THIS POST IS CONTINUED FROM PART 6 BELOW-
this is the story of the jamestown colony, the oldest permanent english settlement in america, which failed as a utopia but succeeded as a tobacco plantation. so, what went wrong in jamestown, and what went right?
this classic exploration of jamestown and colonial virginia attempts to explain the evolution of a colony committed to slavery
jamestown is the dark underside of american colonial development. placing colonial virginia was not some altruistic testing ground for english expansion
reclusive director terrence malick's the new world is a breathtakingly ambitious but only partially successful cinematic retelling of the story of jamestown's founding. its historical value is zilch , says vadakayil
as many as 88% of virginia's 17th-century immigrants arrived as indentured servants ( euphemism for slaves ) .
virginia was originally called jamestown after the king of england at that time, king james i, it was also known as “old dominion.” it was one of the first ever british colonies in the new world. some call it the “mother of presidents,” as eight u.s. presidents were born and raised in virginia. as one of the thirteen colonies that united to declare independence from the british crown, virginia has come a long way from being a southern british colony to a thriving metropolitan state.
it all started in mid-1606, when the king of england, king james i, gave a land grant to two english companies to settle in what is now modern-day virginia
the first of the two english companies to travel and settle in jamestown was the london company. king james of england agreed for the company to set up a fort, a settlement and a company building with two main goals: to find bountiful gold and to find a route to the south seas or the orient. king james i also asked the company to find the lost colony in roanoke island, which had mysteriously disappeared after having set up the first settlement in the new world.
by december of the same year when king james granted the mission, a total of 105 men arrived at jamestown, having experienced hunger because of the lack of food. forty-five men didn’t make it to their destination. after a year, they arrived at chesapeake bay, called it cape henry, and set up a fort about 60 miles from it. recorded history says that the large triangular fort was set up within a month’s time, because some men who survived the seas and landed on the bay were craftsmen, artisans and laborers. inside the wooden fort were a church, a storehouse, and the settler’s houses.
captain john smith kept the colony from fading, but the colony was shaky to start with. disease, famine and algonquian attacks didn’t make living easy. it is curious that captain john smith said that the place they had gone into was a paradise for man. the land quickly turned out to be unfriendly, brutal and unforgiving. insects, harsh winters, and intense heat had all taken a toll on the ill-prepared colonists and settlers by surprise, causing the death of most of the original population which were 214 men and women.
many of the original settlers were what captain john smith considered as “gentlemen,” by this, he meant that these men wouldn’t know what labor and working meant. they had been lured into the situation by the london company owned by jew rothschild and by the king of england himself who thought that virginia a land of gold and answers to expanding his kingdom.
it was in 1609 that nine ships from england arrived at jamestown with 400 hungry mouths to feed. the colony had gone through horror after horror, with very poor living conditions resulting in the deaths of many. the colony saw the worst when the man who had been struggling for so long to keep the colony together, captain john smith, was injured in a gunpowder explosion and had to go back to england.
jamestown was known for its deathly winters and soon after captain john smith left the colony, the settlers experienced the worst winter known as the “starving time.” no more than 10% of the whole colony’s population survived this winter, and their survival was by no means easy. some colonists had turned to eating pets and mice to be able to survive. some even turned to cannibalism . murdering their own and pretending for the records that they we killed by the indans.
the arrival of stranded ships in bermuda marked the point of resurrection for the seemingly dead colony of jamestown. with the ships came new leaders, including the new governor of the colony, lord de la ware, and more colonists as well as a large supply of food. the resurrection of the colony began.
in 1612, john rolfe one of the early settlers in the new world, was successful in growing tobacco. tobacco easily became the main export of the colony.
with john rolfe, jamestown became a bountiful source of tobacco. the business was booming, and tobacco would be the main currency for quite a time. the english colony in jamestown hadn’t found what the king of england had asked them to find. they didn’t find gold or the route to the orient, or the lost colony of the english in the roanoke. they found tobacco instead. in a span of several years, the dying colony of the english in jamestown quickly became the first ever permanent english settlement in the new world.
the colony was a private venture, financed and organized by the rothschild owned virginia company of london. king james i granted a charter for the establishment of the company on april 10, 1606. during this era, “virginia” was the english name for the entire east coast of north america north of florida. the charter gave the company the right to settle anywhere from roughly present-day north carolina to new york state. the company’s plan was to reward investors by locating gold and silver deposits
a contingent of approximately 105 colonists departed england in late december 1606 in three ships—the susan constant, the godspeed, and the discovery—under the command of christopher newport.
they reached chesapeake bay on april 26, 1607. soon afterward the captains of the three ships met to open a box containing the names of members of the colony’s governing council: newport; bartholomew gosnold, one of the behind-the-scenes initiators of the virginia company; edward-maria wingfield, a major investor; john ratcliffe; george kendall; john martin; and captain john smith, a former mercenary who had fought in the netherlands and hungary.
wingfield became the colony’s first president. smith had been accused of plotting a mutiny during the ocean voyage and was not admitted to the council until weeks later, on june 10.
after a period of searching for a settlement site, the colonists moored the ships off a peninsula (now an island) in the james river on the night of may 13 and began to unload them on may 14. the site’s marshy setting and humidity would prove to be unhealthful, but the site had several apparent advantages at the time the colony’s leaders chose it: ships could pull up close to it in deep water for easy loading and unloading, it was unoccupied, and it was joined to the mainland only by a narrow neck of land, making it simpler to defend.
most indian tribes of the region were part of the powhatan empire, with chief powhatan as its head. the colonists’ relations with the local tribes were mixed from the beginning. the two sides conducted business with each other, the english trading their metal tools and other goods for the native americans’ food supplies. indians showed generosity in providing gifts of food to the colony. on other occasions, encounters between the colonists and the tribes turned violent, and they killed each other...
the first mass casualties of the colony took place in august 1607, when a combination of bad water from the river, disease-bearing mosquitoes, and limited food rations created a wave of dysentery, severe fevers, and other serious health problems. numerous colonists died, and at times as few as five able-bodied settlers were left to bury the dead.
in the aftermath, three members of the council—john smith, john martin, and john ratcliffe—acted to eject edward-maria wingfield from his presidency on september 10. ratcliffe took wingfield’s place. it was apparently a lawful transfer of power, authorized by the company’s rules that allowed the council to remove the president for just cause.
rothschild sent two experts in gold refining (to determine whether ore samples contained genuine gold), as well as two goldsmiths. with the support of most of the colony’s leadership, the colonists embarked on a lengthy effort to dig around the riverbanks of the area. “there was no talke, no hope, no worke, but dig gold, refine gold, load gold,” one colonist remembered.
in london, meanwhile, the company received a new royal charter on may 23, 1609, which gave the colony a new form of management, replacing its president and council with a governor. the company determined that sir thomas gates would hold that position for the first year of the new charter. he sailed for virginia in june with a fleet of nine ships and hundreds of new colonists. the fleet was caught in a hurricane en route, however, and gates’s ship was wrecked off bermuda.
in the autumn of 1609, chief powhatan began a campaign to starve the english out of virginia. the tribes under his rule stopped bartering for food and carried out attacks on english parties that came in search of trade. hunting became highly dangerous, as the powhatan indians also killed englishmen they found outside the fort. long reliant on the indians, the colony found itself with far too little food for the winter.
as the food stocks ran out, the settlers ate the colony’s animals—horses, dogs, and cats—and then turned to eating rats, mice, and shoe leather. in their desperation, some practiced cannibalism. the winter of 1609–10, commonly known as the starving time, took a heavy toll. of the 500 colonists living in jamestown in the autumn, fewer than one-fifth were still alive by march 1610. sixty were still in jamestown; another 37, more fortunate, had escaped by ship.
on may 24, 1610, two ships, the deliverance and the patience, unexpectedly arrived. the colonists who had wrecked on the bermuda islands all had survived and managed to rebuild the two ships to carry them onward. those colonists, led by gates (the new governor) and george somers, assumed they would find a thriving colony. instead they found near-skeletal survivors. gates and somers had brought only a small food supply, so gates decided to abandon the colony.
on june 7 all the colonists boarded four small ships to head home. on their way out of the chesapeake bay, however, they encountered an incoming fleet of three ships under thomas west, 12th baron de la warr, who ordered them to turn around. west brought with him 150 new settlers, ample provisions for the colony, and orders from the company naming him governor and captain-general of virginia.
chief powhatan warned west-- either keep the colonists within the jamestown peninsula or leave the country. the exchange brought about a state of war. west left virginia in march 1611, after struggling with a series of diseases, but the hostilities between the indians and the english continued.
sir samuel argall, a mariner who had taken west back to england, returned to the colony and became acquainted with japazeus, the chief of the patawomeck tribe. the patawomeck were located along the potomac river, beyond chief powhatan’s empire. in march 1613 argall chanced to learn that powhatan’s daughter pocahontas was staying with japazeus. argall resolved to kidnap her and ransom her
after armtwisting japazeus to cooperate, argall seized pocahontas and brought her to jamestown. he sent a messenger to chief powhatan with his demands. negotiations broke down altogether as kidnapping a chief’s daughter for ransom was against the indian culture
rolfe’s experiments with tobacco quickly transformed the settlement. by replacing native virginia tobacco with more-palatable plants from the west indies, he was able to raise a product that could compete with spanish tobacco in the british market. after rolfe sent his first barrels to england in 1614, other colonists observed his lucrative results and imitated him. by the end of the decade, the colony had virtually a one-crop economy.
in the summer of 1619 two significant changes occurred in the colony that would have lasting influence. one was the company’s introduction of representative government to english america
the second far-reaching development was the arrival in the colony (in august) of the first african slaves in english america. they had been carried on a portuguese slave ship sailing from angola to veracruz, mexico.
the black slaves were chained and put to work on the tobacco harvest, an arduous undertaking. indians did not kill the black slaves
chief powhatan’s successor, opechancanough, carried out a surprise attack on the colony on the morning of march 22, 1622. the attack was strongest at the plantations and other english outposts that now lined the james river. the main settlement at jamestown received a warning of the attack and was able to mount a defense. some 400 colonists died. the deaths that day represented one-third of the colony’s population of 1,240.
the outcry in london over the attack, combined with political disagreements between james i and the company’s leaders, led the king to appoint a commission in april 1623 to investigate the company’s condition. predictably, the commission returned a negative report. the king’s advisers, the privy council, urged the company to accept a new charter that gave the king greater control over its operations.
the company refused. on may 24, 1624, motivated in part by domestic political differences with the company’s leadership, the king dissolved the company outright and made virginia a royal colony, an arm of his government. jamestown remained the colonial capital until williamsburg became the capital in 1699.
jamestown, founded in 1607, was the first successful permanent english settlement in what would become the united states. the settlement existed for nearly 100 years as the capital of the virginia colony, but it was abandoned after the capital moved to williamsburg in 1699.
the history of jamestown (sometimes spelled jamestowne) includes human cannibalism, enslaved people forcibly brought from africa and children kidnapped off the streets of london and taken to the colony. jamestown is the "creation story from hell"
jamestown was not the first successful permanent european settlement in what would become the united states; that distinction belongs to st. augustine, in florida, which the spanish founded in 1565.
at the beginning of the 17th century, england's attempts to colonize the americas lagged behind other european nations' endeavours. spain controlled a vast empire in the western hemisphere that included much of south and central america, mexico, part of the caribbean and a settlement in florida. the spanish were also moving into what is now the american southwest.
meanwhile, the french were exploring canada's northeast and, in time, would establish a highly profitable fur trade in the region.
in the 16th century, the english had attempted to found roanoke colony, but the venture ended in disaster; the colonists disappeared and were never heard from again. this colony was located in what is now the outer banks area of north carolina..
the founding of jamestown had the blessing of england's king james i, and the settlement and nearby james river were named in his honor. however, the settlement was financed and run by the virginia company, a joint-stock company that king james i chartered. this company, in turn, was financed by jew rothschild, who expected the colonists to discover a valuable commodity, or a route to east asia, which would make the enterprise profitable and offer a return on their investment.
jamestown expanded after being established, creating tensions with the indigenous people living in the area.
the indigenous people in the area were the powhatan and were led by wahunsenacawh, whom europeans often called "chief powhatan: his realm was known as "tsenacommacah" and it encompassed about 15,000 people who lived in several communities
when the english landed there in may 1607, they divided themselves into three groups: one group was to build fortifications, a storehouse and some simple houses; the second group was to plant crops; and the third party was to explore the area in search of minerals
it did not take long for the colonists to run into trouble. within a few weeks, a force of several hundred powhatans attacked the settlement. the colonists had not even unpacked their muskets, and so they relied on naval gunfire from the ships that were still off the coast to repel the attackers. had the ships not fired their ordnance, the colony would have been overwhelmed,
in the following few weeks, the settlers focused on building a fort, which was a triangular palisade with three bulwarks, or raised platforms, for cannons.
before long, the colonists started dying. of the 104 men and boys who landed, only 38 were still alive by january 1608 .. tthe colonists' drinking water was salty and contained arsenic.. additionally, food ran out. a particularly harsh winter compounded the misery of the colonists.
there were never englishmen left in a foreign country in such misery as were in this new discovered virginia.
in that first year, the bodies were buried in unmarked graves to prevent the powhatans from finding out that so many of the settlers had died
excavated grave shafts contain two bodies each. according to the historic jamestowne website, the colonists likely resorted to double burials because so many men were dying in a short timespan. twenty individuals died in august 1607 alone, and multiple burials saved energy and time.
although the colony had been resupplied, along with 100 new settlers, in january 1608, the settlers hit another low during the winter of 1609 to 1610 — a period that became known as the "starving time," by this time, smith had been forced to return to england due to gunpowder injuries, and the colony's new governor, thomas gates, had been shipwrecked on the island of bermuda along with essential supplies.
by this point, relations with the powhatans had deteriorated to the point where trade was impossible and the jamestown fort was under siege. when the colonists ran out of food, they fed upon horses and other beasts as long as they lasted, and then they were glad to make shift with vermin, as dogs, cats, rats and mice,
colonists resorted to human cannibalism to survive.
in may 1610, gates made his way from bermuda to the colony on makeshift ships made partly from wood found on bermuda. finding only 60 survivors at jamestown, he gave the order to abandon the settlement but not to burn it. as the group set out to sea, however, they encountered a fleet led by english merchant and politician lord de la warr, with fresh supplies and new colonists, so they returned to jamestown and repaired the fort.
during the colony's early years, it was difficult to convince new settlers to go to jamestown; as a result, some people, including prisoners and those living on the streets, were sent against their will, the city of london even raised money to send london's homeless to virginia,. all of them were males.
in 1618, the virginia company became particularly interested in getting homeless children to the colony as children were believed to be "more pliable than adults," instructions were issued to london's constables to apprehend male street children and take them to a place where they would wait to be taken overseas. poor families were also coerced to send children they couldn't support to jamestown,
in the following decade jamestown's situation improved. martial law was imposed, solving, however harshly, some of the discipline problems — such as people ignoring orders — experienced during the first three years of the colony,
until this point, the colonists had failed to find a marketable commodity that would help fund the settlement and develop its economy, but this problem was solved in 1612, when a settler named john rolfe experimented with tobacco seeds ― from trinidad ― and developed a marketable crop that could be exported to england. king james i later gave the virginia company a monopoly on tobacco, making the trade even more profitable. he even allowed the company to set up a lottery to provide additional funds for the jamestown venture
in august 1619, a dutch ship arrived at jamestown and traded food supplies for the ship's cargo of around 20 enslaved people, who were originally from angola. "slavery as it was later defined did not yet exist in the chesapeake, and some of these africans lived to achieve their freedom,"
they worked as indentured servants (as many english newcomers did), but were forced to labor for longer terms. indentured servants normally had to work for the company for a certain time to pay for their passage and goods given them.
while people from africa had been brought to the americas as slaves to work in central and south america in the 16th century, 1619 marked the first time that africans were brought to north america to work as slaves at an english colony.
today, 1619 is regarded as the beginning of a new period in american history. "the unequal social status of african americans begins with the 246-year period from 1619 to 1865, when slavery was a critically important economic and social institution in american life. as the colony expanded, more slave were brought into virginia.
in 1619, sir george yeardley, a former colonist who had been appointed governor in 1618, returned to jamestown from england with instructions from the virginia company to create "a laudable form of government" that would create "just laws for the happy guiding and governing of the people there,"
in july of that year, 30 men met for the first time in jamestown to discuss issues facing the growing colony. "this assembly was the first expression of english representative government in north america"
in 1619, the virginia company created a program that encouraged single young attractive women ( prisoners / whores ) to travel to jamestown, which in its early years had been a male settlement. the company hoped that more women in the colony would encourage the jamestown men to settle down, rather than return to england after making some money.
the virginia company set a "bride price" of 150 pounds (68 kilograms) of tobacco to be paid by a man to the company who married one of the women,
after the death of the peacemaker chief powhatan in april 1618, war seemed inevitable. with the english colony growing, and the settlers using more land and making more aggressive attempts to convert powhatan people to christianity the stage was set for a showdown.
opechancanough, chief powhatan's successor, felt threatened by the growing english presence, which by that time consisted of more than 1,000 people on several plantations. in 1622, he launched a surprise attack in an attempt to wipe out the colony. many white men raped indian female children
the virginia company claimed the attack killed 347 people, although the actual death toll was likely higher. the english were forced to abandon some plantations and cluster closer together.
although the attack succeeded in killing many english, it failed in its aim of pushing them out of the region. more settlers arrived to work on the plantations, and the attack gave the english an excuse to wage war against opechancanough's people, sparing only the children so that they could be converted to christianity and forced to work on the english plantations,
this war was a take-no-prisoners affair. in may 1623 they the colonists invited indian leaders to a peace parley where they served poisoned wine and then fired on the disabled indians. "
from the start of the jamestown colony, the settlers held a number of military advantages over the native american tribes in the region. they had gunpowder weapons, equipment made of steel and iron, as well as armor that could offer some protection from arrow hits. the powhatans, on the other hand, had bows and arrows and melee weapons that may have included clubs, knives and spears.
as the virginia colony grew, jamestown developed into a thriving port town. thousands of colonists either passed through to start tobacco plantations farther inland, or settled in jamestown, which expanded by developing a suburb of sorts called new towne, situated east of the original fort.
representative government took hold in the 1620s, and inns , taverns ( whore houses ) were soon established. the tobacco trade, meanwhile, required warehouses and piers along the shore. jamestown's well-to-do residents built english-style cottages and houses along new towne's main road.
with new settlers flowing in, the english gained control of the chesapeake bay area and launched new colonies (including plymouth in 1620) along the eastern seaboard of the future united states. in may 1624, the virginia company was formally dissolved, and jamestown became a crown colony with a governor appointed by the king.
with the growth of new settlements in virginia, and the english colonists' improving military situation in the region, the original jamestown fort site became redundant. jamestown remained the capital of virginia until 1699 — a fire destroyed jamestown's statehouse in 1698, so the capital moved to Williamsburg
the original jamestown fort cant be seen anymore
the fort had been washed away into the james river in a hurricane.
april 1618: chief powhatan dies of torture ; relations between the powhatans and jamestown's colonists decline.
1619: a program is launched encouraging whores and jailed young women women to migrate to jamestown and operate whore houses or marry colonists.
august 1619: a dutch ship brings more than 20 enslaved people from africa to jamestown.
1622: chief opechancanough, the successor of powhatan, launches a surprise attack on jamestown; more than 300 english people are killed and all-out war breaks out.
may 1624: the virginia company is dissolved and jamestown becomes a crown colony. english settlement in virginia continues to expand, with jamestown as the legislative center.
1699: after a fire burns down the legislative building at jamestown, virginia's capital moves to williamsburg. jamestown itself becomes abandoned.
in the late 1500s, to be more specific—things were no different. england wanted to compete with spain and portugal in having lots of land, goods, and power.
in 1606, james i chartered the virginia company to sail out and set up some colonies in north america. like any jewish capitalist business venture, the virginia company was hoping to score some gold and silver.. they set up shop in jamestown.
jamestown got off to a very rocky start: despite the delivery of roughly 6,230 settlers over jamestown's first 15 years, the town counted only 1,200 living residents as late as 1625. and of course, it failed to find the gold and silver its investors wanted. but finally, it struck it rich in another way: by growing tobacco. in fact, the success of tobacco triggered a gold rush-like boom that lasted through the 1620s.
it generated a small fortune in import tax revenue and provided english tobacco merchants with a valuable product for re-export throughout europe.
however, virginia achieved its economic success only by introducing slavery to england's north american colonies.
so, by the end of the century, the slave ships docked alongside the tobacco fleet in the chesapeake
virginia's settlers sought only wealth.
virginia was settled by a tumultuous crew of young homosexual left handed single men.
while new england immediately thrived, and within decades built a healthy society filled with churches and schools and participatory local governments, virginia failed miserably in its first decade even to feed itself.
last but not least, virginia eventually survived only by developing a one-dimensional economy that depended upon the ruthless exploitation of servants and eventually thousands of african slaves.
new england's colonists instigated their own fair share of horrific brutality, too.
virginia was always more than the snake pit of disease, slavery, and exploitation
hundreds of early virginia settlers died and the colony teetered on the brink of collapse until its leaders finally abandoned well-intentioned plans that simply didn't work in the swampy reality of the chesapeake lowlands.
the little outpost of english settlers founded at jamestown in 1607 was no utopia. its history is no less central to the american story than the more familiar tale—celebrated every thanksgiving—of the pilgrims who landed at plymouth rock nearly a decade and a half after jamestown was founded some 600 miles to the south.
26th nov 2020 is thanksgiving day of america.. this day is a big lie.
lying rothschild peer reviewed historians have written that thanksgiving is modeled on a 1621 harvest feast shared by the english colonists (pilgrims) of plymouth and the wampanoag people.
plymouth is considered "america's hometown" as it was the site of the first permanent european settlement in new england.
in 1863 president abraham lincoln appointed a day of thanksgiving as the last thursday in november, correlated it with the november 21, 1621, anchoring of the mayflower at cape cod. distance of plymouth, ma to cape cod is 50 kms
13 years before the white man landed at plymouth , the white man landed at jamestown.( cape henry )
on may 13, 1607 three english ships owned by jew rothschild’s virginia tobacco company of london the susan constant, godspeed and discovery with 144 all male settlers and sailors, landed at jamestown named after king james i..
jew rothschild’s employee virginia tobacco company treasurer homosexual jew sir john smith landed at jamestown among them.
the captain of the fleet captain christopher newport put john smith was under arrest for most of the trip because he was caught with his pants down sodomising the 12-year-old cabin boy named samuel collier.
he had been warned earlier twice by the captain to spare the small boy ..
the three ships were packed with left handed homosexual jews, who were caught indulging in cannibalism deported from england and germany.
jamestown is shameful chapter of american history.. the school text books of america fails to mention jamestown where the first white homosexual men were deported...
in jamestown area, red indians did not frequent due to lack of food. small pox blankets were planted to exterminate red indians in that entire area.
the king of calicut had deported left handed homosexual namboodiri younger brothers , the first semites , to jerusalem.. they were circumcised and isolated at minicoy island ..
exodus was not from egypt to palestine of jew slaves as moses never existed
the real exodus was from punt ( north kerala ) to palestine, of kerala semites , the disgraced younger others of kerala aryan namboodiris...
these semites were allowed to be spice middlemen at jerusalem after the king landed his spices at salalah , took it by overland camel route to jerusalem.
the primary aim of circumcision was to harness the thymus gland ( to curb homosexual impulse ) as per 6200 year old ayurveda text susruta samhita.. foreskin is not a vestigial structure
virginia company colonized america in jamestown 13 years before mayflower landed at plymouth..
robert cecil knew that queen elizabeth i had balls and a prick via her jewess maid who wiped her asshole after a shit and gave her a blow job daily.
robert cecil knew that walter raleigh was pounding this pretty maid..
queen elizabeth i would insult dwarf robert cecil by calling him “ my pygmy”..
powerful robert cecil would insult the queen by declaring when she must step off the throne and go to bed..
king james i would abuse robert cecil by calling him “ my little beagle” .. beagle is a midget dog..
jew robert cecil would abuse him back and warn him that he will be tightening the purse strings..
robert cecil chose james i to take over the throne from elizabeth i, the virgin queen ( a man ) for which james i elevated this german jew to english peerage and knighthood ..
in 1605 jew richard hakluyt , the personal chaplain to robert cecil secured the prospective living of jamestown, the intended capital of the intended colony of virginia.
king james i was an anal sex receiving homosexual..
king james i governed england without a parliament; the virginia company of rotshchild was the english parliament
1625 james was the son of mary, queen of scots, and a great-great-grandson of henry vii, king of england
thirteen years later in 1620 ad, 102 settlers of sephardic jewish ancestry ( pilgrims ) aboard the ship mayflower landed in massachusetts at a place they named plymouth. with these two colonies, english settlement in north america was born.
mayflower dropped anchor near the tip of cape cod, massachusetts, on november 21 , 1620.
the 'first thanksgiving' was a jewish ceremony..
before disembarking the mayflower, the pilgrims wrote and signed the mayflower compact, an agreement that established a rudimentary government, in which each member would contribute to the safety and welfare of the planned settlement. as one of the earliest colonial vessels, the ship has become a cultural icon in the history of the united states
jew john carver (died 1621) was one of the pilgrims on mayflower voyage in 1620 which resulted in the creation of plymouth colony in america. he is credited with writing the mayflower compact and was its first signer, and he was also the first governor of plymouth colony
nearly half the mayflower passengers died in the course of a few months. the first will drawn up in new england was that of william mullins, and it was written on his behalf by carver while mullins was on his deathbed. it was signed as the last will and testament of mullins by carver, mayflower's captain christopher jones, and the ship's surgeon giles heale. this is the only known copy of carver's signature
after carver died , jew william bradford, became governor of the colony wrote about how they thanked yhvh / yahveh before eating the roast turkey..
bradley’s tombstone inscription are in hebrew..
shakespeare died on 23rd april 1616.
mayflower reached america on 21st nov 1620...
tempest was written by shakespeare in 1611 ad.
the misadventure of rothschild owned ship sea venture was the inspiration for william shakespeare to write “the tempest”..
sea venture commanded by christopher newport. was part of the third supply mission to the jamestown colony america , that was wrecked in bermuda in 1609.
christopher newport was also "vice admiral" of the third supply mission.
the tempest ( hurricane ) started on 24th july 1609 .
the admiral of the company sir george somers, who had taken the helm, deliberately drove the sinking ship upon a reef in bermuda to prevent her foundering on 25 july 1609.
the survivors (150 colonists and crew members, and one dog) constructed two smaller ships, the deliverance and the patience, from the wreck and the abundant native bermuda cedar.
they arrived at jamestown 10 months later than planned arrived at the jamestown settlement on the 23rd may 1610..
stephen hopkins was a passenger on the mayflower in 1620, one of 41 signatories of the mayflower compact.. his descendant keeps giving bull on internet..
the initial white settlers at jamestown america, who arrived 13 years before pilgrim ship "mayflower" in plymouth , were all jewish left handed homosexuals who had small pox scars on face and whose ancestors were cannibals.
the foul lie nay brainwash spread by school books of american children is that the ship mayflower landed at plymouth , cape cod in america on 11th nov 1620 with 102 “pilgrims” the first white immigrants to land in america ( reminds us of dreamers, right? tee heee )..
before mayflower arrived rotshchild’s ships landed in america twice.
13 years before the white man landed at plymouth on mayflower , the white man landed at jamestown( cape henry )..
on may 13, 1607 three english ships owned by jew rothschild’s virginia tobacco company of london the susan constant, godspeed and discovery with 144 male settlers and sailors, landed at jamestown named after king james i..
the immigrants were all left handed homosexuals.. they were known cannibals and all of them had small pox scars of the face.
they came with small pox blankets which they spread all around the perimeter of plymouth .. the naïve red indians used these nice colored gift blankets and were exterminated..
jamestown was chosen because the local red indians did not go there because of lack of food ..
then to check if all red indian was exterminated jew rothschild who owned the virginia tobacco company london, sent a ship in 1614 to give a report..
finding few red indians still around without scars of face, they again dropped small pox blankets , the second time, after seven years, off plymouth area on the west side of cape cod bay. .
red indian squanto (tisquantum ) was the last of the patuxet. his entire tribe was exterminated by small pox
in 1614 squanto was kidnapped by english explorer thomas hunt.
the again in 1619 rothschild sent his ship for a third look see. this time squanto was on board.. he was taught english and was converted to christianity.. he wore hat , tie and pants..
squanto went to his native village near plymouth only to find that his entire tribe of more than 6000 at the red indian village of pawtuxet had been wiped out by small pox..
goan catholics do not know that jesuit jew priest st francis xavier introduced small pox in india
francis xavier distributed small pox blankets -- he already had small pox and was immune -- he killed more than 30,000 hindus ( mostly ) children by small pox virus -- administered in temples .
when the disease spread and people expressed suspicion, he escaped to china
christians around the planet throng in goa to see the exposed embalmed body of francis xavier
they dont know that this cadaver belongs to a sri lankan monk
they dont know francis xavier was a christian hating jesuit jew
when the initials settlers went by mayflower in nov 2020 , there was an abundance of turkey in the depopulated ( by small pox blankets ) area at plymouth.
the first thanksgiving dinner of the crew of mayflower had american roast turkey—it was the first fresh meat they has eaten in weeks.
red indians do not eat roast turkey, then or now.
the entire north american continent considered turkey ( huexolotl) as a live saving bird
red indians regarded the bird as a god. there were two religious festivals a year in the turkey's honor.( even to aztecs )
like the aztecs to the south, the north american indian tribes regarded the turkey as a powerful spiritual symbol. they prized its breast feathers
the centerpiece of contemporary thanksgiving in the united states is a large meal, generally centered on a large roasted turkey.
turkey was native to america. red indians wore turkey feathers
king ferdinand sent out instructions that every spanish ship returning from the new world should bring back ten turkeys, "half males, and the other half females ...because i desire that there be bred here some cocks and hens of those which you have there and were brought from tierra firme."
there was plenty of corn ( maize ) which the king of calicut mahabali gave incas of peru 12,500 years ago. india gave maize to the planet.. today it is the no 1 grain, ahead of wheat and rice , as staple food worldwide
read all 5 parts of the post below-
by the 1675 there were about more than 42,000 white inhabitants in the united new england colonies
the colonists embraced a line from psalms 2:8. “ask of me, and i shall give thee, the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession.”
all this when jesus never existed.
in us schools, students are taught that the mayflower compact of plymouth contained the seeds of “modern democracy” and “rule of law. vadakayil says – my left ball
the first democracy was set up on this planet by calicut king mahabali 12500 years go
the puritan preachers said, from romans 13:2, “whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of god: and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation.”
the white man killed natives enmasse with small pox laden blanket presents
and then they boasted how brave there are in battle--one white man is equal to thousand natives --blah blah blah
they used small pox blankets in north america, south america, caribbean islands, goa, australia etc
we ask the american people to dump columbus day too
christopher columbus was a "marrano" crypto jew, who was financed by jewish merchants to find new lands for the 800,000 spanish jews who were told to leave spain within 4 months.
queen isabella who expelled the jews , did not fund columbus.
america is a nation whose foundation lies in foul deceit . .. we will not allow them to whitewash the bitter truth
balls to american small pox fuckin’ blanket fuckin’ exceptionalism
balls to white mans bravery
the mayflower pilgrims to america were mostly jews and gave the first thanksgiving using the term yahweh for go..
jesus is not yahweh..
jesus , bible and moses was cooked up by jewess helena in 325 ad as the messenger of god..
jehovah is the name of and the true eternal god ps 83:18
god cannot die but jesus did, at the hands of man. ps 90:3; hab 1:12
god does not pray to anyone but messiah jesus prayed to god often
god does not thank himself but jesus thanked god ghadi ghadi
what type of god will cry? jesus kept crying at the drop of a hat.
god does not seek guidance from anyone but jesus sought and seeks his guidance like a wimp
i have not yet seen a christian evangelist who know christianity the way it was cooked up by jewess helena is 325 ad..this includes pope and cardinals of vatican..
jewess helena cooked up jesus for only political reasons..
she wanted to convert the hindu royal roman etruscan bloodline and the bloodline of hindu roman senators ( 800 in number ) to jewish..
to do that she needed to shift the capital of roman empire from italy to istanbul in turkey, which she did in 328 ad...
all popes since 325 ad till islam was born were jews..
the psalm recited by the mayflower pilgrims for thank giving was psalm 100.
king james i was king of england..
in 1621, the plymouth colonists and wampanoag native americans shared an autumn harvest feast that is acknowledged today as the first thanksgiving celebrations in the colonies. november 1621, after the pilgrims’ first corn harvest proved successful, governor william bradford organized a celebratory feast..
the authorized king james version (1611) renders yahveh ( jehovah ) in exodus 6:3, psalm 83:18, isaiah 12:2, isaiah 26:4, and three times in compound place names at genesis 22:14, exodus 17:15 and judges 6:24.
here is psalm 100.—( in those days the alphabet j never existed— letter y was used instead )
100:1 make a joyful noise unto yahveh, all ye lands.
100:2 serve yahveh with gladness: come before his presence with singing.
100:3 know ye that yahveh, he is god: it is he that hath made us, and we are his; we are his people, and the sheep of his pasture.
100:4 enter into his gates with thanksgiving, and into his courts with praise: give thanks unto him, and bless his name.
100:5 for yahveh is good; his loving kindness endureth for ever, and his faithfulness unto all generations
the pilgrims were the english settlers who came to north america on the mayflower and established the plymouth colony in what is today plymouth, massachusetts, named after the final departure port of plymouth, devon. the mayflower passengers sighted land on november 9, 1620 after enduring miserable conditions for about 65 days..
william brewster led the pilgrims ( mostly jews ) in reading psalm 100 as a prayer of thanksgiving.
english royalty including james 1 were protestant at the time when mayflower berthed in america.. german jew rothschild created protestant religion..
in 1534, king henry viii of england split from the roman catholic church and created his own church hierarchy. thus, henry became the head of the church as well as the head of the government.
the protestant church rejected papal supremacy. two acts of parliament were issued in 1559. the act of supremacy declared that no foreign potentate had any authority over the english realm
the english dont know that their royalty has german jew blood thanks to german jew rothschild..
thirteen years later in 1620 ad, 102 settlers of sephardic jewish ancestry aboard the ship mayflower landed in massachusetts at a place they named plymouth. with these two colonies, english settlement in north america was born.
the 'first thanksgiving' was a jewish ceremony..
jew william bradford, who later became governor of the colony wrote about how they thanked yhvh / yahveh before eating the roast turkey..
bradley’s tombstone inscription are in hebrew..
that till mayflower in 1620, only left handed male homosexuals were sent to the new world colony of jamestown..
the first small pox blankets were gifted to walter raleigh by queen elizabeth 1..
there is zero evidence of a meal shared between pilgrim settlers at plymouth colony (in what is now massachusetts) and wampanoag indians in late 1621. but there is zero evidence that turkey was served. there is zero evidence that locals were invited to dinner
there were at least 10 million turkeys in america at the time of european contact.
the entire north american continent considered turkey ( huexolotl) as a live saving bird .. red indians regarded the bird as a god. there were two religious festivals a year in the turkey's honor.( even to aztecs ) .. like the aztecs to the south, the north american indian tribes regarded the turkey as a powerful spiritual symbol. they prized its breast feathers ..
nevertheless, turkeys were not yet synonymous with thanksgiving. it was charles dickens’s a christmas carol (1843) who bolstered the idea of turkey as a holiday meal.
writer, sarah josepha hale, played an arguably more important role. in her 1827 novel northwood, she devoted an entire chapter to a description of a new england thanksgiving, with a roasted turkey “placed at the head of the table.”
at about the same time, she also began campaigning to establish thanksgiving as a national holiday in the united states, which she believed would help unify the country as it teetered toward civil war. her efforts finally paid off in 1863 with a presidential proclamation by abraham lincoln.
exceptional america is a nation whose foundation lies in foul deceit . .. we will not allow them to whitewash the bitter truth .. balls to american small pox fuckin’ blanket fuckin’ exceptionalism.. balls to white mans bravery.. balls to his honour.. balls to his white justice.. aaaarrrgghh pptthheeooooyyy. . some sauce for the roast fuckin’ turkey…
the first of the colonies to be established, virginia came into existence in 1607. a group of colonists called the virginia company founded the first permanent english settlement in north america on may 14, 1607, naming it jamestown for its location on the banks of the james river homosexual sex was a hanging offense - at least for men..
plaque at a national park that honors homosexuals for helping to colonize virginia. the role homosexuals in the development of the first permanent english settlement in the new world at jamestown is buried . the plaque, accompanied by a picture of king james i, bears the inscription: 'gay men women helped colonize virginia.
in fact, jamestown was named after james i, the king of england at that time, whom historians generally recognize as being homosexual. james is remembered primarily for authorizing the king james version of the bible in 1611, four years after the founding of jamestown.'
a document written by jamestown's capt. john smith mentioned 'trading for love' during a period when there were no women in the settlement. historical reference to a ship's captain in the 1620s who was executed for raping a cabin boy.
jamestown was initially an all-male settlement. ...in subsequent years...male colonists outnumbered women by roughly nine to one in the 1620’s
settlers in the seventeenth-century chesapeake often paired off to form all-male households, living and working together.
jamestown was in fact not only america’s first colony but its first homosexual community. almost all were left handed jews whse ancestors were cannibals
as settlement continued, the colonists imported growing numbers of enslaved africans for labor. by 1700, the colonies had about 13,000 black slaves, . it was common for black slaves to escape and join the surrounding powhatan; some white servants sick and tired f being anally raped every day were noted to have joined the natives.
after bacon's rebellion in 1676, the colony enslaved indians for control. in 1691, the house of burgesses abolished native slavery; however, many powhatan were held in servitude well into the 18th century
bacon's rebellion was an armed rebellion held by virginia settlers that took place in 1676. it was led by nathaniel bacon against colonial governor william berkeley. it was the first rebellion in the north american colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part (a somewhat similar uprising in maryland involving john coode and josias fendall took place shortly afterward).
the alliance between european indentured servants and africans (a mix of indentured, enslaved, and free blacks) disturbed the colonial upper class. they responded by hardening the racial caste of slavery in an attempt to divide the two races from subsequent united uprisings with the passage of the virginia slave codes of 1705.. while the farmers did not succeed in their initial goal of driving the native americans from virginia, the rebellion resulted in berkeley being recalled to england.
by 1669, colonists had patented the land on the west of the potomac as far north as my lord's island (now theodore roosevelt island in washington, dc).
in 1676, jamestown was deliberately burned because of small pox rebreaking though they returned a few months later after meeting a resupply convoy in the james river. in august 1619, the first recorded slaves from africa to british north america arrived in what is now old point comfort near the jamestown colony, on a rothschild’s ship flying a dutch flag. they worked in the tobacco fields as slaves under a system of race-based indentured servitude
growing tobacco deplates the top soil rapidly.. and then you cannot grow food on this land.. opium drug cartel cap, german jew rothchild used jew gandhi as his agent for labor control
the modern conception of slavery in the colonial united states was formalized in 1640 (the john punch hearing) and was fully entrenched in virginia by 1660. james fort in virginia was not converted into james towne until 1619
left handed homosexual jews who ate their dead and dried/ salted the human meat—ate the red indians whom they killed. .
jamestwon area shunned by red indians because of lack of food anne burras was an early english settler in virginia and an ancient planter. she was the first english woman to marry in the new world, and her daughter virginia laydon was the first child of english colonists to be born in the jamestown colony.
plymouth colony received more prominence than jamestown partly due to the civil war. many abolitionists ignored jamestown and tried to wipe it out of the history books because of its shameful homosexual past since virginia was part of the south. distance from plymouth to jamestown is 1,192 kilometers. james town is south of plymouth..
plymouth was the site of the colony founded in 1620 by the mayflower pilgrims, where new england was first established. sponsored by the virginia company owned by jew rothschild , jamestown was originally established for tobacco cultivation,
in 1699, the colonial capital was moved to what is today williamsburg, virginia; jamestown ceased to exist as a settlement, and remains today only as an archaeological site. the gentlemen settlers were all men who could afford and bought shares in the virginia company while still in london
the honorable george percy ( died 1627) was an english explorer, author, and early colonial governor of virginia. anal sex receiving percy was part of the first group of 105 english colonists to settle the jamestown colony.
whenever they killed a red indian native powhatan they dried and salted the human meat and called it pork. they would remove all bones from the dead human body. the crusaders who entered jerusalem first ate human meat in their first celebration dinner.
rothschild’s agent homosexual jew edward maria wingfield, was a member of parliament, (1593) and english colonist in jamestown america.
he took charge in getting the virginia tobacco venture moving: he was one of the four incorporators for the london virginia tobacco company in the virginia charter of 1606 and one of its biggest financial backers. he was the only shareholder to sail.
in the first election in the new world, he was elected by his peers as the president of the governing council for one year beginning 13 may 1607, of what became the first successful, english-speaking colony in the new world at jamestown, virginia.
the rothschild ownbed london company (also called the virginia company of london) was an english joint-stock company established in 1606 by royal charter by king james i with the purpose of establishing colonial settlements in north america. the territory granted to the london company included the eastern coast of america from the 34th parallel (cape fear) north to the 41st parallel (in long island sound)..
the london company made landfall on 26 april 1607, at the southern edge of the mouth of the chesapeake bay, which they named cape henry, near present-day virginia beach. deciding to move the encampment, on 4 may 1607, they established the jamestown settlement on the james river about 40 miles (64 km) upstream from its mouth at the chesapeake bay.
rothschild’s agent jew sir thomas smythe ( died 1625) was the first governor of the east india company and treasurer of the virginia company from 1609 to 1620.. smythe was made auditor for the city of london from 1597 to 1598, in 1592, smythe obtained settlement rights to the virginia colony from sir walter raleigh.
when the east india company was formed in october 1600, smythe was appointed as its first governor by the charter dated 31 december captain john smith, jamestown's most fabled leader, documented similar accounts, including the execution of a man who had killed, salted and feasted on his pregnant wife. she was impregnated by someone else..
jamestown had once been the bustling capital of the colony of virginia. wealthy jew homosexual settlers had built profitable tobacco plantations in early jamestown, so many colonists died because of sexual diseases and prion causes brain inflammation ( cannibalism )
in 1508–09, sebastian cabot undertook a final voyage to north america from bristol. according to peter martyr's 1516 account this expedition explored a section of the coast from the hudson bay to about chesapeake bay. following his return to england in 1509, sebastian found that his sponsor, henry vii, had died and that the new king, henry viii, had little interest in westward exploration
three vessels were fitted out for the expedition, one of twenty tons, one of forty, the third of one hundred tons, and they were put under the command of captain christopher newport, orders being put on board inclosed in a sealed box, not to be opened until their arrival in virginia, they set sail from black wall on the 19th of december, 1606.
the'first land that they came in sight of, april 26th, 1607, they called cape henry, in honor of the prince of wales, eldest son of king james, as the opposite point, cape charles, was named after the king's second son, then duke of york, afterwards charles the first. a party of twenty that night the sealed box was opened, when it appeared that the members of council appointed were —bartholomew gosnold, john smith, edward maria wingfield, christopher newport, john ratcliffe, john martin and george kendall.
they were instructed to elect, out of their own number, a president for one year; he and the council together were invested with the government; affairs of moment were to be examined by a jury, but determined by the council.
seventeen days were spent in quest of a place for the settlement. a point on the western side of the mouth of the chesapeake bay they named point comfort, because they found a good harbor there, which, after the recent storm, put them in good comfort. landing there, april 30th, they saw five indians, who were at first alarmed; but seeing the captain lay his hand upon his heart, they came boldly up and invited the strangers to kecoughtan, now hampton, their town, where they were entertained with corn-bread, tobacco and pipes, and a dance.
the settlers landed at jamestown on the 13th day of may, 1607. this was the first permanent settlement effected by the english'in north america, after the lapse of one hundred and ten years from the discovery of the continent by the cabots, and twenty-two years after the first attempt to colonize it, made under the auspices of walter raleigh.
upon landing, the council took the oath of office; edward maria wingfield was elected president, and thomas studley, cape-merchant or treasurer of the colony. fort was palisaded, cannon mounted, and the men armed and exercised. newport weighed anchor, leaving at jamestown one hundred settlers, with provisions sufficient, as was supposed, for more than three months. by september fifty of them, being one-half of the colony, died
quote: the body of an indian was disinterred and eaten; nay, at last, the colonists preyed on the dead bodies of each other. unquote . from diary of chaplain, the rev. mr. bucke.
he was a graduate of oxford, and received the appointment of chaplain to the virginia expedition upon the recommendation of dr. ravis, bishop of london
the indian arrow was winged with a turkey-feather, fastened with a sort of glue extracted from the velvet horns of the deer. the arrow was headed with an arrow-point of stone, often made of white quartz, and exquisitely formed, some barbed, some with a serrate edge.
the james river and re-created 17th-century ships at jamestown settlement play backdrop for this outdoor production of william shakespeare’s “the tempest.”
sir walter raleigh had in fact named one of the new world colonies "virginia" after his monarch's chastity. hey, queen elizabeth i has two balls and a prick
sir thomas dale (died 19 august 1619) was an english naval commander and deputy-governor of the virginia colony in 1611 and from 1614 to 1616. governor dale is best remembered for the energy and the extreme rigour of his administration in virginia, he was criticised for high-handedness
five years later, the virginia company of london sent sir thomas dale to act as deputy-governor or as "marshall of virginia" (a new position) for the virginia colony under the authority of thomas west, 3rd baron de la warr (lord delaware). sent with three ships, on 19 may 1611, he arrived at jamestown (named after king james) with men, cattle, and provisions. he found the conditions unhealthy and greatly in need of improvement. dale immediately called for a meeting of the jamestown council, and established crews to rebuild jamestown.
it was during his administration that the first code of laws of virginia, nominally in force from 1611 to 1619, was effectively tested. this code, entitled "articles, lawes, and orders divine, politique, and martiall" (popularly known as dale's code), was notable for its pitiless severity, and seems to have been prepared in large part by dale himself.
governor dale sailed back to england in the spring of 1616 aboard the treasurer. accompanying him was kidnapped ttractive indian princess rebecca (pocahontas).. in londn she would be the sexual slave of virginia compant directors. samuel argall commanded that ship. pregnant rebecca became very ill because of sexually ransmitted disease and died on 21 march 1617
lord de la warr was appointed governor-for-life and captain-general of the colony of virginia, to replace the governing council of the colony under the presidency of captain john smith.
subsequently, in november 1609, the powhatan tribe of native americans killed john ratcliffe, the jamestown colony's council president, and attacked the colony in what became the first anglo-powhatan war. as part of england's response, de la warr recruited and equipped a contingent of 150 men and outfitted three ships at his own expense, and sailed from england in march 1610.
lord de la warr's brother, john west, later became governor of virginia, and married anne percy, daughter of george percy.
captain ralph hamor ( died 1626) was one of the original colonists to settle in virginia, and author of a true discourse of the present state of virginia, which he wrote when he returned to london in 1615.
on april 9, 1610, hamor escorted lord delaware and about 100 new settlers, including "frenchmen to plant vines, and swiss to find mines" aboard de la warr, blessing of plymouth and hercules of rye, back to virginia. the three supply mission vessels arrived safely in jamestown on sunday, june 20, 1610.
on june 22, 1610, hamor was named secretary of the colony by lord delaware, and served from 1611 to 1614.
homosexual jew sir samuel argall ( died january 1626) was an english adventurer and naval officer.
as a sea captain, in 1609, argall was the first to determine a shorter northern route from england across the atlantic ocean to the new english colony of virginia, based at jamestown, and made numerous voyages to the new world. he captained one of lord de la warr's ships in the successful rescue mission to virginia in 1610 which saved the colony from starvation.
he is best known for his diplomacy by force with the chief of the powhatan confederacy. he abducted the chief's daughter, pocahontas, on 13 april 1613
knighted by king james i after serving as governor of the virginia colony, argall was accused by planters of having been excessively stern in his treatment of them
sir george yeardley ( died 1627) was a planter and three time colonial governor of the british colony of virginia. he was also among the first slave holders in what would eventually become the united states.
jamestown church, constructed in brick from 1639 onward, in jamestown in the mid-atlantic state of virginia, is one of the oldest surviving building remnants built by europeans in the original thirteen colonies and in the united states overall. it is now part of historic jamestowne, and is owned by preservation virginia (formerly known as the association for the preservation of virginia antiquities).
english resorted to their own theatrical forms of violence. surprising an indian village, captain george percy and his men killed at least sixty-five indians and burned their homes and cornfields. heading back to jamestown by boat, the victors threw captive children overboard to shoot for sport. warfare and new diseases introduced from europe combined to reduce the indians of the tidewater region from twenty-four thousand in 1607 to just two thousand by 1669.
the worshipful company of tobacco pipe makers and tobacco blenders is one of the livery companies of the city of london.
tobacco mixed with opium was called madak (or madat) it may be surprising to see the extent to which opium was cultivated in rangpore in the 1820s.
the district was dominated by medium and large zemindari estates—landlords who let the land to tenants in rangpore, it was smoked as mudut or, as it was known in other parts of india, madak. the opium was boiled into the consistency of a paste and mixed with shredded and fried betel leaves or, sometimes, guava or other plants.
it was thereafter dried. small quantities of opium juice could also be added to the leaves and mixed in a hot vessel. the mixture was thereafter formed into small balls that were smoked.
smoking opium blended with tobacco was introduced in london by jew rothschild in 1624..
madak was a blend of opium and tobacco used as a recreational drug in india, two preparations of opium have generally been used for smoking, madak and chandu. the use of madak in india has been considered to be much more extensive than that of chandu, and in most parts of the country this preparation was smoked.
the following is, briefly, the method employed for its preparation: raw opium is mixed with water, which is then heated to boiling point. the boiling is continued, and the impurities which form as a scum on the surface of the boiling fluid are gradually removed. the heating is continued till a thick suspension is formed. this is then strained through a piece of cloth and charred leaves of acacia arabica (babul) are gradually mixed with it till it assumes the consistency of a thick, stiff paste.
this mass is then rolled into small balls called madak golis, which are available for smoking purposes. as a rule, two and a half ounces of madak are prepared from one ounce of opium. sometimes, instead of babul leaves, leaves of phylanthus emblica (amla), acacia leucophloea wild (safed babul) and piper betle linn. (pan) are used. in former days, burnt gold or silver threads (kalabatoo) were sometimes added to the mass, as it was supposed that these imparted to the mixture aphrodisiac and tonic properties.
chandu, chandul, or clarified opium is a stronger preparation, and was only used in india by persons who were heavy smokers. chandu is prepared by boiling a strained solution of opium in water until it becomes thick in consistency.
as the concentration proceeds, crusts form on the surface of the simmering mass. these are removed as they form, until finally a thick mass of the consistency and appearance of coal tar is obtained. this is the "smokable extract'', and is the chandu or chandul of opium smokers. the chandu commonly smoked is often adulterated by addition of dross scraped from chandu pipes, which has a high morphine content.
charles i ( died– 30 january 1649) was king of england, scotland, and ireland from 27 march 1625 until his execution in 1649. after his succession in 1625, charles quarrelled with the rothschiuild controlled parliament of england, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. charles believed in the divine right of kings, and was determined to govern according to his own conscience.
from 1642, charles fought the armies of the english parliaments in the english civil war fomented by jew rothschild . after his defeat in 1645, he surrendered the english parliament. charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy by the end of 1648.
rothschild’s agent jew oliver cromwell's new model army had consolidated its control over england. charles i was tried, convicted, and executed for high treason in january 1649. the monarchy was abolished and the commonwealth of england was established as a republic. the monarchy would be restored to charles's son, charles ii, in 1660.
the english civil war (1642–1651) triggered by jew rothschild was a series of civil wars and political machinations between parliamentarians ("roundheads") and royalists ("cavaliers"), mainly over the manner of england's governance and issues of religious freedom the war ended with parliamentarian victory at the battle of worcester on 3 september 1651. the battle of worcester took place on 3 september 1651 at worcester, england, and was the final battle of the english civil war, which began in 1642. oliver cromwell's parliamentarian new model army, 28,000 strong, defeated king charles ii's 16,000 royalists
charles avoided calling a parliament for the next decade, a period known as the "personal rule of charles i", or the "eleven years' tyranny". during this period, charles's policies were determined by his lack of money. first and foremost, to avoid parliament, the king needed to avoid war. charles made peace with france and spain, effectively ending england's involvement in the thirty years' war. however, that in itself was far from enough to balance the crown's finances.
the king, in a speech, swore that "the virginia company was a seminary for a seditious parliament." the company had chosen a treasurer in disregard of the king's nomination; and in electing carew raleigh, a member, they had made allusions to his father, sir walter raleigh, which were doubtless unpalatable to the author of his judicial murder.
the oldest continuously occupied european capital in north america is sante fe, new mexico - not jamestown. in 1598, spanish explorers settled in the tewa town of ohkay owingeh, renaming it san juan de los caballeros.
the spanish established the first capital of new mexico nine years before jamestown. they moved along the rio grande to another town (yunque), then finally settled at sante fe in 1610. jamestown was populated for only a century, and lost most of its residents when the colonial capital moved to williamsburg in 1699.
the distance between colonial williamsburg and jamestown settlement is 6 miles. the road distance is 8 miles jamestown is where the first english settlement was established. colonial williamsburg is where the american revolution first started. and yorktown is where the british surrendered.
in an effort to take greater control of the situation, king james i dissolved the virginia company and made virginia into an official crown colony, with jamestown as its capital, in 1624. the new town area of jamestown continued to grow, and the original fort seems to have disappeared after the 1620s.
the chesapeake bay was discovered by the spaniards as early as the year 1566 or before, being called by them the bay of santa maria.t it was discovered by the english in 1585, when ralph lane was governor of the first colony of virginia.
the english strongly believed it was their duty to spread the gospel and convert the indigenous people they encountered to the protestant christianity. king james also recognized the importance of establishing english colonies as a counter to the energetic colonizing efforts of the spanish, who were zealously converting native people in their colonies to roman catholicism.
in the original charter granted by king james to the virginia company on april 10, 1606, the first motivation to colonize the new world mentioned is to spread the protestant christian religion. men leaving for virginia had to take an oath acknowledging the supremacy of the king, and the lack of power or authority over him by the pope, before they could set sail to virginia. the church of england protestant religion was central to the lives of the jamestown settlers.
martial law was established by lord de la warr in 1610 to enforce discipline among men the laws prescribed a range of punishments for those who failed to attend services, as well as for the minister if he failed to conduct a service. missing one would cost the settler his ration of food for the day. additional absences received increasingly severe punishments and could result in death. rothschild wanted the homosexuals jews to convert to protestant religion
bacon's rebellion was a popular revolt in colonial virginia in 1676 which was led by nathaniel bacon. the uprising developed because of high taxes, low prices for tobacco, the virginia governor declared bacon and his men rebels.
bacon was defeated at jamestown thousands of virginians from all classes (including those in indentured servitude) and races rose up in arms against berkeley, chasing him from jamestown and ultimately torching the settlement. governor berkeley returned to power. he seized the property of several rebels for the colony and executed 23 men by hanging,
lawrence washington was paternal grandfather of george washington. he was the owner of a substantial virginia plantation that he inherited from his father,
german immigration to the british colonies began soon after english colonists founded jamestown. in 1690, german colonials built the first paper mill in north america, and the bible was printed in america in german before it was printed in english. by the mid-18th century, approximately 10% of the colonial american population spoke german
the story of the usa truly began with a rough little colony named jamestown, virginia, which would go down in history as the first successful english settlement of the new world.
. what makes jamestown unique on a historic level, is that it was the first permanent english settlement that actually lasted. after some seriously shaky beginnings, jamestown grew into a thriving port town, and even served as the capital of the virginia colony for almost a century. that reign ended when its major state house burned down in 1698, and a year later, williamsburg took over as the capitol.
the old jamestown settlement might not be a "town" anymore, but its strange and tortured legacy will certainly live on.
TO BE CONTINUED
TO BE CONTINUED
CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL
CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL
i sing songs
i hum them tunes
i had promised to smile always, once
so i keep smiling always for no rhyme or reason
these moments of love are so precious
your lyrics like flowers are so delicate and fair
i garland one and all with these flowers
and i keep smiling
who knew there would be so much light
the mirror of my heart blazes and how
it is with me now, i will show you all
and i keep smiling, nay grinning like a cheshire cat
ooh this journey of life
what kind of a journey is this
no one has understood that
no one can comprehends that
i’ve given mee best shot to life
i can also be faithful to death
i came crying in this world
but i’ll depart from this world with a smile
but where will i go
no one knows that
no one has understood that
there are lives which i didn’t wanna live
death engulfed me before i got to live them
there are some flowers which didn’t blossom
them winds took them ere they could bloom
mee eyes are troubled
my world is tired
the journey of life
what kind of a journey is it
no one comprehends that
sacrifice to bring a smile to someone
offer your shoulder to bear someone's pain
have love for someone in your heart
this is the meaning of life
i admit that i'm always broke
but still mee heart is rich and generous
life is such sweet sorrow when sacrificed for love
i have faith in this even if no one else has
i don’t betray a trust
for trust bridges them hearts
the name of love exists due to me
someone will remember me even after i die
i can make someone special cry through tears
flowers will say this to them buds all the time
till the sun goes supernova
have love for someone in your heart
this is the name nay secret of life