THIS POST IS CONTINUED FROM PAT 4 , BELOW-
Roanoke Colony, an island in present-day North Carolina, was settled in 1584 by English colonists as the first attempt at a permanent settlement in North America. However, the settlers quickly ran into hardship caused by poor harvest, lack of materials, and difficult relations with Indigenous peoples.
Because of these difficulties, a small group of colonists, led by John White, returned to England in search of help from Queen Elizabeth I. When White returned a few years later the colony had disappeared; all traces of the settlers and encampments were gone, creating its history as the “Lost Colony" of Roanoke.
Queen Elizabeth I granted Sir Walter Raleigh a charter to gather a small group to settle in the Chesapeake Bay as part of a larger campaign to explore and settle North America. Sir Richard Grenville led the expedition and landed on Roanoke Island in 1584.
Soon after settlement, he was responsible for burning a village and killing many Indian women and children inhabited by Carolina Algonquians, ending the previously friendly relations.
Sir Walter Raleigh ( died 1618) was an English explorer, and a favourite courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. he played a leading part in English colonisation of North America,
He was granted a royal patent to explore Virginia, paving the way for future English settlements.
He is well known for popularising tobacco in England.
Because of his staunch Protestant upbringing and the persecutions suffered by his father, Raleigh developed a life-long hatred of Catholics.
Catherine was a niece to the governess of Queen Elizabeth I and was therefore able to obtain court introductions for her sons. At that time connections to the court were an essential means of social progress and Raleigh exploited this to the full, writing poems to the Queen and becoming famous for his loyalty and chamchagiri for the monarch.
In 1579 he advised Queen Elizabeth I and also took an active part in the suppression of the Desmond Rebellions which were an attempt by the FitzGerald dynasty to re-establish their authority over their historic lands in the province of Munster. Raleigh was so prominent in the resulting British victory that he was awarded 40,000 acres of seized land and the towns of Youghal and Lismore.
Raleigh successfully flattered Elizabeth with poems comparing her to the goddess Diana and they both dressed in jewels, pearls and ruffles. The apocryphal story of his throwing his expensive velvet cloak across a puddle to keep Elizabeth’s feet dry probably helped too.
The Spanish and French had been active for several decades in colonizing eastern North America, so Elizabeth was interested in gaining a foot-hold in these new and potentially rich areas.
When Raleigh’s half-brother Sir Humphrey Gilbert was lost at sea, Elizabeth granted him Gilbert’s royal charter to establish a colony in the area that was to become Virginia. In 1585 he was knighted as ‘Lord and Governor of Virginia’.
Raleigh himself never travelled to the area, but he sent three expeditions to colonize Roanoke Island, one in 1584 which returned with information and two Croatoan Native Americans, and the second in 1585 which established a settlement but was rescued the following year by Sir Francis Drake, who brought back tobacco and corn ( Indian maize ) as well as the settlers.
IN 1587 A THIRD GROUP WAS SENT, BUT THIS COLONY EVENTUALLY DISAPPEARED COMPLETELY, GAINING THEM THE TITLE OF THE LOST COLONISTS.
A permanent settlement was eventually established by James I in 1607.
In 1587 Elizabeth appointed Raleigh responsible for her personal safety and with that mandate he raised a fleet to defend England against Spain. Commanded by Sir Francis Drake the fleet succeeded in scattering the Spanish Armada
he secretly married Elizabeth Throckmorton, who, being a royal attendant to the Queen, needed her permission to marry. Furious, Elizabeth threw both of them into the Tower of London, but they were soon out again.
IN 1595 RALEIGH RECEIVED THE QUEEN’S PATENT TO EXPLORE GUIANA AND SET OUT TO FIND EL DORADO, THE FABLED CITY OF GOLD.
His book of his voyage was more successful than his expedition and played a part in keeping the legend alive.
Raleigh continued to enjoy Elizabeth’s support for the rest of the century, but after her death in 1603 James I took the throne and Raleigh’s successes at the royal court were over. After most of his privileges were rescinded by the new King, Raleigh found himself on trial for treason within months of Elizabeth’s death.
Although found guilty and sentenced to be hung, drawn and quartered, his sentence was commuted and he spent the next ten years in the Tower of London. He won the support of the King’s eldest son (and thus heir to the throne) Henry, Prince of Wales, partly be tutoring him in navigation, but when Henry died of typhoid fever in 1612 at the age of eighteen, Raleigh lost that support too.
Nevertheless, in 1616 he was able to persuade the King to release him in return for promises to sail to Guiana again to bring back gold for the depleted Royal Treasury. While away he foolishly defied his orders and attacked a Spanish settlement – Spain was now briefly a friend of England – and the Spanish demanded his execution.
In 1618 James obliged them by having him beheaded. Raleigh’s wife received the head and had it embalmed. She kept it in a special case right up to her death twenty-nine years later.
Raleigh is widely regarded as a key figure in encouraging the British to develop settlements in North America. His poetry and chronicles of his and others’ voyages made him one of the most important writers of the time.
When the settlement failed due to this strained relation and a lack of resources, the first group of colonists returned to England shortly after when Sir Francis Drake offered to take them home on his way from the Caribbean.
Sir Francis Drake ( died 1596) was an English explorer, sea captain, privateer, slave and trader,. Drake is best known for his circumnavigation of the world in a single expedition
In 1575, Sir Francis Drake was present at the Rathlin Island Massacre, which was a part of the English plantation effort in Ulster,( North coast of Ireland ) where 600 Scottish men, women, and children were massacred after surrendering Sir Francis Drake and Sir John Norreys who lead this English Armada( 1589 ) and got screwed badly by Spain were the kingpins of this foul massacre .
John White arrived with another group of colonists in 1587 intending to settle in the Chesapeake Bay, but the pilot of the ship brought them to Roanoke Island. His daughter Eleanor White Dare and her husband Ananias Dare were on the charter as well, and the two later had a child in Roanoke, Virginia Dare, who was the first person of English descent born in North America.
White’s group of settlers ran into similar difficulties as the first group. After arriving too late to begin planting, the Roanoke colonists had a poor harvest and lacked many other materials. White ordered an attack on a group of Indigenous people in a tribe whom he accused of stealing a silver cup / Many Indians were tortured and killed.. This increased the already high tension between the Native Americans and the colonists who settled on their land.
Because of these difficulties, White returned to England to ask for help with gathering resources and left behind 117 people in the colony.
When White returned to Europe, England was in the midst of the Anglo-Spanish War between Queen Elizabeth I and King Philip II of Spain. Because of the war effort, there were few resources to devote to the New World. Boats, materials, and people were not available to John White, who then stayed in Europe for a few years until the conclusion of the war. When White returned to Roanoke Island in 1590, the settlement was deserted.
In his own account, White describes the island upon his return. He states, “we passed toward the place where they were left in sundry houses, but we found the houses taken downe, (...) and five foote from the ground in fayre capital letters was graven CROATOAN without any crosse or signe of distresse.”
He later concludes that the colonists were safe with the Croatoan tribe because of the lack of any distress signals. However, due to inclement weather and few supplies, he never sailed to the Croatoan settlement. Instead, he returned to England, never knowing where his colony remained.
A popular theory maintained that the Roanoke colonists were murdered by the Indigenous tribes nearby. This theory, which pushes the racist notion that Indigenous people are dangerous and violent, alleges that tensions between the colonists and the nearby tribes (specifically the Croatoan) continued to rise, leading to the mass murder of the colony.
However, the theory fails to note the violence initiated by the colonists themselves, as well as the fact that there is no evidence of the colonists leaving unexpectedly. All of the structures had been taken down and no human remains were found at the site. Additionally, as White noted, the word “Croatoan” was etched in the tree without any symbols of distress.
American history is full of unsolved mysteries, but none are quite so eerie as the lost colony of Roanoke.
Queen ElizabethI wanted to establish a base in the New World where colonists could search for gold, preach to the locals, and keep an eye on their Spanish rivals.
Two natives were kidnapped and taken back to England when they finally returned home,
The second trip in 1585 to Roanoke was an all-male group of soldiers and laborers
These stupid newcomers thought the best way of making friends with their neighbors involved attacking villages, taking hostages, and beheading one of their chiefs, When you couple that with a severe food shortage, you can see why the English decided to give up on the colony and sail back home.
Not wanting to give up their foothold in the New World, 15 soldiers were left behind to watch the colony, and Sir Walter Raleigh got busy gathering a third expedition, one that would sail across the Atlantic — and never return.
After the first two expeditions, Sir Walter Raleigh decided to send one more group in 1587. Only this time, the colony would be comprised of men, women, and children — a total of 117 souls striking out for the New World. The expedition would be led by Gov. John White, an artist involved in at least one previous expedition,
However, the colonists weren't originally going to say on Roanoke. The plan was to drop by, pick up the 15 soldiers left behind, and sail on. But after landing, master pilot Simon Fernandez refused to go any further, forcing the colonists to set up shop on the North Carolina island.
Upon arriving on Roanoke, the settlers found the bones of one of the 15 soldiers and not much else. This wasn't a great start for the new colony, but White was able to patch things up with the Croatoans, a tribe living on the nearby island of, well, Croatoan (today known as Hatteras Island). Making things worse, the Roanoke settlers needed more supplies, so White was chosen to sail back to England and get help from Raleigh.
White wasn't particularly thrilled about leaving, especially since his daughter had given birth to his granddaughter, Virginia Dare, just days before. Virginia was the first English child born in America, but as August 1587 came to an end, White left his family behind and sailed for Europe.
Unfortunately, thanks to England's war with Spain, it was three years before Gov. John White could return from the British Isles. And when he showed back up on Roanoke, he found the colony abandoned.
He immediately began looking for Maltese crosses, signs the colonists were supposed to leave if they were in trouble, but he only discovered the letters "CRO" etched into a tree and the word "CROATOAN" carved into a post (via the North Carolina History Project).
Impatient sailors ready to mutiny , and a damaged ship kept him from searching for the missing settlers, and White was forced to return to England, leaving his friends and family behind to whatever mysterious fate had befallen them.
THE LOST COLONY WAS KILLED BY THE SPANISH, WHO WANTED REVENGE AGAINST ENGLAND FOR THAT 1588 SPANISH ARMADA DEBACLE. READ THIS LINE TWICE
In 1493, during his second voyage, Columbus founded Isabela, the first permanent Spanish settlement in the New World, on Hispaniola. After finding gold in recoverable quantities nearby, the Spanish quickly overran the island and spread to Puerto Rico in 1508, to Jamaica in 1509, and to Cuba in 1511. The natives fared badly. Almost all were extermeinated by small pox germ infuse gift blankets
By mid-century, the native Ciboney of Hispaniola and western Cuba were extinct, and other tribes, including the Arawak of Puerto Rico, were nearly so.
Beginning in 1508, Spanish settlements sprang up on the mainland of Central and South America. In 1519, just six years after Balboa had crossed the Isthmus of Panama and claimed the entire Pacific Ocean for Spain, Pedro Arias de Avila, Balboa's father-in-law and executioner, founded the city of Panama on the Pacific coast.
The same year, Hernan Cortes led a small force from Cuba to the Gulf coast of Mexico, founded Veracruz , and set about destroying the Aztec empire. Small poc blankets were used to exterminate the local Indians.. The soldiers were all immune to small pox and they already had this disease and survived
Most of Mexico fell within two years. Subsequent conquistadors followed the example set by Cortes. By 1532, Francisco Pizarro, had effected the early stages of his conquest of the Inca empire of Peru. By 1550 Spain had dominion over the West Indies and Central America and its large surviving native population.
New World mines yielded gold and silver for Spain in far greater amounts than France and Portugal had ever been able to extract from West Africa. One-fifth of the total production, the quinto real, went to the Spanish Crown.
The average value of silver shipped to Spain rose to a million pesos a year before the conquest of Peru, and to more than 35 million a year by the end of the century. Cacao, cochineal, hides, spices, sugar, timber, and tobacco yielded additional income.
Seville, through which all legal trade with the colonies passed, became a great financial center and nearly quadrupled in size between 1517 and 1594.
With such wealth at stake, Spain was concerned about possible interference by other nations. Initially, only Portugal posed a serious threat to Spanish monopoly. At the Pope's insistence Spain and Portugal had ratified the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494. Intended to exclude Spain from Africa and India, and Portugal from the Far East, this treaty also effectively deprived Spain of any legitimate claim to much of present-day Brazil.
Shortly after the ratification of the treaty, Portugal gained control of trade with the Spice Islands, and showed occasional interest in Newfoundland. In 1580, to eliminate the threat of Portuguese expansion, Spain annexed Portugal. Although Spain mortgaged Venezuela to a German banking house for a brief period (1528-1547), she was successful in keeping most interlopers out of her holdings from Mexico to Chile for the remainder of the sixteenth century.
In the early 1500s, Spain made a few attempts to explore Florida and the Gulf coast. Around 1513, Juan Ponce de Leon, conqueror of Puerto Rico, conducted the first reconnaissance of the area. In 1519 Alonso Alvarez de Pineda explored and mapped the Gulf of Mexico. Two years later, Ponce de Leon died in a disastrous attempt to build a settlement in Florida, and Spain withdrew from further serious efforts to establish a permanent presence there for another half-century.
The first Spanish town in what is now the United States was not in Florida, but somewhere between 30 degrees and 34 degrees North. It was built in 1526, by Luis Vasquez de Ayllon, a Spanish official based on Hispaniola.
In 1520, Ayllon had ordered a slaving expedition, and in 1526, set out himself with approximately 500 Spanish colonists--including women, children, and three Dominican friars--and a number of African slaves. After a false start, Ayllon built the town of San Miguel de Guadalupe.
His venture was doomed from the outset. The principals of the colony quarreled, Indians attacked, slaves rebelled, and Ayllon died. Only 150 survivors returned to Hispaniola. Later, in 1528 a slightly smaller group under Narvaez plundered and skirmished along the Gulf coast from Yampa Bay to Texas, where it disintegrated. Cabeza de Vaca and three other members finally reached Mexico in 1536.
From 1539 to 1543 de Soto and, after his death, Moscoso led an ever-shrinking party on a circuitous route through the southeastern and southcentral United States. From 1540 to 1542 Coronado explored the Southwest. In all cases, these Spanish explorers antagonized the Indians and failed to entice settlers to the higher latitudes.
The parts of North America neglected by Spain were attractive on that account to her ancient enemy--France. Although the Treaty of Tordesillas had given France no share of the New World, the French crown ignored the arrangement.
Francis I underwrote Verrazzano's exploratory voyage (1524) and the more ambitious enterprises of Cartier and Roberval on the St. Lawrence (1534-1543). Even though war with Spain and the Holy Roman Empire impeded French expansion in the 1520s and 1530s, and the death of Henry II in 1559 led to civil and religious strife that nearly tore the country apart, France was the largest and most populous kingdom in western Europe and still a formidable adversary.
Expecting a French challenge in North America, Spain sent a large contingent (1559-1561) to secure a settlement site on the Gulf and an overland route thence to the coast of Georgia or South Carolina. In 1561, Angel de Villafane followed the Atlantic coast north past Cape Fear, looking for suitable sites and any foreigners making unauthorized use of them. Villafane dismissed the area as worthless.
The next year, however, Jean Ribault, under the banner of France, built Charlesfort, probably on Port Royal Sound, South Carolina. Charlesfort lasted only a few months, but this French incursion and well-founded rumors about a second, to the south, caused King Philip II of Spain to send Pedro Menendez de Aviles to establish a settlement in Florida, and to expel any Frenchmen in the area.
Menendez arrived in August 1565 and wasted no time laying out the first St. Augustine. In September and October he massacred the French Garrison of Fort Caroline, at the mouth of the St. Johns River. In due course he founded ten outposts in Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina (1565-1567); ordered exploration of the North Carolina and Virginia coasts (1570); and personally avenged (1572) the Jesuits' murder by Indians.
Menendez, a strong supporter of colonization, was nearly alone in his enthusiasm for the region. His death in 1574 resulted in a decline of Spanish colonies in the area. Through Philip II continued to be interested until his death in 1598, the lack of an on-site manager with the enthusiasm and ability of Menendez made it easier for another country ignored at Tordesillas to reenter the struggle for empire in the New World.
The prodigious wealth flowing into Spain from its colonies and crown efforts to monopolize colonial trade prompted international smuggling and piracy. As a seafaring nation with few continental distractions and only one border to defend, England was a natural leader in both enterprises.
Shortly after her accession to the English throne in 1558, Queen Elizabeth disestablished Roman Catholicism once and for all. She further widened the breech with Catholic Spain by overlooking her subjects unofficial trade with Spanish colonies and attacks on Spanish shipping.
John Hawkins' first voyage to the Caribbean with African slaves (1562-1563) had been so profitable that the queen herself invested in the second and third. When Hawkins anchored at the Mexican port of San Juan de Ullua on his third voyage in 1568, however, the Spanish retaliated with great force and skill.
Only two English ships escaped. The incident poisoned Anglo-Spanish relations for the rest of the century. As a consequence, English depredations increased in frequency. From 1577 to 1580 Sir Francis Drake, who had been with Hawkins, humiliated Spain by circumnavigating the globe, much of which Spain considered its own, plundering as he went. Despite vehement Spanish protests, Elizabeth knighted him.
The passage of time did little to abate English outrage over San Juan de Ullua, nor did it reduce English covetousness of Spanish treasure and trade. In 1578 Elizabeth I revived Cabot's eighty-year-old territorial claim and permitted Humphrey Gilbert to explore and settle any part of North America not then occupied by Christians, that is, nearly all of it.
Gilbert disappeared returning from Newfoundland in 1583, but his half-brother, Walter Ralegh, carried on under a slightly different patent of discovery. Ralegh and his associates developed a plan to build a base well north of St. Augustine, from which to attack Spanish shipping in the western Atlantic and exploit the mineral resources of the region.
To this end, Amadas and Barlowe reconnoitered the coast in 1584, and the Grenville expedition of 1585 left 108 men on Roanoke Island under Ralph Lane. But Grenville was tardy in resupplying the colonists, and Drake, sailing homeward from victories over the Spanish at Cartagena and St. Augustine, removed them in 1586.
Neither the Lane colony nor the 1587 "lost colony" had any noticeable effect on Spanish shipping. However, Spanish colonial expansion and seemingly unending sources of wealth in the New World profoundly affected English colonial policies.
Drake pillaged the Caribbean in 1585-1586, broke the Bank of Spain; nearly broke the Bank of Venice, to which Spain was heavily indebted; and ruined Spanish credit. English military intervention in the Netherlands (1584) persuaded Philip to build the Armada; Drake's subsequent affront moved him to launch it.
Although Drake's brazen attack on Cadiz in 1587 set Spanish plans back a year, the Armada finally sailed, and when it did, it was largely responsible for preventing timely relief of the 1587 colony on Roanoke Island.
Spain did not lose her last foothold in the Americas until the Spanish-American War (1898). Spanish language and culture are still integral to daily life in much of North and South America. But the Spanish star had begun to set over the New World by 1600.
At least 600 feet of Roanoke has been swallowed by the sea. And if the colonists set up camp on the northern end of the island — as indicated by Gov. John White's records — then it's possible the lost colony is resting under the waves.
It seems as if the land eroded away over time, plunging the colony into the Atlantic and keeping it hidden from would-be explorers. In other words, if archaeologists ever want to find this place, they might need to put on some scuba gear.
The settlers, who arrived Roanoke Island in 1587, disappeared in 1590, leaving behind only two clues: the words "Croatoan" carved into a fort's gatepost and "Cro" etched into a tree.
WHITE'S GRANDDAUGHTER VIRGINIA DARE WAS THE FIRST ENGLISH CHILD BORN IN THE AMERICAS.
In 1937, the United States Mint issued a half-dollar commemorative coin that depicted Virginia Dare as the first English child born in the New World. This was also the first time that a child was depicted on United States currency
AFTER THAT TILL MAYFLOWER IN 1620, ONLY LEFT HANDED MAKE HOMOSEXUALS WERE SENT TO THE NEW WORLD COLONY OF JAMESTOWN..
Spain, Portugal, and France moved quickly to establish a presence in the New World, while other European countries moved more slowly. The English did not attempt to found colonies until many decades after the explorations of John Cabot, and early efforts were failures—most notably the Roanoke Colony which vanished about 1590.
Few realize that Sir Walter Raleigh himself never set foot upon Roanoke Island, or Virginia, oreven Nor h America, as popular legend would have it. Rather, Sir Walter Raleigh was the financier who outfitted three of the four expeditions that were sent to the Roanoke and Chesapeake Bay regions of Virginia between 1584 and 1590.
Virginia was first visited by Sir Walter Raleigh in the year 1584
THE CHESAPEAKE BAY WAS DISCOVERED BY THE SPANIARDS AS EARLY AS THE YEAR 1566 BEING CALLED BY THEM THE BAY OF SANTA MARIA.
Pedro Menéndez de Avilés ( died 1574) was a Spanish admiral, explorer and conquistador from Avilés, in Asturias, Spain. He is notable for planning the first regular trans-oceanic convoys, which became known as the Spanish treasure fleet, and for founding St. Augustine, Florida, in 1565.
This was the first successful European settlement in La Florida and the most significant city in the region for nearly three centuries. St. Augustine is the oldest continuously inhabited, European-established settlement in the continental United States. Menéndez de Avilés was the first governor of La Florida (1565–74).
Great Britain returned Florida to Spain in 1783.
In 1763 Spain ceded Florida to England in exchange for regaining control over the capital of Cuba. When the American Revolution ended, Florida was granted back to Spain until the United States purchased the territory in 1821.
Spain ceded Florida to the United States in 1819, and St. Augustine was designated the capital of the Florida Territory upon ratification of the Adams–Onís Treaty in 1821
In 1565, the Spanish decided to destroy the French outpost of Fort Caroline, located in what is now Jacksonville
Menéndez was in a race to reach Florida before the French captain Jean Ribault, who was on a mission to secure Fort Caroline. On August 28, 1565, the feast day of St. Augustine of Hippo, Menéndez's crew finally sighted land; the Spaniards continued sailing northward along the coast from their landfall, investigating every inlet and plume of smoke along the shore.
On September 4, they encountered four French vessels anchored at the mouth of a large river (the St. Johns), including Ribault's flagship, La Trinité. The two fleets met in a brief skirmish, but it was not decisive.
Menéndez sailed southward and landed again on September 8, formally declared possession of the land in the name of Philip II, and officially founded the settlement he named San Agustín (Saint Augustine).
In July of 1565 Menéndez de Avilés led a fleet of 11 ships and 1,900 men to Florida. On August 28, the Feast of St. Augustine, he entered a bay near the delta of the St. Johns River. Upon making landfall 11 days later, the explorer rededicated the land to Spain and ordered his men to build a fort, which he named St. Augustine after the Catholic holy day.
The Spanish were not the first to settle the area around St. Augustine. French Protestants, known as Huguenots, established Ft. Caroline in 1564.. The group, originally led by Jean Ribault, was plagued by problems of disease and supply shortages.
Nonetheless, the French colony survived for over a year. Menéndez de Avilés's commission entailed ensuring that Spain's coastlines in the New World were free from interfering settlements from rival European nations—most especially France.. In 1565 soldiers under the command of Menéndez de Avilés seized control of Ft. Caroline.
Menéndez de Avilés ordered most of the colony to be massacred, hanging the bodies of victims of in trees with the inscription "Not as Frenchmen, but as heretics." Incorporating the settlement that he had founded and the former French settlement on the St. Johns River, the Spanish secured their dominion over northern Florida.
.THE FIRST JAMESTOWNIANS WOULDN'T LAND ASHORE FOR ANOTHER FEW DECADES, AND THE OLDEST SOON-TO-BE PLYMOUTH PILGRIMS WEREN’T YET 10 YEARS OLD. BUT THE TEXTBOOKS ARE RICH WITH THEIR STORIES, NOT ST. AUGUSTINE’S.
The most significant European settlement on the continent belonged to Spain. The location of St. Augustine was a strategic choice. From there, the Spanish could protect their treasure fleet as it sailed to and from Veracruz, Havana and other Caribbean hubs
The massive stone fort that the Spanish constructed to guard St. Augustine, the Castillo de San Marcos, was itself an engineering marvel. Though the pointed design of the fort was fairly standard, the Spanish could not find the building materials with which they were accustomed to using in the construction of such massive defense works.
Quarrying hard stones and moving them to St. Augustine proved to be impractical. Thus, the builders of the Castillo de San Marcos utilized coquina (a compact, densely packed, concrete-like material of shell and hardened sediment), which could be locally quarried on nearby Anastasia Island and ferried across to St. Augustine.
The material was solid enough to be used like stone, but it had a unique ability to "swallow" enemy cannon fire with little or no damage to the integrity of the fort's walls.
This use of indigenous coquina, a strategic location near the confluence of the San Sebastian and St. John's rivers, and a strong military presence allowed Castillo de San Marcos to withstand repeated enemy attacks.
As a Spanish, British, and United States outpost, the fort never fell into enemy hands until 1862 during the American Civil War.
In 1586 English buccaneer and mariner Sir Frances Drake ( died 1596) landed in St. Augustine and burned the town in an attempt to gain control of the region. Despite the immense damage caused to the town, Drake was ultimately unsuccessful.
During the Seven Years War in the 1760s the British seized Havana, forcing Spain to cede Florida for its return. The occupation was short-lived: The Spanish regained Florida at the end of the American Revolution, in the Treaty of Paris.
But over the coming decades their control weakened, and in the early 19th century the crown finally wearied of its problematic peninsula. With the Americans poised to run them out anyway, Spain handed over Florida to the U.S. in the 1819 Treaty of Adams-Onis, and the U.S. took on the $5 million debt associated with the colony. With that, the land switched hands for the last time.
THE SPANISH SETTLEMENT OF ST. AUGUSTINE PREDATED THE BRITISH SETTLEMENT AT JAMESTOWN (1607) BY 42 YEARS,
The Battle of Antietam in September 1862 turned back the first major Confederate invasion of the North in the Civil War. And it gave President Abraham Lincoln enough of a military victory to go forward with the Emancipation Proclamation.
The battle was shockingly violent, with casualties so high on both sides that it forever became known as "The Bloodiest Day in American History." Men who survived the entire Civil War would later look back at Antietam as the most intense combat they had endured.
On the Confederate side, General Robert E. Lee was hoping to strike a decisive blow by invading the North. Lee's plan was to strike into Pennsylvania, imperiling the city of Washington and forcing an end to the war.
The Confederate Army began crossing the Potomac on September 4, and within a few days had entered Frederick, a town in western Maryland. The citizens of the town stared at the Confederates as they passed through, hardly extending the warm welcome Lee had hoped to receive in Maryland.
Lee split up his forces, sending part of the Army of Northern Virginia to capture the town of Harpers Ferry and its federal arsenal
Union forces under the command of General George McClellan began moving northwest from the area of Washington, D.C., essentially chasing the Confederates.
At one point the Union troops camped in a field where the Confederates had camped days earlier. In an astounding stroke of luck, a copy of Lee's orders detailing how his forces were divided was discovered by a Union sergeant and taken to the high command.
General McClellan possessed invaluable intelligence, the precise locations of Lee's scattered forces. But McClellan, whose fatal flaw was an excess of caution, did not fully capitalize on that precious information.
McClellan continued in his pursuit of Lee, who began consolidating his forces and preparing for a major battle.
On September 14, 1862, the Battle of South Mountain, a struggle for mountain passes which led into western Maryland, was fought. The Union forces finally dislodged the Confederates, who retreated back into a region of farmland between South Mountain and the Potomac River.
At first it appeared to Union officers that the Battle of South Mountain might have been the big conflict they were anticipating. Only when they realized that Lee had been pushed back, but not defeated, that a much larger battle was yet to come.
Lee arranged his forces in the vicinity of Sharpsburg, a small Maryland farming village near the Antietam Creek.
On September 16 both armies took up positions near Sharpsburg and prepared for battle.
On the Union side, General McClellan had more than 80,000 men under his command. On the Confederate side, General Lee's army had been diminished by straggling and desertion on the Maryland campaign, and numbered approximately 50,000 men.
As the troops settled into their camps on the night of September 16, 1862, it seemed clear that a major battle would be fought the next day.
The action on September 17, 1862, played out like three separate battles, with major action happening in distinct areas at different parts of the day.
The beginning of the Battle of Antietam, in the early morning, consisted of a stunningly violent clash in a cornfield.
Soon after daybreak, Confederates troops began to see lines of Union soldiers advancing toward them. The Confederates were positioned among rows of corn. Men on both sides opened fire, and for the next three hours the armies battled back and forth across the cornfield.
Thousands of men fired volleys of rifles. Batteries of artillery from both sides raked the cornfield with grapeshot. Men fell, wounded or dead, in great numbers, but the fighting continued. The violent surges back and forth across the cornfield became legendary.
For much of the morning the fighting seemed to focus on the ground surrounding a small white country church erected by a local German pacifist sect called the Dunkers.
The Union commander who had led that morning's attack, Major General Joseph Hooker, was shot in the foot while on his horse. He was carried from the field.
By late morning the slaughter in the cornfield came to an end, but action in other parts of the battlefield was beginning to intensify.
The second phase of the Battle of Antietam was an attack on the center of the Confederate line.
The Confederates had found a natural defensive position, a narrow road used by farm wagons which had become sunken from wagon wheels and erosion caused by rain. The obscure sunken road would become famous as "Bloody Lane" by the end of the day.
Approaching five brigades of Confederates positioned in this natural trench, Union troops marched into a withering fire. Observers said the troops advanced across open fields "as if on parade."
The shooting from the sunken road stopped the advance, but more Union troops came up behind those who had fallen.
Eventually the Union attack succeeded, following a gallant charge by the famed Irish Brigade, regiments of Irish immigrants from New York and Massachusetts. Advancing under a green flag with a golden harp on it, the Irish fought their way to the sunken road and unleashed a furious volley of fire at the Confederate defenders.
The sunken road, now filled with Confederate corpses, was finally overtaken by Union troops. One soldier, shocked at the carnage, said the bodies in the sunken road were so thick that a man could have walked on them as far as he could see without touching the ground.
With elements of the Union Army advancing past the sunken road, the center of the Confederate line had been breached and Lee's entire army was now in peril. But Lee reacted quickly, sending reserves into the line, and the Union attack was halted in that part of the field.
To the south, another Union attack began.
The third and final phase of the Battle of Antietam took place at the southern end of the battlefield, as Union forces led by General Ambrose Burnside charged a narrow stone bridge crossing the Antietam Creek.
The attack at the bridge was actually unnecessary, as nearby fords would have allowed Burnside's troops to simply wade across the Antietam Creek. But, operating without knowledge of the fords, Burnside focused on the bridge, which was known locally as the "lower bridge," as it was the southernmost of several bridges crossing the creek.
On the western side of the creek, a brigade of Confederate soldiers from Georgia positioned themselves on bluffs overlooking the bridge. From this perfect defensive position the Georgians were able to hold off the Union assault on the bridge for hours.
A heroic charge by troops from New York and Pennsylvania finally took the bridge in the early afternoon. But once across the creek, Burnside hesitated and didn't press his attack forward.
By the end of the day, Burnside's troops had approached the town of Sharpsburg, and if they continued it was possible that his men could have cut off Lee's line of retreat across the Potomac River into Virginia.
With amazing luck, part of Lee's army suddenly arrived on the field, having marched from their earlier action at Harpers Ferry. They managed to stop Burnside's advance.
As the day came to an end, the two armies faced each other across fields covered with thousands of dead and dying men. Many thousands of wounded were carried to makeshift field hospitals.
The casualties were stunning. It was estimated that 23,000 men had been killed or wounded that day at Antietam.
The following morning both armies skirmished slightly, but McClellan, with his usual caution, did not press the attack. That night Lee began evacuating his army, retreating across the Potomac River back into Virginia.
The Battle of Antietam was a shock to the nation, as the casualties were so enormous. The epic struggle in western Maryland still stands as the bloodiest day in American history.
In the White House, Abraham Lincoln decided that the Union had gained the victory he needed to announce his Emancipation Proclamation.
In October 1862, Lincoln traveled from Washington to western Maryland and toured the battlefield. He met with General George McClellan, and was, as usual, troubled by McClellan's attitude. The commanding general seemed to manufacture countless excuses for not crossing the Potomac and battling Lee again. Lincoln had simply lost all confidence in McClellan.
When it was politically convenient, after the Congressional elections in November, Lincoln fired McClellan, and appointed General Ambrose Burnside to replace him as commander of the Army of the Potomac.
A month after the battle, photographs taken at Antietam by Alexander Gardner, who worked for the photography studio of Matthew Brady, went on display at Brady's gallery in New York City. Gardner's photographs had been taken in the days following the battle, and many of them portrayed soldiers who had perished in the astounding violence of Antietam.
The Battle of Antietam was you correctly describe was one of the most significant battles of the Civil War. It was THE most important battle as it prevented Lee's Army from moving toward Baltimore, Washington, and Philadelphia. It broke the back of the Confederacy.
ROTHSCHILD FUNDED, ARMED AND MANNED BOTH SIDES .. MOCHA MAWL HAD TO BE MADE
BELOW: GRAPHENE OXIDE AND 5G
love, this from a man whos eyes can burn right through me
blind, lost is my soul for endless misery
i hunger and thirst for what was once undying
you kill and destroy what´s left of my waning beauty
you take from me and leave with me with just memories
the taste of you, it haunts mee dreams in sleep
deliver me, from this craving i can´t feed
i´m left without, mee heart that aches with need
you are the only one who can bring me to my knees
you are the only one, for you mee heart bleeds
you are the only one that tears this poor heart asunder
´cause every single day your heart denies that love is dying
and all them little lies you breathe in me, survive
lie down in this ocean full of shed tears
breathe, holding back all these newborn fears
selfish and dark are your cruel intentions
i´ve emptied mee heart, bared mee soul
take with you all that remain
take with you all them crumbs
you were the only one i ever loved
i swear on the moon, them stars, the sky above
the marks humans leave are too often scars
from suffering can emerge the strongest souls
most massive heroes are seared with soul scars.
soul scars unlike them skin scars lie deep within
they have a hidden story of trust betrayed
they are hard to heal , for they don’t bleed
leaves you mired in feculence, comfortably numb
very few have snapped out of this world of hurt
emerge stronger , use them scars as wings-
TO BE CONTINUED
CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL