Here is one of my circulars when I worked at the shore office .
Recently we had a bad experience on one of our ships. This could have been avoided if the following basis principles of watch keeping and seamanship were adhered to.
1) All ships must immediately start a dedicated GPS register on bridge , with the following columns. Date/ time in SMT/ time in GMT/ Latitude as per GPS display/ Longitude as per GPS display/ GPS speed/ Propeller speed/ GPS course over ground/ Gyro course / WGS 84 correction applies YES or NO. This permanent record of ships position is now a requirement of vetting oil majors, for ships without GPS printer.
Only after :--
the GPS course tallies with Gyro course
the GPS speed tallies with Propeller speed (minus approx slip in knots )
--should the fix on chart be trusted.
It is not prudent to plot latitude directly from GPS screen—as by the time you plot the longitude ship has made a run over the time interval—and in large scale port approach charts this means a big error. WGS 84 corrections can be very large upto 4 cables off Tokyo bay, 4 .5 cables of Kaohsiung and 8 cables in Magellan straits. New Metric BA charts allow for this correction and can be plotted direct.
2)Emergency anchoring at high speeds in case of black out , is a part of bridge resource management. How to dredge both anchors to reduce the momentum/ drift energy of ship before finally paying out for anchors to bite , must be discussed and planned. Mass of ship is constant— reduction of speed by 2 means , 4 times reduction of drift energy. Paying out more cable to cause anchors to bite , must be done AT THE RIGHT TIME to prevent running aground. Once the anchors bite the ground , the brake lining will burn, produce slippery graphite and run out. Bow stopper must now be dropped and crew must keep clear. The bow stopper is designed by class to take 80% of the breaking stress of the chain. It is a fallacy to imagine that high speed anchoring is possible only on small ships. Large ships with strong chains and larger and higher proof load anchors can do this easily with good leadership if planned well,
The anchor brake must be adjusted so that from fully shut to 100% open brake is just about 3 to 4 turns. Chief engineer must adjust the brake band stopper bolts , and check clearance by feeler guage. The steel surface of the gypsy where the brake lining abuts, must never be chipped. If this surface is too jagged , the brake lining will wear out due to high dynamic speeds . Brass countersunk bolts heads must never touch this surface , as it will cause galvanic corrosion and loss of molecular strength. Seawater acts as a perfect electrolyte between brass and steel.
All our ships must hold 100% SPARE brake band linings ( for windlass ) and countersunk head brass bolts.
Master must NEVER EVER hesitate to use both anchors ( unless it will foul a submarine cable ) to prevent his ship from running aground. Pollution can wipe out the company. Running aground with one anchor still in the hawse pipe cannot have any excuse. Anchor stations must have minimum 3 persons.
Bow stopper MUST be dropped after the paying out the requisite cable and anchor is brought up. Friction is NOT expected to hold a large ship at anchor. Use of red flag on cable to check if brake is slipping at anchor , is not a practice at sea ( unlike barges in rivers ) where there is swell.
3)The bridge team must understand where the pivot of the ship being manoevered or ASSISTED BY TUG lies. It is no use pushing or pulling on the shorter side of the lever .
PIVOT of ships lever is shifted in a FORWARD direction by :--
a)Forward movement of ship from rest. This causes the bow thruster to be less effective as soon as ship picks up speed from rest.
b)When ship trims from aft trim to forward trim. Squatting on large loaded bluff bowed ships of high Block Coefficient is a combination of bodily sinkage and going down by head.
In combinations of A and B ( down by head ) the pivot might well lie on the forecastle. This means when a long ship goes astern on a RH propeller, the stern moves to port . it appears that the bow goes to stbd relatively.
c)When the port anchor is dropped the pivot of ship, moves to port side (outboard) of port windlass. Now a tug is more effective aft ( at the end of the longer simple lever ) . If the tug tries to push/ pull at the forecastle , it is pushing exactly on the pivot or probably even aft of the pivot in a mindless opposite effect manner.
Remember , when both anchors are dropped the pivot lies between the port and stbd windlasses. Dredging during emergency anchoring after blackout , with one anchor will cause a wide swing of the stern, in the opposite direction of the anchor dropped. Stern hitting hard ground underwater means loss of ER reserve buoyancy .
GPS speed is speed of the antenna over the ground. Doppler speed is the speed of underwater sensor through the water. When a long ship sheers, with the pivoting centre forward , the GPS/ doppler speed is useless.
4) When pilot is on bridge , silence of the Master means concurrence with what the pilot advises or does. While there must not be conflict between Master and Pilot on bridge in a unsafe manner, it must be emphasized that this does not percolate to pilot getting off before designated drop off point fixed by the Port Management OR casting off the tug which is being paid for in a unsafe location. Tugs are employed to assist and to ward off dangers caused by machinery breakdowns.
5) All our ships must use the latest format of Master’s navigation audit scoring system sent by HSQE by email to all ships.
NOTHING IS SERVED BY RECORDING LIES.
A SHIP EXTERNAL AUDITOR JUST NEEDS TO SEE THAT THIS DOCUMENT EXISTS, AS IT IS AN INTERNAL DOCUMENT, TO FOSTER UNBIASED REPORTING FOR SHIPS SAFETY.
This Checklist covers various items and aspects of the operation, which are scored as follows:-
4 = flawless
3 = above average
2 = average
1 = needs improvement ( MASTER IS ENCOURAGED TO USE 1 )
0 = not observed/not applicable
These navigational audits should carried during a critical section of the ship's passage which should be one of the following:---
-Arrivals at, or departures from ports,
-Berthing and unberthing operations in ports, STS mooring/unmooring operations,
-Transits of restricted/busy coastal waters ( English channel , Singapore Straits, etc).
It is to be used to confirm that the Bridge Team is fully integrated and effective. It is not about hardware efficiency or inventories.
Assess the effectiveness of the use of the bridge equipment by the Bridge Team.
Assess the effectiveness of internal communications between the members of the Bridge team (including Pilots), as well as external communications to/from the ship,
Assess the effectiveness of , confirmation of, or crosschecking, the activities of all the members of the Bridge Team (including any Pilots).
As part of the Company's Improvement Process, any apparent deficiencies or weaknesses that are arise from Masters Navigational Audits, will be reviewed and any resulting recommendations be promulgated to rest of the fleet.
Master must verify that the bridge team is familiar with GMDSS equipment for transmitting distress/ urgency/nav warnings . Simplified , user friendly instructions must be made , laminated and posted. This must not be construed to be a photocopy of the manual operating instructions.
6) For man overboard drill, we must move with the times. While a Williamson manoevere will still have to be displayed and practiced — there are modern methods of pressing one or two buttons on GPS to fix a man in water by satellite ---- or by radar to fix him by scanner. Hard over rudder movements are ill suited for modern fully loaded ULCCs’.
MASTERS GENERAL BRIDGE ORDERS :-
ALL OFFICERS SHALL BE GUIDED ON BRIDGE BY COMPANY NAVIGATION PROCEDURES AND ICS BRIDGE PROCEDURES.
THE BRIDGE SHALL NOT BE LEFT UNATTENDED AT SEA.
DO NOT NEGLECT LOOKOUT .
INFORM ME IMMEDIATELY OF ALL NAVIGATION AND PROPULSION BREAKDOWNS.
FIX VESSELS POSITION REGULARLY BY ALL AVAILABLE MEANS.
BEFORE YOU TRUST A GPS FIX, COMPARE GPS SOG WITH PROP SPEED, GPS COG WITH GYRO COUSE, AND APPLY WGS 84 CORRECTION.
THE PRUDENT MARINER WILL NOT RELY ON FLOATING NAVIGATION AIDS UNLESS HE FIRST ASCERTAINS THEIR POSITION.
KEEP BRIDGE LOG BOOKS AND REGISTERS UP TO DATE AT ALL TIMES
USE RADARS ON RELATIVE TRAILS. USE TRUE VECTORS IN TSS SCHEMES , AND IN FISHING TRAFFIC TO FIND OUT STATIONARY BOATS WHO FISH OR SLEEP.
THE OOW MUST SIGN THE NAVTEX WARNINGS, SO THAT IT CAN BE PLACED ON RECORD THAT HE HAS INDEED CHECKED IF IT IS APPLICABLE TO HIS OWN WATCH. ANY RELEVANT ONES MUST BE CHARTED BY OOW, WITHOUT WAITING FOR 2ND OFFICER TO DO IT
CALL ME IF THE VESSEL SLAMS IN HEAVY WEATHER.
CALL ME IF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GPS SPEED AND PROPELLER SPEED EXCEEDS 3.5 KNOTS.
MAKE SURE ALL MANDATORY VTS VHF REPORTINGS ARE DONE.
PRESERVE THE SANCITY OF THE BRIDGE. NO UNDESIRABLE PERSONS OR MATERIAL MUST BE SEEN ON BRIDGE.
I NEVER FEEL DISTURBED, CALL ME ANY TIME YOU NEED ME , WELL IN ADVANCE.
CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL
BALARAMA USED HIS PLOUGH AND DIVERTED THE BLOCKED SARAWATI RIVER ( TECTONIC SHIFT ) - VIA AN UNDERGROUND CHANNEL TO GANGA AND YAMUNA .
HE THEN ARRIVED JUST IN TIME TO WATCH THE FINAL FIGHT TO FINISH BETWEEN BHIMA AND DURYODHANA BY THE SIDE OF A STAGNANT POOL OF DEAD RIVER SARASWATI - 6000 YEARS AGO
LIKE MOUNT KAILASH -GAU MUKH, THE SOURCE OF GANGES IS A HOLY SPOT FOR HINDUS
WHEN YOU VISIT CHINA NEXT WEEK
TELL CHINESE THAT INDIA AND CHINA ARE MARRIED TOGETHER AS NEIGHBOURS FOREVER
THERE CAN BE NO DIVORCEIN 16 YEARS INDIA WILL BE THE NO 1 SUPERPOWER AND CHINA THE NO 2 SUPERPOWER WITH USA A DISTANT THIRD
THE WHITE MAN WILL NEVER AGREE TO BE RULED AND LORDED OVER BY THE INFERIOR ( SIC) BROWN MAN AND THE YELLOW MAN .
THE WHITE MAN CAN NEVER BE TRUSTED -- THE BROWN MAN WOULD RATHER TRUST THE YELLOW MANTELL CHINA --WE KNOW HOW JAPAN HAS TREATED CHINA SHABBILY IN THE PAST ..DO NOT THINK EVER THAT INDIA AND JAPAN CAN BE ALLIES .. LEAVE THOSE FEARS ASIDE ...
AJIT DOVAL --DISCUSS THIS WITH MODI
INDIA AND CHINA MUST NEVER FIGHT--- AND WE HAVE TO TOLERATE PIN PRICKS AT THE BORDER WITH MATURITY. THERE IS NO LIFE AND DEATH SITUATION HERE AS "CREATED" BY INDIAN DESH DROHI MEDIA --SLAVE OF ROTHSCHILD..
INDIA AND CHINA MUST CO-EXIST.. THIS IS WISDOM .. THE BROWN MAN AND THE YELLOW MAN MUST KNOW THAT THE WHITE MAN IS TERRIBLY JEALOUS AND WILL STAB FROM BEHIND --AS THEY HAVE DONE IN THE PAST.INDIA IS NO LONGER AFRAID OF CHINA AND WE SAY THIS WITH UTMOST HUMILITY..
I HAVE TRAVELLED TO CHINA EVERY YEAR SINCE 1986.. WHEN THEY OPENED THEIR BAMBOO DOORS.
TILL I LEFT THE SEA-- I NEVER FELT HOSTILITY IN CHINA .. AND I AM A PERCEPTIVE MAN
MAO WAS A JEW -- A ROTHSCHILD AGENT.. HIS GREAT MARCH IS A LIE-- MAO WENT ON ROTSHCHILDs SHIP IN SECRET..
CHINESE TRIAD MAFIA WAS CREATED BY JEW ROTHSCHILD -- HE USED THEM DURING THE OPIUM WARS.
PUT THIS COMMENT IN AIT DOVALs , PM MODIs, PMOs, EXTERNAL AFFAIRS MINISTER, DEFENCE MINISTER, ARMED FORCES CHIEFS, WEBSITES.. ASK FOR AN ACK.
capt ajit vadakayil
THIS POST IS NOW CONTINUED TO PART 6, BELOW--
CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL
30 YEARS IN COMMAND