SOMBODY CALLED ME UP AND CRIED..
YOU LAST POST BELOW HAS MADE THE COLLECTIVE BALLS AND TWATS ON THIS PLANET GO TRRRR BRR KERRRR…
CAN YOU DO AN ENCORE? GALA GHEELA KARE KE VAASTE, CHAATNE KE VAASTE….
It a bureaucratic monster controlled by Jews who are driving the Carbon Credit system
While there are now several ways to calculate our “carbon footprint,” we are still receiving a somewhat distorted picture of the situation. Deliberately , calculations of carbon footprint only calculate carbon dioxide.
And the data is cooked up by the Jewish Deep state by bribing/ honey trapping scientists..
A scientist who is denied of research funding is screwed—just because he tells the truth and is his own man
Despite its high potency, methane is typically ignored , because the American fracking lobby controlled and their lackey politicians by Jews want is that way
Methane has a warming potential that is significantly higher than carbon dioxide. It’s time to put methane front and center in climate consciousness where it belongs. Methane gets oxidised to Carbon Dioxide and Co2 gets the baad name,,
GAAND MAARA TULSI NEH , PAKADE GAYE KABEER
WHEN METHANE IS ANTHROPOGENICALLY EMITTED, METHANE IS OXIDIZED IN THE ATMOSPHERE A DECADE OR TWO LATER. ONCE OXIDIZED, THE CARBON IN EACH METHANE MOLECULE IS CONVERTED TO CO2, WHICH THEN STAYS IN THE ATMOSPHERE AS CO2 FOR ANOTHER CENTURY OR MORE.
Methane is the main component of natural gas. Methane enters the atmosphere and eventually combines with oxygen (oxidizes) to form more CO2. Methane converts to CO2 by a simple chemical reaction.
When methane (CH4) reacts with oxygen it forms carbon dioxide and water
I knew this equation below at the age of 13
This reaction is also a redox reaction as carbon is getting oxidised and oxygen is getting reduced.
Any reaction that involves oxidation must necessarily involve reduction - it’s essential double-entry bookkeeping. Combustion involves oxidation so it a redox reaction by definition.
To modern chemists familiar with the exchange of electrons in reactions, oxidation refers to the loss of electrons and reduction to the gain of electrons. The modern definition applies to reactions that involve oxygen as well as those that don't, such as the production of methane (CH4) from carbon and hydrogen.
When you add oxygen to methane to produce carbon dioxide and water, that's also oxidation. The carbon atom loses electrons, and its oxidation state changes while the oxygen atoms gain electrons and are reduced. This is known as a redox reaction.
A redox reaction is a chemical reaction in which electrons are transferred between two reactants participating in it. This transfer of electrons can be identified by observing the changes in the oxidation states of the reacting species.
Because of its four valence electrons, carbon can exist in a variety of oxidation states, ranging from +4 to -4. That's why it forms so many compounds, more than any other element. To determine its state in a particular compound, you generally have to look at the bonds it forms with the other elements in the compound.
Hydrogen has only one valence electron, and since that electron is in its first shell, it needs only one electron to fill the shell. This makes it an electron attractor with an oxidation state of +1.
Hydrogen can also lose an electron and exist in a -1 oxidation state when it combines with Group 1 metals to form metal hydrides, such as NaH and LiH, but in most cases, such as when it combines with carbon, it's always in the +1 oxidation state.
To compute the oxidation state of carbon in the methane molecule, you treat each carbon-hydrogen bond as if it were ionic. The molecule has no net charge, so the sum of all the carbon-hydrogen bonds has to be 0. This means the carbon atom donates four electrons, which makes its oxidation state -4.
When you combine methane with oxygen, the products are carbon dioxide, water and energy in the form of heat and light. The balanced equation for this reaction is
CH4 + 2 O2 -> CO2 + 2 H2O + energy
When energy is water released during the course of a chemical reaction, it is said to be an exothermic reaction. The oxidation number of elemental Carbon and oxygen are ZERO each.
Carbon undergoes a dramatic change in its oxidation state in this reaction. Whereas its oxidation number in methane is -4, in carbon dioxide, it's +4. That's because oxygen is an electron acceptor which always has an oxidation state of -2, and there are two oxygen atoms for every carbon atom in CO2. The oxidation state of hydrogen, on the other hand, remains unchanged.
The oxidation and reduction occurring together are called a redox reaction.
Example: In this reaction, copper oxide is being reduced to copper whereas hydrogen is being oxidised to water.
The most reduced form of carbon is CH4, the most oxidized is CO2. Thus the oxidation state of a one-carbon fragment is unambiguous and defined by the number of C-H bonds that have been replaced by C-X bonds, where X = any electronegative element
Methane oxidation is a microbial metabolic process for energy generation and carbon assimilation from methane that is carried out by specific groups of bacteria, the methanotrophs. Methane (CH4) is oxidized with molecular oxygen (O2) to carbon dioxide (CO2).
Methanotrophy is the microbially mediated process of the oxidation of CH4 with O2 to methanol , formaldehyde , formate, and finally CO2 ... The process is performed by a specialized group of bacteria (qv), the methanotrophs (CH4 oxidizing bacteria).
They are a subgroup of the methylotrophs , bacteria capable of utilizing single-carbon compounds . Methane is both the energy source
e (electron donor) and the sole or partial carbon source for methanotroph
VADAKAYIL SAYS CONVERT METHANE INTO CO2 TO REDUCE GLOBAL WARMING
ALL UN/ WEF PLANS TO TACKLE CLIMATE CHANGE REVOLVE AROUND CUTTING DOWN ON CARBON DIOXIDE, BY REDUCING HUMAN EMISSIONS.
IN THE FIGHT AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE THE SPOT LIGHT SHOULD BE ON METHANE LEAKS FROM HUMAN CAUSED FRACKING. NATURAL SWAMPS FROM ALL OVER THE PLANET EMIT HUMONGOUS AMOUNTS OF METHANE
VAST METHANE EMISSIONS EMERGING FROM THE AMAZON RAINFOREST WERE OBSERVED BY SATELLITES BUT THAT NOBODY COULD FIND ON THE GROUND. AROUND 25 MILLION TONS WAS SIMPLY UNACCOUNTED FOR.
TREES IN THE EXTENSIVE FLOODED FORESTS, WERE STIMULATING METHANE PRODUCTION IN THE WATERLOGGED SOILS AND MAINLINING IT INTO THE ATMOSPHERE.
MOST OF THE WORLD’S ESTIMATED 3.1 TRILLION TREES EMIT METHANE AT LEAST SOME OF THE TIME.
IN THE SEASONALLY FLOODED PART OF THE AMAZON, THE TREES BECOME A MASSIVE CHIMNEY FOR PUMPING OUT METHANE
JEWISH CORPORATIONS PLANT USELESS TREES TO OFFSET THEIR CARBON EMISSIONS
IN AMAZON RAINFOREST OF BRAZIL I HAVE PERSONALLY PUNCHED HOLES IN TREE BARK AND SET FIRE TO METHANE GASES HISSING FROM THE TRUNK. I AM AN AMAZON EXPERT
BRIBED AND HONEY TRAPPED SCIENTISTS CLAIMED THAT FORESTS ABSORB METHANE, RATHER THAN RELEASING IT.
The trees were emitting as much methane as all the tundra ecosystems of the Arctic, whose permafrost contains huge amounts of the gas—a store that is expected to be released in ever-greater quantities as the region warms and its soils thaw.
MOLECULE FOR MOLECULE, METHANE IS A MUCH MORE POTENT PLANET-WARMER THAN CO2.
THERE IS A TOTAL FOOTPRINT OF 70 MILLION TONS OF METHANE ANNUALLY FROM WETLAND TREES AND THIS TRUTH IS SUPPRESSED .. THAT IS A THIRD OF THE TOTAL FROM NATURAL WETLANDS. A THIRD WE DIDN’T KNOW ABOUT AT ALL ..
TREE TRUNKS MAY LOOK SOLID, BUT THEY CONTAIN SPACES AND CHANNELS THROUGH WHICH GASES TRAVEL UP AND DOWN. A LARGE PROPORTION OF THE VOLUME OF A TREE STEM IS GAS
WETLAND TREES ARE MUCH MORE THAN CONDUITS. THEY CREATE THE CONDITIONS, AND PROVIDE THE RAW MATERIALS, FOR METHANE GENERATION BY MICRO-ORGANISMS.
IN WETLAND SYSTEMS, TREES SEND A LOT OF CARBON INTO THEIR ROOTS THIS DELIVERY, KNOWN AS RHIZODEPOSITION, PROVIDES THE ESSENTIAL RAW MATERIALS FOR METHANE-GENERATING MICRO-ORGANISMS THAT CONGREGATE AMONG THE TREES’ ROOTS. TEES ARE BIOREACTORS
Some methane comes from photochemical reactions in their foliage. More may be from microbes living in the trunks that themselves generate methane
NATURAL WETLANDS EMIT METHANE. DUE TO THEIR NATURE -- WETLANDS ARE, AFTER ALL, WET -- SOIL MICROBES AND PLANTS ARE FORCED TO METABOLIZE UNDER ANAEROBIC CONDITIONS. AND, THIS LEADS TO METHANE PRODUCTION. THE SOIL MICROBES ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF METHANE IN WETLANDS.
METHANE IS RELEASED FROM ANAEROBIC WETLAND SOILS TO THE ATMOSPHERE THROUGH DIFFUSION OF DISSOLVED METHANE, EBULLITION OF GAS BUBBLES, AND VIA PLANTS THAT, LIKE RICE, DEVELOP AERENCHYMA TISSUE. LARGE PORTIONS OF METHANE FORMED IN AN ANAEROBIC SOIL REMAIN TRAPPED IN THE FLOODED SOIL.
METHANOGENESIS IS AN ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION THAT GENERATES METHANE AS THE FINAL PRODUCT OF METABOLISM.
Wetlands are characterized by water-logged soils and distinctive communities of plant and animal species that have evolved and adapted to the constant presence of water. This high level of water saturation creates conditions conducive to methane production.
Most methanogenesis, or methane production, occurs in oxygen-poor environments. Because the microbes that live in warm, moist environments consume oxygen more rapidly than it can diffuse in from the atmosphere, wetlands are the ideal anaerobic environments for fermentation as well as methanogen activity.
However, levels of methanogenesis can fluctuate as it is dependent on the availability of oxygen, temperature of the soil, and the composition of the soil; a warmer, more anaerobic environment with soil rich in organic matter would allow for more efficient methanogenesis.
Depending on the wetland and type of archaea, hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, another process that yields methane, occurs. This process occurs as a result of archaea oxidizing hydrogen with carbon dioxide to yield methane and water.
4H2 + CO2 → CH4 + 2H2O
Once produced, methane can reach the atmosphere via three main pathways: molecular diffusion, transport through plant aerenchyma, and ebullition. Primary productivity fuels methane emissions both directly and indirectly because plants not only provide much of the carbon needed for methane producing processes in wetlands but can affect its transport as well.
Diffusion through the profile refers to the movement of methane up through soil and bodies of water to reach the atmosphere. Because methane can travel more quickly through soil than water, diffusion plays a much bigger role in wetlands with drier, more loosely compacted soil.
Plant-mediated methane flux through plant aerenchyma, can contribute 40-100% of the total methane flux from wetlands with emergent vegetation
Plant aerenchyma refers to the vessel-like transport tubes within the tissues of certain kinds of plants. Plants with aerenchyma possess porous tissue that allows for direct travel of gases to and from the plant roots.
Methane can travel directly up from the soil into the atmosphere using this transport system. The direct "shunt" created by the aerenchyma allows for methane to bypass oxidation by oxygen that is also transported by the plants to their roots.
Ebullition refers to the sudden release of bubbles of methane into the air. These bubbles occur as a result of methane building up over time in the soil, forming pockets of methane gas. As these pockets of trapped methane grow in size, the level of the soil will slowly rise up as well.
This phenomenon continues until so much pressure builds up that the bubble "pops," transporting the methane up through the soil so quickly that it does not have time to be consumed by the methanotrophic organisms in the soil. With this release of gas, the level of soil then falls once more.
Ebullition in wetlands can be recorded by delicate sensors, called piezometers, that can detect the presence of pressure pockets within the soil. Hydraulic heads are also used to detect the subtle rising and falling of the soil as a result of pressure build up and release.
There is an increase in pressure after significant rainfall, which shows that rainfall is directly related to methane emissions in wetlands
The magnitude of methane emission from a wetland are usually measured using eddy covariance, gradient or chamber flux techniques, and depends upon several factors, including water table, comparative ratios of methanogenic bacteria to methanotrophic bacteria, transport mechanisms, temperature, substrate type, plant life, and climate. These factors work together to effect and control methane flux in wetlands.
Overall the main determinant of net flux of methane into the atmosphere is the ratio of methane produced by methanogenic bacteria that makes it to the surface relative to the amount of methane that is oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria before reaching the atmosphere.
This ratio is in turn affected by the other controlling factors of methane in the environment. Additionally, pathways of methane emission affect how the methane travels into the atmosphere and thus have an equal effect on methane flux in wetlands.
The first controlling factor to consider is the level of the water table. Not only does pool and water table location determine the areas where methane production or oxidation may take place, but it also determines how quickly methane can diffuse into the air.
When traveling through water, the methane molecules run into the quickly moving water molecules and thus take a longer time to reach the surface. Travel through soil, however, is much easier and results in easier diffusion into the atmosphere.
This theory of movement is supported by observations made in wetlands where significant fluxes of methane occurred after a drop in the water table due to drought
If the water table is at or above the surface, then methane transport begins to take place primarily through ebullition and vascular or pressurized plant mediated transport, with high levels of emission occurring during the day from plants that use pressurized ventilation.
Temperature is an important factor to consider as the environmental temperature—and temperature of the soil in particular—affects the metabolic rate of production or consumption by bacteria.
Because methane fluxes occur annually with the seasons, evidence shows that suggests that the temperature changing coupled with water table level work together to cause and control the seasonal cycles
The composition of soil and substrate availability change the nutrients available for methanogenic and methanotrophic bacteria, and thus directly affects the rate of methane production and consumption.
For example, wetlands soils with high levels of acetate or hydrogen and carbon dioxide are conducive to methane production. Additionally, the type of plant life and amount of plant decomposition affects the nutrients available to the bacteria as well as the acidity.
Plant leachates such as phenolic compounds from Sphagnum can also interact with soil characteristics to influence methane production and consumption. A constant availability of cellulose and a soil pH of about 6.0 have been determined to provide optimum conditions for methane production and consumption; however, substrate quality can be overridden by other factors.
Soil pH and composition must still be compared to the effects of water table and temperature.
Net ecosystem production (NEP) and climate changes are the all encompassing factors that have been shown to have a direct relationship with methane emissions from wetlands. In wetlands with high water tables, NEP has been shown to increase and decrease with methane emissions, due to the fact that both NEP and methane emissions flux with substrate availability and soil composition.
In wetlands with lower water tables, the movement of oxygen in and out of the soil can increase the oxidation of methane and the inhibition of methanogenesis, nulling the relationship between methane emission and NEP because methane production becomes dependent upon factors deep within the soil.
A changing climate affects many factors within the ecosystem, including water table, temperature, and plant composition within the wetland—all factors that affect methane emissions.
Humans often drain wetlands in the name of development, housing, and agriculture. By draining wetlands, the water table is thus lowered, increasing consumption of methane by the methanotrophic bacteria in the soil. As a result of draining, water saturated ditches develop, which due to the warm, moist environment, end up emitting a large amount of methane.
If the water table is lowered significantly enough, then the wetland can actually be transformed from a source of methane into a sink that consumes methane.
According to the EPA’s overview of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2) accounts for about 82 percent of all greenhouse gas emissions from human activities in the U.S. Vadakayil says – MY LEFT BALL
The Jewish fracking lobby lies-- in the U.S., methane only accounts for nine percent of total greenhouse gas emissions
Of the processes that emit carbon dioxide, electricity and transportation account for 70 percent of emissions in the U.S. The combustion of fossil fuels is the chief culprit. MY RIGHT BALL says Vadakayil
An important source of methane is garbage is landfills.
THEY JEWISH DEEP STATE WANTS INDIANS TO STOP EATING RIVE AND GRADUATE TO GMO RICE
GRRRR BRRRRRR TRRRRRR PRRRRRRR
MY REVELATIONS ARE NOW AT 60.83 %
CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL
CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL