THIS POST IS A CONTINUATION OF PART 64, BELOW - -
NONE OF THE SO CALLED ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS OF THE PLANET HAVE LEFT BEHIND ANYTHING OF CEREBRAL VALUE IN WRITING-- ABSOLUTELY NOTHING !!
80% OF OUR VEDAS ( SAMHITAS/ BRAHMANAS/ ARANYAKAS/ UPANISHADS) HAVE BEEN STOLEN / DESTROYED BY THE WHITE INVADER.
THE JEALOUS WHITE MAN POST DATED OUR ANCIENT WORKS PENNED DOWN IN 5000 BC, TO SUIT THEIR UNDERSTANDING OF BIG BANG DATED AT A RIDICULOUS 4004 BC.
IN THIS INTERNET AGE, IT IS PAY BACK TIME !
THE WORLD SHALL KNOW THE GLORY OF ANCIENT INDIA !!
CHECK OUT THE SOUND OF PATANJALIs YOGA SUTRAS PENNED DOWN 7000 YEARS AGO, WHEN THE REST OF THE WORLD WERE RUNNING AROUND NAKED , DOING GRUNT GRUNT FOR LANGUAGE .
CHAPTER I- SAMADHI PADA- CONTEMPLATION
tada drashtuh svaroope avasthanam
vrittayah pangchatayyah klishta aklishtah
viparyayo mithyajnanam atadroopapratishtham
shabdajnaananupati vastushoonyo vikalpah
tatra sthitau yatno abhyasah
sa tu dirghakalanairantaryasatkarasevito dridha-bhoomih
drishtanushravikavishayavitrishnnasy vashikarasamjna vairagyam
viramapratyayabhyasapoorvah sanskarashesho anyah
mridumadhyadhimatratvat tatopi visheshah
kleshakarmavipakashayairaparamrishtah purushavishesh eeshvarah
tatra niratishayan sarvajntvabijam
sa poorvesham api guruh kalenanavachchhedat
tasya vachakah prannavah
prachchhardanavidharanabhyan va prannasya
vishayavati va pravrittirutpanna manasah sthitinibandhini
vishoka va jyotishmati
vitaragavishayan va chittam
paramanu paramamahattvantosya vashikarah
tatra shabdarthajnanavikalpaih sankeerna savitarka samapattih
etayaiva savichara nirvichara cha sookshmavishaya vyakhyata
ta eva sabijah samadhih
rtanbhara tatr prajna
shrutanumanaprajnabhyam anyavishayaa vishesharthatvat
tajjah sanskaro nyasanskarapratibandhi
tasyapi nirodhe sarvanirodhannirbijah samadhih
CHAPTER II - SADHANA PADA-- PRACTISE
avidya kshetram uttareshanprasuptatanuvichchhinnodaranam
svarasavahi vidushopi tatharoodho bhiniveshah
te pratiprasavaheyah sookshmah
sati moole tadvipako jatyayurbhogah
te hladaparitapafalah punyapunyahetutvat
parinamatapasanskaraduhkhairgunnavritti -virodhaccha duhkham eva sarvan vivekinah
heyan duhkham anagatam
drashtridrishyayoh sanyogo heyahetuh
prakashakriyasthitishilan bhootendriyatmakanbhogapavargarthan drishyam
drashta drishimatrah shuddhopi pratyayanupashyah
tadarth eva drishyasyatma
kritarthan prati nashtam apyanashtantadanyasadharannatvat
svasvamishaktyoh svaroopopalabdhihetuh sanyogah
tadabhavat sanyogabhavo hanan taddrisheh kaivalyam
tasya saptadhaa prantabhoomih prajna
yogangganushthanad ashuddhikshaye jnanadiptira vivekakhyateh
vitarkaa hinsadayah kritakaritanumoditalobhakrodhamohapoorvakamridumadhyadhimatra duhkhajnananantafala itipratipakshabhavanam
ahimsapratishthayam tatsannidhau vairatyagah
shauchat svanggajugupsa parairasansargah
santoshad anuttamah sukhalabhah
tasmin sati shvasaprashvasayorgativichchhedah pranayamah
bahyabhyantarastambhavrittihdeshakalasankhyabhih paridrishto dirghasookshmah
dharanasu ch yojnata manasah
svasvavishayasanprayoge chittasy svaroopanukarivendriyanan pratyaharah
CHAPTER III – VIBHOOTI PADA - MANIFESTATION
tatra pratyayaikatanata dhyanam
tad evarthamatranirbhasan svaroopashoonyam iva samadhih
trayam ekatra sanyamah
tasya bhoomishu viniyogah
trayam antaranggan poorvebhyah
tad api bahiranggan nirbijasy
tasya prashantavahita sanskarat
tatah punah shantoditau tulyapratyayauchittasyaikagrataparinamah
etena bhootendriyeshu dharmalakshanavasthaparinama vyakhyatah
kramanyatvan parinamanyatve hetuh
shabdarthapratyayanam itaretaradhyasat sankarahtatpravibhagasanyamat sarvabhootarutajnanam
na cha tat salambanan,tasyavishayibhootatvat
kayaroopasanyamat tadgrahyashaktistambhe chakshuhprakashasanprayogentardhanam
sopakraman nirupakraman cha karma tatsanyamad aparantajnanam,
bhuvanajnanan soorye sanyamat
pratibhad va sarvam
sattvapurushayoratyantasankeernnayohpratyayavishesho bhogah pararthatvat
tatah pratibhashravannavedanadarshasvadavarta jayante
te samadhavupasargaa vyutthane siddhayah
bandhakarannashaithilyat pracharasanvedanach chchittasya parashariraveshah
shrotrakashayoh sanbandhasanyamad divyan shrotram
bahirakalpita vrittirmahavideha tatahprakashavarannakshayah
tato manojavitvan vikarannabhavah pradhanajayashch
sattvapurushanyatakhyatimatrasysarvabhavadhishthatritvam sarvajnatritvan cha
tadvairajnadapi doshabijakshaye kaivalyam
sthanyupanimantrane sanggasmayakarannanpunah anishtaprasanggat
kshannatatkramayoh sanyamadavivekajam jnanam
tarakan sarvavishayan sarvathavishayam akramancheti vivekajan jnanam
sattvapurushayoh shuddhisamye kaivalyam iti
CHAPTER IV-- KAIVALYA PADA -- LIBERATION
nimittam aprayojakan prakritinan varannabhedastutatah kshetrikavat
pravrittibhede prayojakam chittam ekam anekesham
tatra dhyanajam anashayam
karmashuklakrishnnam yoginah trividham itaresham
jatideshakalavyavahitanam apyanantaryamsmritisanskarayoh ekaroopatvat
tasam anaditvam chashisho nityatvat
hetufalashrayalambanaih sangrihitatvad eshamabhave tadabhavah
te vyaktasookshma gunatmanah
vastusamye chittabhedat tayorvibhaktah panthah
taduparagapekshatvat chittasya vastu jnatajnatam
na tat svabhasandrishyatvat
chittantaradrishye buddhibuddheratiprasanggah smritisankarashcha
drashtridrishyoparaktan chittan sarvartham
tadasankhyeyavasanachitram api pararthan sanhatyakaritvat
tada vivekanimnan kaivalyapragbharan chittam
tachchhidreshu pratyayantarani sanskarebhyah
hanam esham kleshavaduktam
prasankhyanepyakusidasy sarvathavivekakhyaterdharmameghah samadhih
tada sarvavarannamalapetasyjnanasyaanantyajgyeyam alpam
tatah kritarthanan parinamakramapari samaptirgunanam
kshannapratiyogi parinamaparantanigrarhyah kramah
purusharthashoonyanan gunanan pratiprasavahkaivalyan, svaroopapratishtha va chitishaktireti
4.24- - tadasankhyeyavasanachitram api pararthan sanhatyakaritvat
Though the framework of consciousness is interwoven with innumerable desires and subconscious impressions, it exists for the seer on account of its proximity to the seer as well as to the objective world.
Though consciousness has been fogged with impressions (samskaras) throughout eternity, its aim is not only to satisfy the desires of the senses (bhoga), but also to further the emancipation (apavarga) of the soul. Consciousness is tied by a hidden force both to the seer and to nature. It is well equipped to reach the seer, though it has no ambition of its own except to serve its Lord. Consciousness has innumerable inclinations and impressions derived from memory, among which longing for pleasures and freedom from pleasures stand out. They are desired impressions. From this, it becomes clear that consciousness, being close to nature and spirit, feels that it does not exist for its own sake but for the sake of purusa and prakrti.. Once consciousness is cultured through yogic discipline, it becomes matured and illumined. It realises that the seer is not interested in objects of pleasure and opts to serve with disengagement. Now that it comprehends its inner value, it realises the triviality of nature's pleasures and turns towards the path of Self-Realisation. Thus transformed, it begins its journey towards emancipation. If one's karmas are good, they awaken curiosity and guide it towards the path of kaivalya; they reward one's effort with the vision of the soul. Yogic practices speed up this process, beginning with the conquering of the body and ending in the vision of the soul. This is salvation. For most modern scientists (who have NO access to the wisdom of the Vedas ) mind appears to be the master, which receives numerous inputs through senses, synthesizes them and understands them. But, mind is not the master. It is just an efficient manager. It is always working for the Purusha, the pure consciousness. The master never appears in the forefront. But, the power of illumination belongs to the Master. The mind receives only a reflection of this power, to receive the numerous impressions of the world outside. One must understand the process very clearly and keep the mind as an efficient manager working for the self, which is the Purusha, the pure consciousness. The Purusha may be a mere witness, the ultimate seer. He may have the capability to illumine himself and illumine the mind, and through the mind, the external world. But, Purusha has to operate only through the mind, which has no self illumining capability, for which it depends on the Purusha. The bridge between the Purusha and the world is the mind. That mind field, though filled with countless impressions, exists for the benefit of another witnessing consciousness, as the mind field is operating only in combination with those impressions. However subtle we go in our exploration of the depths of the mind, that mind itself gets its life force from pure consciousness, like the electricity and the computer. The computer cant perform without electricity. This pure consciousness is the Reality that we want to experience, unalloyed even by the subtlest aspect of mental process. While the computer operates for the external user, it is the other way around with consciousness. The mind field operates for the benefit of the consciousness. Though having countless desires, the mind-stuff exists for the sake of another [the Purusha] because it an act only in association with it. Though the fabric of consciousness is interwoven with innumerable desires and subconscious impressions, it exists for the seer on account of its proximity to the seer as well as to the objective world. This is because the mind cannot function without the power of the Perceiver. The mind is a compound of various things, and therefore it cannot work for itself. The proximity (samhatya) of the spirit is itself, the cause of the innumerable moods and urges.
4.25- - visheshadarshin aatmabhavabhavanavinivrittih
For one who realises the distinction between citta and atma, the sense of separation between the two disappears.
When the difference between consciousness (citta) and the projector of the consciousness (citi) is recognised, the search for Self-Realisation ends. From iv.15 to iv.25, Patanjali takes the sadhaka progressively to the realisation that consciousness is not the all-knower, but simply an instrument of the soul. For one who is not sure of the difference between consciousness and soul (citta and citi), an analogy is given; the blades of grass which shoot up during the rainy season prove the existence of the hidden seeds. In this sutra Patanjali explains that the seed of the soul (atma bija) is sown at the right time for the knowledge of the soul (atma jnana) to be securely established. As one mistakes a rope for a snake at first glance, but realises upon examination that it is a rope, consciousness at this stage realises that it is not all-knowing, but an instrument of the soul. Avidya is vanquished and the practitioner thoroughly understands objective as well as subjective knowledge, without colourisation. Here all moods and modes cease to flow, and consciousness is elevated to the optimum degree to behold the inebriated state of the seer. The yogi is no longer drawn towards the temptations of the world. His search for the self ends. He becomes a master of yoga and a master of himself. He is yogesvara. This is the substance (svarupa) of yoga and a distinct attribute of the seer (visesa darsinah). For one who has experienced this distinction between seer and this subtlest mind, the false identities and even the curiosity about the nature of one's own self come to an end. After the yogi has explored the many currents and cross currents of the gross and subtle mind, there comes the realization of the separateness from all of these levels and pure consciousness. It is then, that all of these questions cease. It is not a case that they are analytically answered in logical words. Rather, the questions are resolved; they simply evaporate in understanding. Patanjali is now explaining the nature of that yogi who has realized the distinction between the seer, the seen and the mind very clearly. In other words, he is now the viveki, the one proficient in discriminating faculty; the one who can perceive the truth and differentiate it from the one which is not – easily. At this stage, the mind also is the purest possible reflector of external reality, without any coloring either on itself or on the scenery. The seer, the Purusha, the pure consciousness knows this. He has experienced the external reality in its purest form, since no coloring affects it now. There are now no false identities. There is not even any further curiosity about the nature of one's own self. There is complete cessation of all doubt between the seer, the seen and the nature of mind. There is a complete cessation of any desire, including the desire to reside in the Purusha. The pure mind has come close to the Purusha and is accepting his Mastery. To one who sees the distinction between the mind and the Atman, thoughts of mind as the Atman cease forever. For one who realizes the distinction between citta and atma, the sense of separation between the two disappears. The man of discrimination ceases to regard the mind as the Atman. For one who has experienced this distinction between seer and this subtlest mind, the false identities and even the curiosity about the nature of one's own self come to an end.
4.26- - tada vivekanimnan kaivalyapragbharan chittam
Then consciousness is drawn strongly towards the seer or the soul due to the influence of the exalted intelligence.
When the exalted intelligence is ablaze, consciousness is illumined; it becomes free and tinged with the divine (citta suddhi). Due to this divine light, citta, with its exalted intelligence, is attracted as if by a magnet towards its source - the indivisible seer who is alone, free and full. Before reaching the state of exalted intelligence, consciousness is attracted more towards the pleasures of the world. When intelligence is free from doubts and prejudices, it gravitates towards the absolute seer. As a farmer builds dykes between his fields to regulate the flow of water, similarly, exalted intelligence builds a dyke for the consciousness, so that it does not move again towards the world, but turns and flows towards union with the divine seer. This is kaivalya, an existence filled with freedom and beatitude. Such a yogi becomes a king amongst men. Viveka means clear discrimination between Truth and what is not truth. Truth liberates from ignorance, while what is not truth binds the sadhaka to Ignorance. The mind-field is always looking outward through the senses and its perception is always coloured. But, once the coloring is removed, the mind-field, the Chitta also becomes a clear, pure receiver of external wisdom because of the illuminating power that it has received from the Purusha. Now, mind is inclined towards clear viveka or discrimination faculty in its power of perception and therefore, the ignorance binding it, comes down and down and tends to remove the veil of ignorance from the Purusha. Purusha is now shining clearly. Mind also therefore gravitates towards total liberation. What is the liberation? It is nothing but the dropping of all barriers to wisdom, the barriers to truth that had arisen in mind due to the covering of Ignorance. What is the ignorance of the mind-field? It is its identification with the body-mind complex. Once the self realizes that it is not the body-mind complex, the barriers covering the mind-field drop away easily. The mind-field should detach from the drisya and become and efficient aid of the real Master, the Prabhu, the Purusha, the self, the consciousness. Now, all barriers drop off. Discrimination, viveka comes home automatically. Renunciation, vairagya and liberation happen effortlessly, effectively and automatically. Then the mind is inclined towards the highest discrimination, and gravitates towards absolute liberation between seer and seen. When even the subtlest questions of life subside, there is only one direction left to go, and that is towards the realization of the absolute reality that is beyond. This is not a case of a lethargic mind having no question about the meaning of life; such a mind has not even entered the path of Self-realization. Rather, it comes from having questioned, explored, searched, and longed, through the gross, subtle, and causal levels, until finally, the point of the final discrimination stands in front of the seeker. When the mind is bent on the practice of discrimination, it moves toward liberation. And their clarity takes them to their only concern; to reach and remain in a state of freedom. The yogi has to achieve this. It does not come by wishful thinking. Only through higher yoga can this be achieved consistently. Practice of Yoga leads to discriminating power, to clearness of vision. The veil drops from the eyes, and we see things as they are. When discrimination comes by long practice fear ceases, and the mind attains isolation.
4.27- - tachchhidreshu pratyayantarani sanskarebhyah
Notwithstanding this progress, if one is careless during the interval, a fissure arises due to past hidden impressions, creating division between the consciousness and the seer.
The force of past impressions may create loopholes in the form of intellectual pride or other varying moods or modes of thought, which breach the consciousness and agitate the harmony and serenity of oneness with the pure Self (atmabhava). This sutra shows a way to fight old impressions that may influence the consciousness and crack it. Patanjali cautions that even for the supreme intelligence, the subconscious samskaras may surface in this intermediate stage and sway the consciousness. Patanjali advises yogis who wish to be released from worldly life to be incessantly vigilant in order to overcome these old habits, lest their consciousness wavers between the desire for perfection and actual perfection. The uninterrupted practice of yoga unconditionally crushes these fissures in consciousness, and eliminates doubts and prejudices, so that pure wisdom may shine. In the Bhagavad Gita 11.59, Lord Krishna says that inbuilt desire persists as a fissure even in the most austere renunciate. Only the vision of the Supreme resolves these latent faults forever. From that moment no worldly desire or temptation can endanger the composure and virtue of the yogi .Patanjali says, even at this point, there will be some very deep impressions, very deeply ingrained Samskaras, which rise again and again to pull down the viveka and put barriers in its path. This happens many times. This is because, some of these deepest, ingrained samskaras take time and effort to be totally rooted out. The same methods already gone through for removal of samskaras must be continued to be adopted till the last remnants are rooted out. For this, retaining a high level of awareness of them is however essential. When there are breaks or breaches in that high discrimination, other impressions arise from the deep unconscious. The clarity of discrimination can once again be clouded over. This temporary loss of the ground attained is one of the predictable obstacles of the path of enlightenment. The way to deal with this is the same as it was before the discriminative enlightenment . In the relaxation of the focus, other mind contents arise in the intervals. These are based on subtle impressions. The yogi faces failures at every step but he must forge ahead.
4.28- - hanam esham kleshavaduktam
In the same way as the sadhaka strives to be free from afflictions, the yogi must handle these latent impressions judiciously to extinguish them.
The gap between consciousness and the seer can rear disharmony and disturbance in one's self. As fire is deprived of fuel, likewise, the yogi has to remove the latent impressions from the consciousness and extinguish them, for it to be in harmony with the seer. Patanjali advises the yogi to eliminate disturbances by reintroducing yogic disciplines with faith, vigour and vitality. As the sadhaka earlier strove to rid himself of the sufferings of avidya, asmita, raga, dvesa and abhinivesa, the exalted yogi must, through practice, press, dry out and close the perforations in the consciousness. iv. 27 stated that subconscious impressions surface in the form of intellectual pride, which hinders progress towards the goal of union with the divine seer. As roasted seeds do not germinate, so the fire of wisdom must burn out impressions and ambitions, ending their power to generate disturbing thoughts, so that the consciousness maintains its union with the seer forever. Patanjali has taught us all the methods for removal and rooting out of kleshas like ignorance and suffering throughout the Yoga Sutras earlier. The removal of the remaining kleshas also needs to be done by the same methods. First, you seek enough purity of mind and body that you can experience the highest. Then, after that direct experience, the way in which you relate to samskaras and karma is vastly different. You have glimpsed the highest, and knowing that, the purifying process. One must never accommodate even small errors because they are as detrimental as the five obstacles. Each yogi has to endure and overcome this inner conflict alone.
4.29- - prasankhyanepyakusidasy sarvathavivekakhyater dharmameghah samadhih
The yogi who has no interest even in this highest state of evolution, and maintains supreme attentive, discriminating awareness, attains dharmameghah samadhi. He contemplates the fragrance of virtue and justice.
When the stream of virtue pours in torrents and the consciousness is washed clean of bias, prejudice and ambition, the light of the soul dawns. This is dharma megha samadhi - the fruit of the practice of yoga. If the yogi, knowing that the highest form of intelligence is also a hindrance, remains uninterested even in this enlightened wisdom as well as in spiritual attainments, virtuousness descends upon him like torrential rain, washing away his individual personality. His only ambition now is to sustain spiritual health. He has purity and clarity. His personality has been transformed. He becomes humane, universal and divine. He lives forever in dharma megha samadhi, unexcelled bliss. A cloud has two facets. It may cover the sky without bringing rain. This makes the atmosphere gloomy and people become inactive and dull. But if the cloud bursts into rain, the atmosphere is cleared, the sun shines, and people go out to work gleefully. The yogi should not make the consciousness quiet in a tamasic way, but in an alert, satvic way to shine forth brilliantly to live in the delightful, fragrant rain-cloud of virtue. He has renounced everything, and is a viveki (one who distinguishes the invisible soul from the visible world), ajnanin (sage), a vairagin (renunciate), and a bhaktan (divine devotee). Now he has attained nirbija Samadhi. Omniscience or total knowledge is what man seeks to attain as the highest state possible for him. But, for yogi, even this omniscient state holds no interest at all. He does not hanker for it, nor does he feel proud when he knows he has it. Thereby, the yogi exhibits the highest possible state of discrimination. The Samadhi which he is in, in this state is called Dharma Megha Samadhi, or the Samadhi of the cloud of virtue. This renouncement of the exalted state of omniscience is called paravairagya or the ultimate renunciation. One can renounce all desires – and go on desiring for moksha. But, one can renounce even this desire for moksha. This is the state of absolute desirelessness. No desires what so ever – no desire even for Moksha. The desire for Moksha, or liberation is the ultimate desire and even this desire is renounced to make desirelessness complete. This state is the state of the ultimate discrimination. And the yogi will now be in this state forever. Patanjali calls this state as Dharma Megha Samadhi. Dharma means virtues, megha means clouds; Samadhi means the still, flickerless state at the end of dharana and dhyana. This dharma megha is going to remain flickerless and still with the yogi. Dharma means virtues. All virtues have descended on the Yogi like a cloud from the sky. And, they will now remain still and flickerless with the Yogi. Why is this Samadhi called a cloud? This cloud also covers the vision of the Yogi from the clear sky of kaivalya. Even if it is of virtues, it still covers the essential kaivalya, his total liberation, from the Yogi. So, to that extent, this too remains as the last barrier that the yogi must come out of. When there is no longer any interest even in omniscience, that discrimination allows the samadhi, which brings an abundance of virtues like a rain cloud brings rain. : There finally comes a point where discrimination has so thoroughly set aside all which is not Self that even the interest in omniscience is seen as only relatively real and not worthy of pursuit. Then comes the highest virtues: From that non-attachment to omniscience there comes the samadhi that brings an abundance of virtues like a rain cloud brings rain. The Self may have been glimpsed before, but the colorings of the deep impressions were still there. Now even those have been transcended. Peace, bliss, and perfect purity becomes a yogi’s own nature, after he has given up all vanities of powers.
4.30- - tatah kleshakarmanivrittih
Then comes the end of afflictions and of karma.
The effect of dharma megha samadhi is freedom, freedom from the five afflictions and fluctuations. It is the highest form of intelligence and evolution. From this rain-cloud of virtue, sufferings cease of their own accord and in their place, divine actions with no reactions flow forth like a river from the yogi. This is freedom. Avidya, the mother of afflictions, is eliminated, root and branch, along with residual subliminal impressions. The sadhaka will not deviate from the path of divinity nor perform an act that binds, hinders or preconditions his consciousness. He is free from the bondage of karma. In the Bhagavad Gita (V 1.5), Lord Krishna says that each individual has to cultivate himself to become enlightened, and to learn not to degrade himself, for the Self alone is the friend of the individual self, and the Self alone is the enemy of the egotistical self. As the light of a lamp fades as the oil runs out, so the lamp of the mind is extinguished as its fuel, the actions producing joys and sorrows, is exhausted. As nirmana citta is extinguished of its own accord, its root motivation is burnt out, leaving no opportunity for the production of effects The cycle of cause and effect is at an end, and the yogi is liberated from the grip of nature. Even in this liberated state, he will not relinquish his practices. He will continue to maintain them as a divine command, so that the freedom earned may not be lost by neglect. Patanjali says – if the yogi goes beyond even this barrier of virtuous cloud or Dharma megha, then, all the deepest impressions or samskaras in him dissolve totally and all the kleshas or sorrows, pains and afflictions cease totally and absolutely. Dharma megha Samadhi is thus the last barrier to cross for the successful yogi.After that dharma-meghah samadhi, the colorings of the kleshas and the karmas are removed. Burning the seeds of karma: This is the final dealing with the colorings (kleshas). First, the mind was stabilized . Then these colorings were reduced in their gross form , then they were dealt with in their subtle forms. These kleshas (colorings) moved through four stages of active, separated, attenuated, and then were reduced to seed form. Now, those seeds are parched, so as to not be able to grow again. First, there were glimpses of Truth, which had the effect of negating the obstacles . After a great deal of sadhana (spiritual practices), there came a temporary discriminative enlightenment that was accompanied by breaches . Now, with the neutralizing of the colorings of the samskaras that cause karma, the realization is finally firm of ground. The yogi rests in the True nature of the Self . From that samadhi all afflictions and karmas cease. After that dharma-meghah samadhi, the colorings of the kleshas and the karmas are removed. From that comes cessation of pains and works. When that cloud of virtue has come, then no more is there fear of falling, nothing can drag the Yogi down. No more will there be evils for him. No more pains When the yogi reaches the causal level and sees the various clouds of energy (meghah) in which the dharmas or laws for righteous life, are created and maintained, he gets an ease in his higher yoga practice. He smiles for he will never again fall into the trap of making spiritual missions to help or to save others
4.31- - tada sarvavarannamalapetasy jnanasyaanantyajgyeyam alpam
Then, when the veils of impurities are removed, the highest, subjective, pure, infinite knowledge is attained, and the knowable, the finite, appears as trivial.
The stream of virtue extinguishes all the veils of impurities. The yogi is devoid of doubts, preconceptions and prejudices. The infinite light of the soul illumines him continuously, and his consciousness and the seer become one. For him, knowledge gained through the organs of cognition and through consciousness are insignificant compared with the infinite wisdom emanating from the soul. This sutra describes the characteristics of the yogi who is devoid of afflicting actions. His head becomes clear and his heart clean and pure as crystal. When the clouds dissipate, the sky becomes clear. When the sun is bright, no other light is required. When the light of the soul blazes, the yogi does not need mind or intelligence to develop knowledge. . In this sutra, as the consciousness has been fully matured, he cautions the yogi that if fissures are formed in the cttta, afflictions will affect him instantaneously and not at a future time. His knowledge springs eternally from the seed of all knowledge (atman) and jnana gahga (perennial river of wisdom), and he perceives directly. The cover that has clouded the Jnanam is now totally removed. It is shining in its pristine purity and totality now. The Jneyam, the thing to be known is now almost nothing. Or alpam. In this state, the Purusha starts functioning by himself, and mind merely remains without clouding his experience and vision. Purusha sees and experiences the reality totally. There are no barriers whatsoever for him now. It can also be said, he is now the reality himself. Then all the coverings and impurities of knowledge are totally removed. Because of the infinity of this knowledge, what remains to be known is almost nothing. The, when the veils of impurities are removed, the highest, subjective, pure, infinite knowledge is attained, and the knowable, the finite, appears as trivial. Then the whole universe, with all its objects of sense-knowledge, becomes as nothing in comparison to that infinite knowledge which is free from all obstructions and impurities. When the mind is free from the clouds that prevent perception, all is known, there is nothing to be known. When those veils are only temporarily removed or set aside, the process of purifying continues, recalling that instructions were even given on how to deal with breaches in enlightenment . First comes the direct experience of the infinite. It might be only a glimpse, but even that glimpse may qualitatively reveal the height of Truth . Then comes knowledge: One of the results of that direct experience is the knowledge of the simplicity of things, that there really is little to know. Then keep purifying: After that realization, we then continue with renewed conviction the process of removing karma, etc. Karma is removed: Finally, all karma is removed through the coming of the rain cloud of virtues described in the previous sutra. The realization that there is little to know is deliciously amusing, amazing, wonderful, and filled with joy. These insights come because of seeing the nature of the gunas , the way the subtle mind operates, and realizing the higher discrimination. Then knowledge, bereft of covering and impurities, becoming infinite, the knowable becomes small. Knowledge itself is there; its covering is gone.
4.32- - tatah kritarthanan parinamakramapari samaptirgunanam
When dharma megha samadhi is attained, qualities of nature (gunas) come to rest. Having fulfilled their purpose, their sequence of successive mutations is at an end.
Having transformed the yogi's consciousness by the radiation of the rays of the soul, the orderly mutations and rhythmic sequences of the qualities of nature, sattva, rajas and tamas come to an end. Their tasks are fulfilled, and they return to nature. The essence of intelligence and the essence of consciousness both now retire to rest in the abode of the soul. The master, the seer or the soul, is independent. He keeps the gunas in suspension, or uses them when necessary. They enthusiastically serve him as committed servants, without influencing him as before, and without interfering in his true glory. Now the three primary gunas have totally fulfilled their purpose for him. They are no more needed for the enlightened yogi. He has transcended all their use. Ordinarily, the three Gunas are the ones, which go on creating an ordered sequence of events for the sadhaka, which he has to go through all his life. Now, the Yogi has transcended that ordered sequence of events and transformations. There is no more need for them in his life. He is beyond all the three Gunas. Therefore, having fulfilled their part in his life, the gunas recede back into the essence from which they have come. They, which means, the world of three Gunas, no more undergoes any transformation in the experience of the enlightened Yogi. The Purusha had jumped from the Divine into the world of prakruthi. There he learnt all the lessons that prakruthi had to offer; He was covered by the Maya, of the three Gunas, which were constantly transforming his world. But, as yogi, he began coming out from one barrier after another, set for him by the Maya. The ultimate barrier of dharma megha also having been transcended, the Purusha is back into the divine. The whole prakruthi of the three Gunas, cannot any more, set any barriers for him. He is now a muktha Purusha. Also resulting from that dharma-meghah samadhi, the three primary elements or gunas will have fulfilled their purpose, cease to transform into further transformations, and recede back into their essence. The interplay of the three gunas were earlier seen to be the cause for pain , and sadhana was done so as to discard this pain before it comes. The coming of the dharma-meghah samadhi also brings to an end the need for the three subtle transitions previously discussed . Thus, the subtle material nature, having fulfilled its purpose, its progressive alterations end. When dharmameghah samadhi is attained, qualities of nature (gunas) come to rest. Having fulfilled their purpose, their sequence of successive mutations is at an end. The three basic qualities cease to follow the sequence of alternating pain and pleasure. Resulting from that dharma-meghah samadhi , the three primary elements or gunas will have fulfilled their purpose, cease to transform into further transformations, and recede back into their essence.
4.33- - kshannapratiyogi parinamaparantanigrarhyah kramah
As the mutations of the gunas cease to function, time, the uninterrupted movement of moments, stops. This deconstruction of the flow of time is comprehensible only at this final stage of emancipation.
The sequence of time is related to the order of movements of the gunas of nature. Only the yogi recognises this inter-relationship and is free from gunas. The uninterrupted succession of moments is called time. These movements of moments and the uninterrupted mutation of the gunas of nature are distinctly recognisable at the culminating point of transformation. The average person is not aware of moments - he understands their movement as past, present and future. When moments sup away from one's awareness, one lives in movements. Memory begins to exert its influence, and consciousness is felt at this juncture in the movements of time. The perfect yogi lives in the moment without getting involved in movements - the movements of moments are arrested, and psychological and chronological time comes to an end. Living in the moment, the yogi sees the seer. This is evolution. Nature eternally helps the intelligence and consciousness towards evolution (parinama nityan), whereas the seer remains eternally changeless (kutastha nityan). Evolution takes place in a moment. Moment implies instant while movement implies time. When change comes, it arrives at once in a moment, only after a series of efforts involving movements of time. Transformation does not come without effort. As change is noticeable to an average individual, so the end transformation is distinguishable to a yogi by virtue of his pure wisdom - dharma megha samadhi. He is free from time, place and space, while others remain trammeled in this net. He is neither attracted towards nature nor disturbed by it. He is now a divine yogi. Every change is clearly perceived only at the end of the transformation process. Not, when the change was happening from moment to moment. It is true that each moment presents a point of change in any ordered sequence of changes. But, the perception of the change is really clear, only when the sequence ends. All the three Gunas need to undergo the full change - and then, the full change becomes comprehensible. This implies two things. (1) Every moment a part of the total change is taking place. But, in that moment, the change is not comprehensible. (2) At some point, a total change has been completed – and it becomes perceptible and comprehensible. For the Yogi, the three Gunas have stopped their transformation process. This means, the total change is visible, experience-able, and knowable for the Yogi. But, the same has not happened for all others. For all others, the change continues; the transformation continues; and every moment, there is change; they are not able to see the change that will come tomorrow. But, not so, for the yogi who has gone beyond the dharma megha Samadhi. For him, there is no further transformation, which is hidden from him. All changes are known to him. The sequencing process of moments and impressions corresponds to the moments of time, and is apprehended at the end point of the sequence. Here, in this sutra, time is being described as the uninterrupted sequence or order of the many impressions in the field of mind. It is this sequencing that brings the appearance of time. Think of a reel of movie film. You can hold it, and all of the frames in your hand, at one moment of time, and yet, when you play the movie through a projector, you create the appearance of time. It is because of the sequencing of the frames, one after the other, that there appears to be time. The "Aha!" moment of understanding a sequence of moments, impressions, or frames comes at the end of the sequence. Recall that great emphasis is placed on these transition moments in sutras. When you can see these moments at the end of the sequence, you come to understand the transformation process itself, and can see beyond the avidya or ignorance that veils the true self. Break the pattern of sequencing to transcend time: Most of the time, we are caught up in time, identified with those thought patterns, whether gross or subtle in nature. Now, in these last few sutras, all of those patterns have been reduced to their primal reality, that of the three gunas. If you break the identity with the patterns, and the sequencing process, then you break the process of time, space, and causation. The process, of which moments are a counterpart, and which causes the alterations, comes to an end and is clearly perceived.The advanced yogi alone achieves this. This is an individual accomplishment, where the yogi sees the moments, which in sequence make up time which is itself the changing mundane energy (gunanam). The yogi clearly perceives this from afar. What hypnotizes other and keeps them under its control subjectively and objectively, is looked upon by the yogin, just as the God would normally see it.As the mutations of the gunas cease to function, time, the uninterrupted movement of moments, stops. This deconstruction of the flow of tie is comprehensible only at this final stage of emancipation. This is the sequence of the mutations which take place at every moment, but which are only perceived at the end of a series. A sequence is the replacement of one characteristic by one that follows it. This is linked to moment. A replacement of characteristics is also the basis of moment.
4.34- -- purusharthashoonyanan gunanan pratiprasavah kaivalyan, svaroopapratishtha va chitishaktireti
Kaivalya, liberation, comes when the yogi has fulfilled the purusarthas, the fourfold aims of life, and has transcended the gunas.
The yogi with the stream of virtuous knowledge is devoid of all aims of life as he is free from the qualities of nature. Purusarthas are man's four aims in life - dharma (science of duty), artha (purpose and means of life), kama (enjoyments of life) and moksa (freedom from worldly pleasures). They leave the fulfilled seer and fuse in nature. Patanjali speaks of the purusarthas only in the very last sutra. His thoughts on the purusarthas are implicitly contained in the earlier chapters, and expressed clearly at the end. Thus, the four padas are, consciously or unconsciously, founded on these four aims and stages of activity. Dharma is the careful observation of one's ethical, social, intellectual and religious duties in daily Life. Strictly stating, this is taught at the level of studentship, but it must be followed throughout life; without this religious quality in daily life, spiritual attainment is not possible. Artha is acquisition of wealth in order to progress towards higher pursuits of life including understanding the main purpose of life. If one does not earn one's own way, dependence on another will lead to a parasitic life. One should never be greedy while accumulating wealth, but only to meet one's needs, so that one's body is kept nurtured and one may be free from worries and anxieties. In this stage one also finds a partner with whom to lead a householder's life. One comes to understand human love through individual friendship and compassion, so that one may later develop a universal fellowship leading to the realisation of divine love. The householder is expected to satisfy his responsibilities of bringing up his children and helping his fellow men. Thus, married life has never been considered a hindrance to happiness, to divine love or to the union with the Supreme Soul. Kama means enjoyment of the pleasures of life, provided one does not lose physical health, or harmony and balance of mind. The Self cannot be experienced by a weakling, and the body, the temple of the soul, has to be treated with care and respect. Asana, pranayama and dhyana, therefore, are essential to purify the body, stabilise the mind and clarify the intelligence. One must learn to use the body as a bow, and asana, pranayama and dhyana as arrows to be aimed at the target - the seer or the soul. Moksa means liberation, freedom from the bondage of worldly pleasures. It is the experience of emancipation and beatitude, possible only when one is free from physical, psychological, intellectual and environmental afflictions , and from poverty, ignorance and pride. In this state one realises that power, knowledge, wealth and pleasure are merely passing phases. Each individual has to work hard to free himself from the qualities of nature (gunas) in order to master them and become a gunahtan. This is the very essence of life, a state of indivisible, infinite, full, unalloyed bliss. These aims involve virtuous actions and are linked with the qualities of nature and the growth of consciousness. When the goal of freedom is attained, the restricting qualities of consciousness and nature cease to exist. At this point of fulfilment, the yogi realises that the seeker, the seer and the instrument used to cognise the seer is atman. This absoluteness of consciousness is nothing but the seer. Now, he is established in his own nature. This is kaivalyavastha. The practice of yoga serves every aim of life. Through the proper use of the organs of action, senses of perception, mind, ego, intelligence and consciousness, their purpose of serving their Lord, the seer, comes to an end, and these vestments of the seer, along with the qualities of nature, coil and withdraw, to unite in the root of nature (mula-prakrti). There, they are held and isolated. By this, the citta becomes pure and supreme. In this supreme state, citta divinely merges in the abode of the seer so that the seer can shine forth in his immaculate, pure and untarnished state of aloneness. Now, the yogi shines as a king amongst men. He is crowned with spiritual wisdom. He is a krtarthan - a fulfilled soul, who has learned to control the property of nature. He brings purity of intelligence into himself. He is now free from the rhythmic mutation of gunas, of time, and thus released from aims and objects, as his search for the soul ends. All the twenty-four principles of nature move back into nature and the twenty-fifth, the seer, stands alone, in kaivalyam. He is one without a second; he lives in benevolent freedom and beatitude. With this power of pure consciousness, citta shakti, he surrenders completely to the seed of all seers, Paramatma or God. Lord Krishna, in the Bhagavad Gita (XVIII.6I-62), explains that 'the Supreme Ruler abides in the hearts of all beings and guides them, mounting them on wheels of knowledge should seek refuge by surrendering all actions as well as himself to the Supreme Spirit or God' so that he journeys from Self-Realisation towards God-Realisation. Patanjali began the journey towards the spiritual kingdom with the word atha, meaning 'now'. He ends with the word iti, meaning 'that is all'. The yogi has reached his goal. The whole drama of the world goes on due to the emergence of the three gunas (or prakruti) as the coverage or aavarana around the Purusha – making him dance with the mind-field and its vrittis. Now, they have resolved back into their original form into the prakriti, leaving the Purusha free from the covering, or from the barriers created by them. The Chitta vrittis were the barriers. Purusha has scored a total victory over them now. Therefore, the three Gunas resolve back to their original position in the Prakriti. The yogi has conquered the chitta vrittis completely. He is now liberated from all of them, totally. He has emerged enlightened . He is now established in his original nature. This is kaivalya. When those primary elements involve, or resolve themselves back into that out of which they emerged, there comes liberation, wherein the power of pure consciousness becomes established in its true nature. When those primary elements or gunas involve, or resolve themselves back into that out of which they emerged, there comes liberation, wherein the power of pure consciousness (purusha) becomes established in its true nature . Such an enlightened Yogi is purely spontaneous, with no actions whatsoever being motivated by the inner drives of samskaras and karma. One hundred percent of actions are from the here-and-now response to the needs of the moment, in relation to the service of other beings. This is easy for such a yogi, as there is no I and no other; it is all a constant flow of pure, undivided consciousness (purusha), that only seems to play, here, there, and everywhere. Kaivala, liberation, comes when the yogi has fulfilled the purusarthas, the fourfold aims of life, and has transcended the gunas. Aims and gunas return to their source, and consciousness is established in its own natural purity. Since the gunas no longer have any purpose to serve for the Atman, they resolve themselves into Prakriti. This is liberation. The Atman shines forth in its own pristine nature, as pure consciousness. When the highest purpose of life is achieved the three basic qualities do not excite responses in the mind. That is freedom. In other words, the Perceiver is no longer colored by the mind. When those primary elements involve, or resolve themselves back into that out of which they emerged, there comes liberation, wherein the power of pure consciousness becomes established in its true nature.
Here ends the exposition of kaivalya, the fourth pada of Patanjali's Yoga Sutras.
Patanjali Maharishi covered everything in the mystic practice of yoga. All glories unto him.
CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL