    ADMIRAL RAMDAS

    JULIO RIBEIRO

    AND NOW

    HOODAAAAAAA

    ALL USEFUL IDIOTS ... SLAVES TO THE ITALIANS..

    capt ajit vadakayil
    ..

    ReplyDelete
  67. https://www.news18.com/news/world/joe-biden-posts-apology-on-touching-women-inappropriately-gets-trolled-by-donald-trump-2089653.html

    THIS IS A RED HERRING

    THIS BASTARD JOE BIDEN IS A PEDOPHILE WHO GETS A MASSIVE TENT AT HIS CROTCH THE MOMENT HE SEES A SMALL GIRL BELOW THE AGE OF 12..

    PEDOPHILE PERVERT BIDEN POKES THE SMALL GIRLS WITH HIS ERECT PRICK.. EVERYBODY KNOWS IT...

    CHECK OUT 7.20 , 8.37 - IN THE VIDEO BELOW

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b3ir0GY5Mr0

    capt ajit vadakayil
    ..

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Sir, that woman at 3:59 read him. She understood.

      This sick man can't help it because he is stuck at 1st chakra. How come no one has taken any action against him? He asks every girls' name and age.

      Delete
  68. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h_n_1aQjzSc

    AAARRRGGGHH PPTTHHEEOOOOYYYYYYY

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VcMsm7w10Yw

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Sir, He is talking about technical aspect.

      Language abuse is not ok.

      Delete
  69. https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=32&v=lototf2gh5Y

    CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL DECLARED

    RAGHURAM RAJAN DOES NOT UNDERSTAND THE BASICS OF ECONOMICS

    ALL HE KNOWS IS BULLSHIT ROTHSCHILDs ECONOMICS

    ARUN JAITLEY BEING A LAWYER --KNOWS BETTER ECONOMICS THAN RAGHURAM RAJAN..

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2016/06/gpi-dog-shall-wag-gdp-tail-not-vice.html

    RAGHURAM RAJAN WAS HANDPICKED BY JEW ROTHSCHILD TO SHOWCASE ROARING LION INDIA AS A BEGGAR NATION..AND BEGGAR WHITE EU NATIONS ARE RICH NATIONS..

    ReplyDelete
  70. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SoLCD3rP9DM

    SEVERAL TIMES BY SHIP WENT UP THE DANUBE TO GALATI..

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SoLCD3rP9DM

    ON EITHER SIDE YOU GET TO SEE VILLAGES UNTOUCHED BY MODERN PROGRESS.

    ReplyDelete
  71. SOMEBODY ASKED ME

    HOW IS ARUNDHATI SUZANNE ROY A JEWESS

    WELL, HER GRANDFATHER FATHER PV ISAAC WAS A JEW..

    ARUNDHATI BABY LAMPOONED HER BROTHER GEORGE ISAAC AS CHACKO OF PARADISE PICKLES ( IN REALITY PALAT PICKLES ) IN THE BOOK GOD OF SMALL THINGS. P STANDS FOR PALATHINKAL FAMILY..

    JEW KURIAN PALATHINKAL ( 1680 AD ) WAS A ROTHSCHILD AGENT.

    PRANNOY JAMES ROYs IRISH MOTHER WAS NOT A CATHOLIC BUT A JEWESS

    capt ajit vadakayil
    ..

    ReplyDelete
  72. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/elections/news/niti-aayog-vice-chairman-rajiv-kumar-has-violated-model-code-election-commission/articleshow/68744532.cms

    EC WANTS TO BURY THE TRUTH ?..

    ReplyDelete
  73. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H7eq6VmUKDw

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=egqRGRUAwwg

    we separated just a day back -- how can I live like this for years - why do your memories come instead of death - our love lasted only for a few days – now this long separation - my life is on the edge of my lips - this monsoon has started a fire - you broke mirrors of our hearts – our garden got destroyed before they could bloom -- birds separated before they met – oh, the sound of a cuckoo bird makes me feel low--

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Sir, Flute playing was nice in the beginning.

      Radha never existed.

      Judge panel was interesting in second link. Pir ali muslim, S. Mahadevan - voice issue. Gujarati Singer Devang Patel. Patels are Rothschild's agents.

      Singer Jaspinder, where she was standing, it looked like an eye was drawn.

      Delete
  74. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/iaf-refutes-us-journal-report-that-pakistan-didnt-lose-any-f16/articleshow/68744963.cms

    F16 JETS HAVE LOST THEIR MARKET !

    ReplyDelete
  75. http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2013/05/kalasha-symbol-of-cosmic-womb-capt-ajit.html

    HAPPY GUDI PADWA / UGADI TO MY READERS..

    KALASHA KUMBHAM IS THE MOST POTENT SYMBOL OF SANATANA DHARMA..

    IT MUST NOT BE IMPALED BY A STICK AND HUNG UPSIDE DOWN LIKE HOW JEW ROTHSCHILD MADE HIS CHITPAVAN JEWS --NAY-- BRAHMINS DO.. THIS IS BLASPHEMY..

    DESPITE TELLING MORE FOUR CONSECUTIVE YEARS --- HE STILL SHOWED PICTURES OF IMPALED KALASHA KUMBHAM IN ALL 4 YEARS .. DELIBERATELY..

    https://twitter.com/narendramodi/status/1114355306690240512

    capt ajit vadakayil
    ..

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Happy Ugadi to all Telugu readers .how howe I have decided not to celebrate from thos year. Rather I would celebrate on Vishu which is a new year qccaccord to sun and not moon.

      Thanks,
      Srini

      Delete
    2. Happy Gudi Padwa to you Ajit Sir.

      On this day I wish that all our Indians read this blogpost and learn the truth with gratitude.

      :-)

      Delete
  76. Sir

    https://www.quora.com/Why-do-you-think-BJP-is-needed-in-Bengal/answers/132063294?ch=10&share=45e1ab24&srid=348KG

    The truth of West Bengal which is under the rule of TMC Goons and Didi..

    ReplyDelete
  77. Sir

    https://www.quora.com/Was-Allah-gay?ch=10&share=14574be2&srid=348KG

    Quora denigrating Islam..
    What is the agenda of Quora..

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. ALLAH IS A DIRECT LIFT OF BRAHMAN..

      THE ADVAITA VEDANTA FIELD WHICH CANNOT BE PICKED UP BY THE 5 HUMAN SENSES --WHICH CANNOT BE DRAWN OR DEPICTED..

      http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2018/09/sanatana-dharma-hinduism-exhumed-and.html

      BEEJ MANTRA OF SAHASRARA CHAKRA IS ALL- AH

      http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2014/03/beej-mantra-anuswaram-nasal-sound.html

      capt ajit vadakayil
      ..

      Delete
  78. https://www.republicworld.com/india-news/general-news/watch-rahul-gandhis-top-aide-sam-pitroda-insults-indians-calls-them-monkeys-who-dont-know-how-to-use-mobile-phones

    I HAVE BEEN ALL ROUND TH PLANET FOR 40 YEARS..

    INDIANS ( EVEN IF HE IS ILLITERATE ) IS THE MOST TECH SAVYY AND MATH ORIENTED PEOPLE ON THE PLANET..

    HIS NAME IS SATYANARAYANA -- SAM BANN GAYA-- ANGREZ HAI NAH !

    SAM BABY IS THE MONKEY !...

    In 1984, Sam baby sold himself to Rajiv Gandhi who put him as his tech adviser . He instantly developed a Messiah Complex. He was literally ze cat’s whiskers..

    He had his first meeting with the Indian Tech minister Mr Unnikrishnan – a sharp and level headed politician, who had returned six times to Lok Sabha, from Badagara constituency, next to my hometown .

    The entire group was waiting for Sam to appear. And there he breezes in - nay- sashays in , fashionably late... All must wait for the messiah right? He tells the minister “ Hi , you must have heard of me , I am Sam-- Sam Pitroda”...

    In the meeting , his huge ego occupied the whole room and he rubbed everybody the wrong way...

    Finally Unnikrishnan told him “ I do NOT need messiahs!! ”..

    After this electric shock Satyanarayan Gangaram Pitroda—OOPS—Sam got his messiah syndrome rearranged...

    Unnikrishnan did NOT jump into conclusions. .

    He observed this man carefully for the messiah syndrome..

    There was a grandiose sense of self-importance. There was this tendency NOT to acknowledge imperfections. .

    He required excessive admiration and respect . He had a sense of entitlement, i.e., unreasonable expectations of automatic compliance with his expectations . .

    There was this lack of empathy - unwilling to recognize or identify with the needs of others . There was this arrogant attitude and inflated feeling of personal ability, privilege, or infallibility..

    There was this noble impulse to come to rescue of the sufferers even when there is no real necessity. There was this fixation and obsession on "I," "me," "my" and "mine," and the need to to draw attention..

    The messiah sees himself as the one visionary who can save the world and restore utopia, even if they have to drag everyone else kicking and screaming to get there, because they are the only ones that understand things as they are...

    CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL CAN FIT THE INTELLECT OF SAM BABY UNDER THE FORESKIN OF HIS UNCIRCUMCISED PRICK AND HAVE SPACE FOR 99.999 % MORE.

    capt ajit vadakayil
    ..

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. PUT ABOVE COMMENT IN WEBSITES OF--

      SAM PITRODA
      ANURAG THAKUR
      PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEE
      EVERY INDIAN MEDIA
      PMO
      PM MODI
      NITI AYOG
      AMITABH KANT
      COL RATHORE
      I&B DEPT
      CJI GOGOI
      ALL SUPREME COURT JUDGES
      ATTORNEY GENERAL
      ALL HIGH CURT CHIEF JUSCTICES
      SWAMY
      GURUMURTHY
      RAJIV MALHOTRA
      AJIT DOVAL
      RAW
      NIA
      IB
      CBI
      ED
      RAJNATH SINGH
      HOME MINISTRY
      RAJEEV CHANDRASHEKHAR
      MOHANDAS PAI
      RAM MADHAV
      RAJ THACKREY
      UDDHAV THACKREY
      CMs OF ALL INDIAN STATES
      DGPs OF ALL STATES
      GOVERNORS OF ALL STATES
      PRESIDENT OF INDIA
      VP OF INDIA
      SRI SRI RAVISHANKAR
      SADGURU JAGGI VASUDEV
      BABA RAMDEV
      MATA AMRITANANDA MAYI
      NCM
      NHRC
      SPEAKER LOK SABHA
      SPEAKER RAJYA SABHA
      EVERY MP OF LOK SABHA AND RAJYA SABHA
      EVERY CENTRAL MINISTER / MINISTRY
      SOLI BABY
      SALVE BABY
      FALI BABY
      KATJU BABY
      KIRON KHER
      MEENAKSHI LEKHI
      SMRITI IRANI
      ARUN SHOURIE
      MADHI TREHAN
      MADHU KISHWAR
      GEN GD BAKSHI
      SAMBIT PATRA
      RSN SINGH
      SHASHI THAROOR
      ANUPAM KHER
      CHETAN BHAGAT
      CLOSET COMMIE ARNAB GOSWMI
      RAJDEEP SARDESAI
      NAVIKA KUMAR
      ZAKKA JACOB
      ANAND NARASIMHAN
      SRINIVASAN JAIN
      SONAL MEHROTRA KAPOOR
      VIKRAM CHANDRA
      NIDHI RAZDAN
      RAVISH KUMAR
      PRANNOY JAMES ROY
      AROON PURIE
      VINEET JAIN
      RAGHAV BAHL
      SEEMA CHISTI
      DILEEP PADGOANKAR
      VIR SANGHVI
      PRASOON JOSHI
      LEELA SAMSON
      PRITISH NANDI
      ASHISH NANDI
      JEAN DREZE
      ARUNA ROY
      HARSH MANDER
      NANDITA DAS
      ANAND PATWARDHAN
      VINOD DUA
      RAJAT SHARMA
      JULIO RIBEIRO
      ALL CONGRESS SPOKESMEN
      RAHUL GANDHI
      SONIA GANDHI
      PRIYANKA GANDHI
      ROBERT VADRA
      LK ADVANI
      MURLI MANOHAR JOSHI
      SHOBHAA DE
      ARUNDHATI ROY
      SURESH GOPI
      MOHANLAL
      BARKHA DUTT
      SHEKHAR GUPTA
      SIDHARTH VARADARAJAN
      N RAM
      MANI SHANKAR AIYERAN
      ROMILA THAPAR
      IRFAN HABIB
      NIVEDITA MENON
      AYESHA KIDWAI
      KARAN THAPAR
      PAVAN VARMA
      RAMACHANDRA GUHA
      DANIEL RAJA
      BRINDA KARAT
      PRAKASH KARAT
      SITARAM YECHURY
      SUMEET CHOPRA
      DINESH VARSHNEY
      ANNA VETTIKAD
      SUDHEENDRA KULKARNI
      PRAKASH RAJ
      FATHER CEDRIC PERIERA
      KANCHA ILAIH
      JOHN DAYAL
      KAVITA KRISHNAN
      TEESTA SETALVAD
      SWARA TRRR BHASKAR ( OR IS IT PRRRR ? )
      RANA AYYUB
      SNEHLA RASHID
      PAGALIKA GHOSE
      GIRISH KARNAD
      JOHN BRITTAS
      KAMALAHASSAN
      DILIP CHERIAN
      SUHEL SETH
      SWAMYs VIRAAT SENA
      VC OF JNU
      VC OF DU/ JU/ TISS
      DEAN OF FTII
      IRA BHASKAR
      ADMIRAL LN RAMDAS
      KAVITA RAMDAS
      LALITA RAMDAS
      NAYANTARA SEHGAL
      PRITISH NANDY
      ASHISH NANDY
      SS
      VHP
      AVBP
      SONAM MAHAJAN
      VIVEK OBEROI
      GAUTAM GAMBHIR
      MOHAN BHAGWAT
      JAVED AKTHAR
      NASSERUDDIN SHAH
      EVERY HINDU ORGANISTAION

      WEBSITES OF DESH BHAKT LEADERS
      SPREAD ON SOCIAL MEDIA EVERY WHICH WAY

      Delete
  79. SOMEBODY ASKED ME—WHAT IS THIS IR8 RICE YOU HAVE MENTIONED IN YOUR BLOG..

    WELL IT SACRIFICED QUALITY FOR QUANTITY.. THE NUTITIONAL VALUE IS VERY POOR.

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2015/09/gm-ir8-rice-high-amylose-content.html

    IN KERALA ITSELF WE HAD MORE THAN 1.82 LAKH ( 180,000 ) VARIETIES OF RICE.. RICE LIKE NJAVARA WAS PREVENTIVE MEDICINE.

    THE IR8 WAS A CONSPIRACY ON THE THIRD WORLD BY ROTHSCHILD USING HIS FRONTS—THE FORD AND ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATIONS..

    FAMINE WAS DELIBERATELY CREATED AS A HEGELIAN DIALECTIC TO PUSH THSE USELESS VARIETIES OF RICE WHICH GIVE YOU BRAIN FOG AND REDUCED FERTILITY OF WOMEN..

    The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is an international agricultural research and training organization with headquarters in Los Baños, Laguna in the Philippines and offices in seventeen countries with more than 1500 staff.

    THE WHOLE IDEA WAS TO CONTROL FOOD .

    STERILE / TERMINATOR SEEDS WAS THE FIRST STEP..

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2012/05/monsanto-and-farmer-suicides-in-india.html

    SO SO SO-- In 1960, the KOSHER DEEP STATE established and funded the IRRI, the International Rice Research Institute, in the Philippines with Dr. Robert Chandler as its director. Henry Beachell became IRRI's chief rice breeder.

    They imported seeds for over 10,000 varieties of rice from around the world. Many of these were dwarf varieties to cross with taller varieties.

    In 1962, Dr. Peter Jennings made 38 crosses of various varieties at IRRI. The eighth was between a Chinese dwarf variety known as Dee-geo-woo-gen (DGWG) and a tall variety from Indonesia, Peta. This eighth cross was promising, but only 130 seeds were produced. How those 130 seeds became the famous IR8 variety was a DELIBERATE process –

    The 130 seeds were planted in pots to produce the first generation (F1) of plants. All were tall.

    The F1 seeds were planted and produced about 10,000 second-generation (F2) plants. One-quarter of those plants were dwarf. That meant that dwarfism was controlled by a single gene in the DGWG variety, making the job of producing a commercial variety a lot easier.

    All of the tall plants from the F2 generation were d