MY POST ON SANATANA DHARMA PART 16 IS INCOMPLETE-
Once my mother went on an all India tour and came back sick.
I took her to a doctor . He wrote a prescription for Malaria.
I paid him his fees and crumpled his prescription sheet and kept it in front of him and hissed “She has typhoid, NOT malaria”.
This doctor knew that I am a ship captain and familiar with diseases like Malaria and Typhoid..
The poor guy then wrote a prescription for antibiotics to treat typhoid.
Whereas mosquitoes ( parasites )are responsible for malaria, typhoid is caused by the salmonella typhi bacteria.
Well there are a lot of (SC/ST management quota / 85 lakh donation party) doctors--
-- who do NOT know the difference between glands (which secrete enzyme / hormones) and lymph nodes ( which filter lymph fluids ).
-- who do NOT know the difference between glands (which secrete enzyme / hormones) and lymph nodes ( which filter lymph fluids ).
ENDOCRINE glands secrete HORMONES
EXOCRINE glands secrete ENZYMES.
Endocrine glands which secrete hormones are ductless . They have long term activity (example: thyroid).
An endocrine gland secretes its products directly into the blood which then transports them to the target tissues. Hormones do their activity a distance away from the site of origin.
Hormones are not cataylsts they initiate biochemical recations . Hormone is a molecule like peptide ( insulin )or steroid ( estrogen ). The hormones may be polypeptides, terpenoids, steroids, phenolics compounds or amines.
As hormones are not catalysts, they participate in biological reaction and their chemical composition is changed and cannot be reutilized as such. They have low molecular weight and are diffusible through cell membranes.
Hormones are generally carried by blood to a target organ. Hormone controlled reactions are not reversible. Deficiency or overproduction of hormone causes metabolic disorders or diseases.
Some hormones are quick acting, while some are slow acting with a lag period. They are used up in metabolic functions . They generally regulate morphogenesis, especially secondary sex character. Examples:– Insulin,– Glucagon,– T3, T4 .
Exocrine glands which secrete enzymes have ducts.
They secrete enzymes or biological cataylsts. They have short term activity (salivary/ sweat ) . Mostly enzymes perform reactions at the place of origin i.e. in cells where they are produced.
Enzymes do not pass through the kidneys, and hence there is no absorption taking place. Enzymes are the biological catalyst which speed up the rate of biochemical reactions without undergoing any changes.
All enzymes are generally proteins. There are some exceptions like ribozymes (RNA with catalytic activity). As enzymes are catalyst, at the end of reaction they remain unchanged and can be reutilized.
They are macromolecules with higher molecular weight and are non-diffusible through the cell membrane. They either act intracellularly or carried by some ducts to another site.
They catalyze reversible reactions. They act quickly. They are not used in metabolic functions .
They cannot regulate morphogenesis. Examples: Oxidoreductases, Transferases, Hydrolases.
Lymph nodes are important part of the immune system. They are located throughout the body, but visible and palpable only when they are enlarged or swollen.
Lymph nodes are regional, and each group of them corresponds to a particular region of the body and reflects abnormalities in that region.
In general, infections are the most common causes of lymph node enlargement. Other common causes include inflammation and cancers.
Not all swollen lymph nodes are abnormal.
The lymphatic system is an extensive drainage network that helps keep body fluid levels in balance and defends the body against infections. It is made up of a network of lymphatic vessels that carry lymph — a clear, watery fluid that contains protein molecules, salts, glucose, urea, and other substances — throughout the body.
For example , the spleen, located in the upper left part of the abdomen under the ribcage, works as part of the lymphatic system to protect the body, clearing worn-out red blood cells and other foreign bodies from the bloodstream to help fight off infection.
One of the lymphatic system's major jobs is to collect extra lymph fluid from body tissues and return it to the blood. This is crucial because water, proteins, and other substances are always leaking out of tiny blood capillaries into the surrounding body tissues.
If the lymphatic system didn't drain the excess fluid from the tissues, the lymph fluid would build up in the body's tissues, causing them to swell.
The lymphatic system also helps defend the body against germs (viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi) that can cause illnesses. Those germs are filtered out in the lymph nodes, which are small masses of tissue located along the network of lymph vessels.
The nodes house lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. Some of those lymphocytes make antibodies, special proteins that stop infections from spreading by trapping disease-causing germs and destroying them.
Each individual lymph node is covered by a capsule made up of connective tissue. Within the capsule, lymph nodes contain certain kinds of immune cells. These cells are mainly lymphocytes, which produce proteins that capture and fight viruses and other microbes, and macrophages, which destroy and remove the captured material.
Lymph nodes are located throughout the body. Some are directly under the skin while others are deep inside the body. Even the most superficial (close to the skin) lymph nodes are usually not visible or palpable (felt by touching), unless they are swollen or enlarged for some reason.
Lymph nodes generally coalesce in different regions in the body where they are responsible for filtering the blood and performing their immunologic function for that particular area of the body. Fluid from the lymphatic vessels eventually feeds into the venous system (veins) in the body.
The most common cause of swollen lymph nodes is viral upper respiratory infections such as the common cold.
Many cancers can also cause swelling of lymph nodes. These may be cancers that originate from the lymph nodes or blood cells such as lymphomas and leukemias. They may also be cancers that spread from another organ in the body (metastatic cancers).
For example, breast cancer may spread to the nearest lymph nodes in the underarm (axilla), or lung cancer may spread to the lymph nodes around the collar bone.
Sometimes, swollen lymph nodes can be extremely tender, painful, and disfiguring.
Swollen lymph nodes closer to the surface of the body are generally diagnosed by a doctor's examination and feeling for areas known to have coalescence of lymph nodes. - for example, swollen lymph nodes under the arms (axillary lymph nodes), swollen lymph nodes in the sides of the neck (cervical lymph nodes), or swollen lymph nodes in the groin (inguinal lymph nodes). These swollen lymph nodes can be seen and felt easily.
Other times, deeper lymph nodes could be seen on imaging studies, such as CT scan (computed tomography), of different parts of the body.
Tonsils in the back of the throat are also lymph nodes, and they are the most visible ones in the body.
A group of lymph nodes in a particular area of the body react to disturbances in that general region. If there is a specific infection in the region of the swollen lymph nodes, that may be the most likely cause of swelling.
For instance, an infection of the leg or some sexually transmitted diseases can cause swelling of the lymph nodes in the groin area.
Physicians usually examine the lymph nodes by feeling them and characterize them based upon what the lymph nodes feel like. They could be characterized, for example, as:
Large or small
Tender or non-tender
Fixed or mobile
Hard or soft
Firm or rubbery
A hard, nontender, nonmoveable lymph node may be more characteristic of a cancer spread to that node. On the other hand, a soft, tender, moveable lymph node could more likely represent an infection.
If the enlarged lymph nodes are suspected to be related to a cancer, then a biopsy of the lymph node may determine the cancer type. For example, a swollen lymph node around the collar bone (supraclavicular lymph node), may signify lung cancer in a person who may have other clinical clues suggestive of lung cancer.
There is no specific treatment for swollen lymph nodes. Generally, the underlying cause needs to be treated, which may result in the resolution of the swollen lymph node.
Many people can usually see swollen lymph nodes on the neck, behind the ear, under the jaw, above the collar bone, under the arms, and around the groin.
Swollen lymph nodes on the side of the neck or under jaw are the most common. They may represent an infection around that area, such as a tooth infection or abscess, throat infection, viral illness, or upper respiratory infection.
Most of the causes of swollen lymph nodes in this area are benign (noncancerious); however, sometimes, swelling of these lymph nodes may also suggest a cancer in the head and neck area.
Swollen lymph nodes behind the ear may correspond to an infection around the scalp or possibly a conjunctival (eye) infection. The most common cause of swollen scalp lylmph nodes are skin conditions affecting the scalp, such as dandruff (sebhorrheic dermatitis).
The lymph nodes in the underarm (axilla) are anatomically important in breast cancer. They are often checked physically in patients undergoing investigation for breast cancer. They also play an important role in staging (determining the extent) and prognosticating (predicting the outcome) of breast cancer during removal of the cancer tissue from the breast.
These lymph nodes can also become reactive and enlarge due to a trauma to or an infection of the arm on the same side.
Enlarged lymph nodes above the collar bone (supraclavicular lymphadenopathy) are always considered to be abnormal. These generally suggest a cancer of or an infection in the region close by. Examples of these may include lung infection, lung cancer, lymphoma in the chest cavity, or breast cancer.
Occasionally more distant cancers may seed these lymph nodes, such as genital cancers or colon cancer. Some inflammatory causes of the swollen lymph nodes above the collar bone (clavicle) can include tuberculosis or sarcoidosis.
Swollen lymph nodes in the groin may be normal in young people as mentioned earlier. However, they could also result from some sexually transmitted diseases, genital cancers, or infections of the lower extremity (legs) on the same side.
If the lymph node swelling is related to an infection that is not treated, then an abscess (a pus-containing cavity) may ensue, which may require incisional drainage and antibiotics. The skin underlying the enlarged lymph node may also become infected.
In other cases, the lymph node may become very large and compress other nearby structures in the body. This could be a serious and debilitating problem that may require immediate medical or surgical attention.
For example, the lymph node in the underarm (axilla) can compress the blood vessels and nerves supplying the arm. An enlarged lymph node inside the abdomen may compress the intestines and cause an obstruction of the intestines.
The bacteria , viruses, parasites, fungi etc trapped by the lymph nodes filters are then destroyed by special white blood cells called lymphocytes. Lymphocytes and macrophages filter your lymphatic fluid as it travels through your body and protect you by destroying invaders.
Lymph nodes may be found singly or in groups. And they may be as small as the head of a pin or as large as an olive. Groups of lymph nodes can be felt in the neck, groin, and underarms. Lymph nodes generally are not tender or painful. Most lymph nodes in the body cannot be felt.
Axillary lymph nodes in the armpit may swell from an injury or infection to the arm or hand.
The lymph nodes in the groin (femoral or inguinal lymph nodes) may swell from an injury or infection in the foot, leg, groin, or genitals. In rare cases, testicular cancer, lymphoma, or melanoma may cause a lump in this area.
Glands above the collarbone (supraclavicular lymph nodes) may swell from an infection or tumor in the areas of the lungs, breasts, neck, or abdomen.
When lymph nodes swell in two or more areas of the body, it is called generalized lymphadenopathy.
This may be caused by:---
A viral illness, such as measles, rubella, chickenpox (varicella), or mumps.
Mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr virus), which results in fever, sore throat, and fatigue, or cytomegalovirus (CMV), a viral infection that causes symptoms similar to those of mononucleosis.
A bacterial illness, such as strep throat (caused by the streptococcus bacterium) or Lyme disease (a bacterial infection spread by certain types of ticks).
Side effects of phenytoin (Dilantin), a medicine used to prevent seizures.
Side effects of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination.
Cancer, such as leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which develops after a person contracts HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). This virus attacks the immune system, making it difficult for the body to fight off infection and some disease.
Syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection.
Treatment for swollen glands focuses on treating the cause. For example, a bacterial infection may be treated with antibiotics, while a viral infection often goes away on its own.
Any swollen lymph nodes that don't go away or return to normal size within about a month should be checked by your doctor.
Lymph nodes may remain swollen or firm long after an initial infection is gone. This is especially true in children, whose glands may decrease in size while remaining firm and visible for many weeks.
An abscess is a localized collection of pus caused by an infection.
Pus contains fluid, white blood cells, dead tissue and bacteria or other invaders. An abscess may require drainage and antibiotic treatment. An abscess may cause significant damage if it involves a vital organ.
If your doctor can't pin down the diagnosis, it may be helpful to remove a sample from a lymph node or even an entire lymph node for microscopic examination.The method of biopsy may be fine-needle aspiration (FNA).
In FNA, the doctor inserts a thin, hollow needle into the lymph node and removes (aspirates) cells, which are then sent to a lab for study. Ultrasound — a noninvasive procedure that uses sound waves to create images of organs and tissues — may be used to guide the needle and ensure accuracy.
In some cases, you may require an excisional biopsy. This type of biopsy — also called surgical biopsy — removes a portion or all of a lymph node through an incision for analysis. A surgeon performs this procedure while using local or general anesthetics.
If your swollen lymph nodes are tender or painful, you might get some relief by applying a warm, wet compress, such as a washcloth dipped in hot water and wrung out, to the affected area or by taking pain relievers
Lymph vessels move lymphatic fluid around the body, between lymph nodes and back into a central, larger vessel near the heart that drains into a large blood vessel. Moving neutralised microbes and immune system cells around is not the only function of the lymphatic system.
These lymph vessels also transport fats and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K and B12) around the body after absorption in the gut, as well as bringing oxygen to cells and tissues through lymphatic fluid.
You’ll find your sweat glands and lymph vessels in the layer of the skin called the dermis, which sits just below the outermost layer of skin called the epidermis. There are four million sweat glands in the average human body, with most of these in our palms and the soles of the feet.
When we get overheated these sweat glands open up and secrete water and other substances. It is the evaporation of this water than helps cool us down and controls body temperature. -
Lymph fluid is a mix of white blood cells (leukocytes), fats, water and proteins. Dehydration, excess dietary fat (particularly saturated fat found in abundance in animal products), and inadequate protein can all contribute to a sluggish lymphatic drainage system. This results in poorer immune system function, swollen lymph nodes, and skin issues, such as acne, from toxic build-up.
When the body is infected by bacteria or another organism the invader is trapped in the lymph nodes, which become enlarged, in order to concentrate the attack from the immune system. As the infection is killed by immune system cells the dead organisms are flushed through the lymphatic system to be eliminated. Lymph nodes remain swollen for a short period after infection as the concentration of white blood cells and other immune system components gradually reduces.
Tonsils are considered lymphatic organs and act like lymph nodes, although they are much larger. Tonsillitis is caused by an infection of the tonsils, the lymphoid tissues in the back of the mouth at the top of the throat that normally help to filter out bacteria.
When the tonsils are infected, they become swollen and inflamed, and can cause a sore throat, fever, and difficulty swallowing. The infection can also spread to the throat and surrounding areas, causing pain and inflammation. A child with repeated tonsil infections may need to have them removed (a tonsillectomy).
The spleen — an organ located on the left side of your abdomen — is also a lymphoid organ, although instead of filtering lymph fluid, it filters blood.
The spleen helps control the amount of blood and blood cells that circulate through the body and helps destroy damaged cells. Certain diseases can cause the spleen to swell to several times its normal size. Usually, this is due to a viral infection, such as mononucleosis.
But in some cases, more serious diseases such as cancer can cause it to expand. Doctors usually tell someone with an enlarged spleen to avoid contact sports like football for a while because a swollen spleen is vulnerable to rupturing (bursting). And if it ruptures, it can cause a huge amount of blood loss.
One of the major lymphatic vessels is the thoracic duct, which begins near the lower part of the spine and collects lymph from the pelvis, abdomen, and lower chest. The thoracic duct runs up through the chest and empties into the blood through a large vein near the left side of the neck.
The right lymphatic duct is the other major lymphatic vessel and collects lymph from the right side of the neck, chest, and arm, and empties into a large vein near the right side of the neck.
Inside the lymph nodes, lymphocytes called T-cells and B-cells help the body fight infection. Lymphatic tissue is also scattered throughout the body in different major organs and in and around the gastrointestinal tract.
Lymph fluid drains into lymph capillaries, which are tiny vessels. The fluid is then pushed along when a person breathes or the muscles contract. The lymph capillaries are very thin, and they have many tiny openings that allow gases, water, and nutrients to pass through to the surrounding cells, nourishing them and taking away waste products.
When lymph fluid leaks through in this way it is called interstitial fluid.
Lymph vessels collect the interstitial fluid and then return it to the bloodstream by emptying it into large veins in the upper chest, near the neck.
People who do yoga have a healthy immune system.
CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL