Wednesday, July 20, 2022

SOUL MATTERS , PART 29- Capt Ajit Vadakayil

 

THIS POST IS CONTI UED FROM PART 28, BELOW--



 

FOREIGN FUNDED LOOKING LONDON SEEING TOKYO TRISHA SHETTY RIDICULED YOGA AS MERE GYMNASTICS..

 

CHECK OUT WHAT KERALA MAHARISHI PATANJALI WROTE 7000 YEARS AGO ABOUT THE WORKINGS OF MIND AND SOUL..  THE WHITE MAN WAS RUNNING AROUND NAKED , HIS BALLS AND PIN WEE WILLY WINKIE , FLAPPING, DOING GRUNT GRUNT FOR LANGUAGE

 

Chitta prasadanam is a Sanskrit term meaning "a mind with a sweet disposition." Chitta may be translated as “that which is conscious,” “ordinary consciousness” or “the act of mental apprehension”; and prasadanam may be translated as “happiness," “filled with grace,” “joyfulness” or “limitless sweetness.”

 

A chitta prasadanam mind is considered favorable, wholesome and pleasant. Its consciousness is full of non-dual love and compassion for all beings, and it is measured by equanimity. As such, chitta prasadanam is considered something yogis should aspire to.

 

In "The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali," cultivating citta prasadanam is considered a task of great importance.

 

The Sutras teach that citta prasadanam is developed through meeting happy people with friendliness, those who are suffering with compassion, those who are virtuous with delight.

 

Chitta Prasadan is a sublime way of clearing the mind from impurities by developing four important mental virtues Maitri (Friendliness), Karuna (Compassion), Mudita (Joyfulness) and Upeksha (Dispassion).

 

3.10 — tasya prashantavahita sanskarat  Panatnjali Yoga Sutra 5000 BC

 

the restraint of rising impressions brings about an undisturbed flow of tranquillity.

 

by maintaining perfect awareness in the intervals between rising and restraining impressions, steadiness becomes effortless and natural. then the stream of tranquillity flows without any ripples in consciousness.

 

by adept, repeated efforts, consciousness is transformed, cultured, refined and polished. it produces freedom from all forms of fluctuations, so that undisturbed peace can flow.

 

as each drop of water aids to form a lake, so one must continue to prolong each tranquil pause between rising and restraining impressions.

 

an expert of abhyasa and vairagya keeps himself steady, so that calmness can flow uninterruptedly. thus he released from all previous impressions of consciousness.

 

the words used by patanjali for the state of tranquillity constitute atia prasadanam, adhyatma prasadanam, svarasa vahini and ananla samapattih. when agitated, consciousness is brought to an undisturbed state; it is chitta prasadanam (favourable disposition of chitta).

 

 when sorrows are subdued, it is svarasa vahini (flow of the soul’s fragrance). when exertion in search of the soul ceases, it is ananla samapattih (assuming the original and eternal form). expertise in meditation is adhyatma prasadanam (manifestation of the light of the soul).

 

all convey a similar meaning – that the seeker and the sought are one; that the seeker is the seer. that high level of mastery called nirodhah-parinamah occurs in the moment of transition when there is a convergence of the rising tendency of deep impressions, the subsiding tendency, and the attention of the mind field itself. the steady flow of this state (nirodhah-parinamah) continues by the creation of deep impressions (samskaras) from doing the practice.

 

nirodha parinama is an advanced stage in a yogi’s spiritual journey. in this stage, the mind is liberated and no longer influenced by thought-waves, or chitta vritti.

 

the state of nirodha parinama is considered to be a transformational state because as the chitta vritti cease, the mind is freed to connect with the moment as it appears. reaching a state of nirodha parinama  takes a lot of practice and concerted, continual effort.

 

 it requires the yogi to have the power to command and restrain their own mind. when they are in this state, the yogi can immediately recognize any samskaras that accumulate and be in control.

 

the flow of nirodha parinama becomes steady through habit. the restraint of rising impressions brings about an undisturbed flow of tranquility. when this suppression of thought-waves becomes continuous, the mind’s flow is calm. by constant and uninterrupted practice the mind can remain in a state of attention for a long time.

 

the steady flow of this state (nirodhah-parinamah) continues by the creation of deep impressions (samskaras) from doing the practice. nirodha parinama brings about a free flow of peace, tranquility and spontaneous freeing of the mind, unencumbered by thought waves. 

 

nirodha parinama is the first state of the three parinamas, or great transformations, which together bring the complete liberation of the mind

 

3.11 — sarvarthataikagratayoh kshayodayau chittasya samadhiparinamah  Patanjali yoga Sutra 5000 bc

 

the weakening of dissipated attention and the rise of one-pointed attention in the chitta is the transformation towards samadhi.

 

consciousness wavers between multi-faceted and one-pointed attention. when one-pointed attention is established, multi-faceted attention disappears; when one-pointed attention fades, consciousness is scattered.

 

observing these alternations and learning to hold unwaveringly to single-pointed attention is the second phase of the transformation – samadhi parinama. chitta has two properties – dispersiveness (sarvarthata chitta) and one-pointedness (ekagrata chitta), with which it can direct its attention externally or internally. it can unite these two powers into one, to move towards spiritual absorption.

 

chitta assumes the form of any object seen, observed or thought of. it can spread itself as much as it wishes to. when it spreads, it is multi-faceted; when it remains steadily focused, it is one-pointed. when it is scattered, distraction and restlessness sets in.

 

this restlessness can be curbed, but nothing which exists can be destroyed; it can only be transformed, made to disappear or fade by thoughtful attention, enabling the stream of conscious restfulness to flow unwaveringly.

 

in this manner, consciousness is influenced by its own action. it forms the habit of absorbing in a single thought, which prepares one for spiritual absorption. this type of attention, samadhi parinama, stabilises the state of restfulness.

 

in nirodha parinama, the issuing of thought-waves is restrained and quietened. in samadhi parinama, the intervals between the emergence and the restraint of thoughts and vice versa are studied.

 

from this study issues a stillness which leads to silence. one should know that stillness is rigidity and silence is passive and meditative. in the state of silence, the fragrance of the soul emerges as the centre of attention.

 

this is ekagrata paririama. the mind alternates between the possibility of intense concentration and a state where alternative objects can attract attention.the mastery called samadhi-parinamah is the transition whereby the tendency to all-pointedness subsides, while the tendency to one-pointedness arises.

 

the state of all-pointedness refers to the tendency of the mind to be drawn in countless different directions. in the state of samadhi-parinamah being described, this tendency towards all-pointedness subsides. it does not mean that those countless objects themselves go away, as they are not destroyed.

 

what it does mean is that the inclination of the mind towards this stance of all-pointedness subsides. in other words, it is only one thing that is subsiding, and that is the tendency towards the endless diversity presented to the mind.

 

the state of one-pointedness refers to the tendency of the mind to concentrate or focus on a single point. if you observe your own mental functioning, you can easily see both tendencies. the mind tends both to the diversity of all-pointedness, as well as to one -pointedness.

 

we all experience both of these tendencies in daily life. here in this sutra, it is this one-pointedness that is arising.  here, in the high state of samadhi-parinamah, there is witnessing of this transition into samadhi, whereby the all-pointedness subsides, and the one-pointedness arises. it is innate nature of the mind to be attentive to all the things at the same time.

 

one-pointedness is also the nature of the same mind. this is the anatomy of the mind. the mind has to be trained and tamed. this weakening of distractive nature of the mind is the sadhana. strengthening of the force of one pointedness is a prerogative of sadhana.

 

this taming is a skilful art and should never be forceful and sudden. it has to be gradual. this journey from many-pointedness to one-pointedness is the crux of mental transformation.

 

the process has to be handled very delicately and effortlessly. that is the real mastery over the mind. we are aware of many things, since awareness from one thought/object shifts to another thought/object. but at a single given moment and time the awareness is of only one thought/object. but the shifting is so fast that it appears that the mind is unbridled and disperse.

 

this fastness has to be replaced with slowness and gradually let not the awareness shift from the single object. finally, the innate unmanifested quality to shift will be eliminated.

 

this subtle transformation is termed as samadhi parinama.  nirodha parinama is the awareness of the interval between two thoughts and samadhi parinama is the awareness of the quietitude. cultivating one-pointedness infers holding the mind on a single object and vise versa.

 

there are various types of transformations, such as nirodha parinama, samadhi parinama, ekagrata parinama, dharma parinama, lakshana parinama and avastha parinama. these are the terms used by patanjali to indicate the types or kinds of transformation which the mind passes through in its processes of concentration, meditation and samadhi – which is samyama.

 

3.12 — tatah punah shantoditau tulyapratyayau chittasyaikagrataparinamah  Patanjali Yoga Sutra 5000 BC

 

when rising and falling thought processes are in balance, one-pointed consciousness comes forth.

 

maintenance of awarenesss with keen intensity from one-pointed attention to no-pointed attentiveness is ekagrata parinama. even in this focus on the property of chitta alone, the sensitivity of attention may be intense or light.

 

to preserve a steady, uninterrupted flow and intensity of attention in chitta is the third phase of transformation. occasionally, consciousness is thoughtfully silent, but then it suddenly spirts out into vivacious activity. in a split second, this activity may be controlled and balance regained. this control needs effort, and effort calls for time.

 

by skillful practice, the depth of silence, which at first appears only in fleets, is made to interpenetrate and fill the entire chitta. then the feeling of time disappears.

 

past and future are reabsorbed into the timeless. mind and time are interdependent. as the moments of the mind come to an end, so does time. chitta and the seer (atman) are the two sharp edges of a blade. in one-pointed attention (ekagrata samskara) the energies of the seeker and the seer become one.

 

when the state of restraint is reached (nirodha samskara), glimpses of silence are nurtured and fill the consciousness (samadhi samskara). then the third phase of ekagrata samskara should be practised.

 

here, the consciousness which was dependent on external objects moves inwards to infuse the seedless seat of the soul. patanjali explains the three levels of transformation of consciousness in sequential order – nirodha, samadhi and finally ekagrata. 

 

samadhi, according to vedanta, is a state where a person transcends into a higher state of consciousness.  he is no more said to be connected the world and all its happenings and can see life in a clearer light. it is a spiritual state of consciousness, samadhi is attained by meditation..

 

samadhi is the highest state of consciousness one can achieve through meditation. it consists of a yoga practitioner reaching spiritual enlightenment where the self, the mind, and the object of meditation merge together into one.

 

samadhi is a state of profound and utterly absorptive contemplation of the absolute that is undisturbed by desire, anger, or any other ego-generated thought or emotion. it is a state of joyful calm, or even of rapture and beatitude, in which one maintains one's full mental alertness and acuity.

 

ekagrata, as explained earlier, has two meanings. one is concentration on a given object – at this external level it bears the same meaning as dharana. the other is ‘one without a second’ – i.e., the soul.

 

this level of transformation of consciousness is the highest. patanjali thus states his meaning as – ekagrata parinama is the final phase of the transformation in which consciousness is uplifted to the level of the soul, and is one with it. the mastery called ekagrata-parinamah is the transition whereby the same one-pointedness arises and subsides sequentially. rising and subsiding of the same one-pointedness

 

 

3.14 — shantoditavyapadeshyadharmanupati dharmi   Patanjali Yoga Sutra 5000 BC

 

the substratum is that which continues to exist and maintain its characteristic quality in all states, whether manifest, latent, or subdued.

 

the integral characteristic quality of nature (mula-prakrti) has three properties – pacified or calmed (santa), manifested (udita) or latent (avyapadesa). they appear indistinctly or clearly, according to one’s intellectual development. the substratum of nature remains the same for all time, though transformations take place.

 

the moulding of consciousness takes place owing to the changes in the gunas of nature. patanjali explains the three phases of consciousness as rising, being restrained and the pauses between the two. in iii.10, he describes these pauses as tranquil consciousness.

 

if these pauses are prolonged, all pointedness and one-pointedness meet, and there is no room for rising or subsiding of thoughts explains that maintaining these quiet moments gives rise to a balanced state of consciousness.  as a cultured and harmonious state. rising and restraining thoughts are the inclinations (dharma) of the chitta, and the tranquil state is its characteristic quality (dharmi).

 

the rising chitta is felt in the sensory body. chitta then appears at the external level as bahirahga chitta. watching the movement of rising thoughts is an external or bahirahga sadhana.

 

the delicate restraint of rising thoughts moves chitta inwards from the peripheral body – this is inner or antarahga sadhana. stabilising the tranquillity that takes place in the intervals is innermost or antaratma sadhana – that state is considered to be an auspicious moment of consciousness.

 

it is like re-discovering the dust, which existed before the pot. consciousness has three phases – external, internal and innermost. as one traces and retraces these, their relevance can be noticed to an individual’s practices of asana, pranayama and meditation, in which consciousness moves from the skin inwards, and each cell and fibre is infused with the tranquillity of the seer.

 

today, everyone is aware of constant ‘stress and strain’ in life. these aspects of consciousness which confuses life are by no means new to mankind.

 

patanjali’s word vyutthana, used to designate the ’emergence of rising thought’, is equivalent to the appearance of ‘stress’. nirodha, ‘restraint of rising thought’ is equivalent to the ‘strain’ of trying to control that stress. striking the balance between the two is called ‘relaxation’ (santi chitta).

 

3.52— sthanyupanimantrane sanggasmayakarannan punah anishtaprasanggat

 

When approached by celestial beings, there should be neither attachment nor surprise, because undesirable connections can happen again.

 

The yogi must maintain his hard-won freedom, and must not fall prey to temptations that can raze him down from the height of spirituality. There are four types of yogis. They are known as – prathama kalpika, madhubhumika, prajnajyoti and atikrantabhavamya.

 

Prathama kalpika yogis have worked hard in their yogic practices, and the power of progress has just begun to dawn. Madhubhumika yogis have learned to distinguish between chitta and the seer and try to achieve further mastery. (They are also called rtambhara prajnas.)

 

The prajnajyotis have succeeded in subduing the elements of nature, the qualities of the senses of perception, mind and desires and have realised the seer, while the atikrantabhavamyas have attained the highest knowledge of the seer and have the power of olparavava-gya (highest dispassion).

 

 

4.04- – – nirmannachittanyasmitamatrat

 

Constructed or created mind springs from the sense of individuality (asmita).

 

Asmita is characterised by thoughts such as “I am better than you”, “I am right”, “I know more than you”. As humans we are all subject to asmita (ego). In fact we all need a little bit of ego to have a healthy view of ourselves! But when it becomes a dominant force in how we communicate and make decisions it can bring suffering to our lives. 

 

From a sense of self-awareness, numerous activities become associated in one’s consciousness, thereby giving rise to mental states called moods, which form themselves into nirmita, or cultivated chitta. They ruin, distort and disturb the intelligence, creating various sufferings and fluctuations. If this distorted consciousness is re-channelled in the right direction, it develops sophistication and sensitivity.

 

Then nirmita chitta changes into nirmana, or sasmtta, chitta, or a sense of sattvic individuality, and nature makes the intelligence wise, which in turn keeps the consciousness pure.  This sutra explains the quality of constructive and creative mind through asmita. The seat of the mind-matter is the brain. It produces fluctuations, bias and prejudices, which cause pain and distress, and need to be held back. 

 

The mind at its source is single and pure. It is known as the core of the being (atman) or the seat of the spiritual heart. When it sprouts into a seedling, it becomes the self-conscious centre (antahkarana), and forms sasmita or a sense of sattvic individuality.

 

This develops into consciousness {chitta), which branches out into ego (ahamkara), intelligence (buddhi) and mind (manas). These manifest themselves as multiple thought-waves, which, if allowed free play, give rise to sufferings and waverings (vyutthana chitta). 

 

By regular practice, the fire of yoga develops the sadhaka’s ability to discriminate between the original mind and its offshoots, single mind and multifaceted, complex mind. He does this by careful observation of his behaviour, channelising his energies to retrace the source of these thought-waves (chitta vrttis) and exterminate them at their very source.

 

This is santa chitta or samahita chitta, which takes the sadhaka to the threshold of the single state of consciousness, and converts the sprouted or created consciousness into a cultured consciousness – nirmana chitta.

 

This, in turn, traces the core of his individual existence. This becomes meditation – dhyana, at which point the distortions of the multiple mind disappear. The conscious awareness of head and heart unite, and the consciousness becomes mature and pure (divya ana). This pure chitta is the root consciousness – miila chitta.

 

 

4.05- – – pravrittibhede prayojakam chittam ekam anekesham

 

Consciousness is one, but it branches into many different types of activities and innumerable thought-waves.

 

Consciousness, though single, directs multiple thoughts, sometimes creating discrepancies between words and deeds. It is indirectly responsible for several activities, and becomes the source of desires and their satisfaction. If it stops directing thoughts, the need to culture the consciousness towards transformation (nirmana chitta) does not arise.

 

Patanjali wants everybody to channelise the energies of the multiple mind in the right direction, so that no discrepancies or distortions arise among words, thoughts and deeds.

 

It has already been said that multiple thoughts arise from the sense of ‘ I’ consciousness in the sphere of activity. Owing to lack of understanding – avidya, their fluctuations create doubts, confusion, desires and avarice, bringing sufferings that disturb the mind.

 

These are ‘weeds’ of the mind (vyutthana or nirmita chitta). By using the discriminative faculty (mrodha chitta) gained through yoga, and analysing the fluctuating changes, the weeds are eradicated and a state of silence (prasanta chitta), is created – an intermediate state between the original, universal mind and the individual mind. In that state of silence, comes a refining and purifying spark from within (divya chitta).

 

When this occurs, nature becomes a real friend to consciousness culturing and transforming it, with its abundant energies, and cleansing the intelligence of the heart. Intelligence and consciousness then realise that they are one, not disconnected and different, and all sorrows and joys reach a culmination.

 

The ego-centred and ego-based mind-fields that the Sadhaka constructs consciously, to serve him may exhibit diverse tendencies and may look like many mind-fields. But, in reality, there is a single root mind-field behind all of them, which controls all these diverse external expressions or mind-fields.

 

This means, we have come with an original mind-field, which is the real controller behind all the diverse mind-fields that the EGO goes on creating. While the activities of the emergent mind fields may be diverse, the one mind is the director of the many.

 

The root aspect of mind that emerges from individuality or asmita  is the core out of which there may emerge many clusters of mental identity. All of the mental constructs of who we think we are, are false identities that are secondary to that central mental identity.

 

 

4.06- – – tatra dhyanajam anashayam

 

Of these activities of consciousness of perfected beings, only those, which proceed from meditation, are free from latent impressions and influences.

 

Having explained the creation by the single mind of multiple thoughts, which disturb the poise of the original mind, Patanjali explains here that this sprouted mind should be cultured, tranquillised and silenced through profound meditation. This puts an end to the influence of impressions, and liberates the consciousness from entanglements with objects seen, heard or known.

 

Meditation not only liberates consciousness from past impressions, but also removes the hindrances towards progressive evolution of the mind. Impressions of attachment and affliction continue to torture others. These obstacles, lust, anger, greed, infatuation, pride and jealousy, are the spokes of the emotional wheel.

 

Meditation assists to subdue them, so that the emotional centre (the consciousness of the heart) can expand in a new dimension of spiritual growth. Then consciousness will have neither merits nor demerits, virtue nor vice, fluctuations nor afflictions. It becomes ‘cultured’ (samahita chitta), and is conducive in experiencing kjnalya.

 

When the constructed mind-fields are many, amongst them, the one born out of Meditation is the one which is free from the Karmic impressions of the past.  In meditation, we dissolve all other mind-fields. Only one original mind, with which we are born cannot be dissolved by us in mediation. It is the purest, in which we find no further reflections of other mind-fields

 

 

4.10- – – tasam anaditvam chashisho nityatvat

 

These impressions, memories and desires have existed eternally, as the desire to live is eternal.

 

Just as the universe is eternal, so are impressions and desires. They have existed from the distant past, beyond anybody’s memory. For one whose seeds of blemishes are eliminated, and whose desires have come to an end, the turmoils of the universe appear to have come to an end.

 

Nobody knows the timeless, primordial, absolute One, or when the world came into existence. Both purusa and prakrti, spirit and nature, existed before man appeared. When creation took place, man was empowered with consciousness, intelligence, mind, senses of perception, organs of action and body.

 

At the same time the characteristics or qualities (gunas) of nature, illumination (sattva), action (rajas) and inertia (lamas) entered man’s body. Set on the wheel of time with the spokes of the gunas of nature, man began to function in conformity with these three fundamental, intermingling qualities.

 

Though born with an unpolluted heart, he gradually became caught in the snare of nature and fell victim to the polarities of pleasure and pain, good and evil, love and hatred, the permanent and transient.

 

That is how desires (vasana) and imprints (samskara) rooted themselves in man’s life, and why this sutra says that desires have existed from time immemorial.

 

Caught in these reverses, man felt the need of a personal divinity, unaffected by afflictions, untouched by actions and reactions, and free from the experience of joy and sorrow. This led to a search for the highest ideal embodied in purusa, or God. Through this search arrived culture, and finally civilization.

 

Man learned to differentiate between good and evil, virtue and vice, and what is moral and immoral. That is how yoga was discovered. Through yoga sadhana, the desires that have existed since the beginning of time are eliminated so that kaivalya can be experienced.  Patanjali speaks of pure actions, which collect and store no imprints.

 

The essential nature of chitta is tranquillity – santa chitta. When the sadhaka does not permit thought-waves to arise (vyutthana chitta), naturally there is no need for their restraint, nirodha chitta. As both are filtered by santa chitta, the sadhaka resides in this quiet state and performs his duties. His actions are pure, and their outcome too will be pure..

 

Due to ignorance, joy and sorrow occur and deepen, according to one’s surroundings. If allowed free rein, they agitate the serene state of consciousness and the gates of kaivalya may remain closed forever. But one can sever the links of desires by developing the mind through the grace of yoga. As long as one practices yoga, one is free from desire.

 

Dedicated, life-long practice of yoga stops the wheel of desires, so that one lives in the state of poise and peace. Desires started is us – when we started our life journey. They are born along with us. It emanates from our will to live.

 

Patanjali says that desires and their innate vasanas have no beginning.  But, he has not said that they do not have an end. If we recognize the nature and consequences of desire, vasanas, and the consequent karmas and karmaphalam

 

Patanjali shows us the way out of their cycle. Samadhi is essentially intended to end this cycle. There is no beginning to the process of these deep habit patterns (samskaras), due to the eternal nature of the will to live. 

 

The will to live is the primordial out-flowing of the urge to manifest. This eternal process of cause and effect means that there is also no beginning to the process of deep habit patterns (samskaras) springing forth into thoughts and actions, and their subsequent creation of memories and impressions .

 

The cycling process of deep impressions, actions, consequences, and storage of memories is without beginning. Self-realization is not from regression analysis:

 

Therefore, the approach to Self-realization is other than tracing back our individual personality development in some linear regression of cause preceding effect. In some approaches of psychological examination this might be a valid method, but not in the case of seeking enlightenment.

 

In spiritual matters, it ultimately provides little fruit to try to figure out how we got to our present circumstances. It is far better to seek the direct experience of the eternal core of our being, regardless of the nature of the wrappings of false identities.

 

With the removal of obstacles, that realization naturally flows. Those memories and impressions are primeval, without a beginning, hope and desire energies are eternal as well.

 

When a yogi sees that the hope and desire energy is eternal, he makes a decision to let it be and to detach himself from the urges.  He must, by all means, get himself separated from the mento-emotional force or remain a victim of it.  The memories and the circumstance-forming impressions will be there for all eternity.   A yogin has no choice but to extract his existence from the realm of it.

 

4.20- – –  ekasamaye chobhayanavadharannam

 

Consciousness cannot apprehend both the seer and itself at the same time.

 

It cannot comprehend subject-object, observer-observed, or actor-witness at the same time, whereas the seer can. Day and night cannot exist simultaneously. In the same way, restlessness and restfulness cannot co-exist in absolute juxtaposition. In between night and day there is dawn.

 

Likewise, there is space between the flow of restlessness, chittavritti or chittavahini, and restfulness, prasanta vritti or prasanta vahini. In between these two rivers of restlessness and restfulness, and underneath them, flows the concealed invisible secret river – the river of the soul. This is dawn, or the sudden arrival of enlightenment.

 

For a yogi, restlessness is the night and restfulness is the day. In between, there is a third state which is neither day nor night, but dawn. It is the dispersion of consciousness, in which the rivers of restlessness and restfulness unite in the seat of absolute consciousness.

 

When the water of a lake is tranquil, the reflection of the moon on its surface is crystal clear. Similarly, when the lake of consciousness is serene, consciousness disperses itself. This is known as a glimpse, or a reflection of the soul. The seer, being constant and unchangeable, can perceive the fluctuations as well as the serenity of consciousness.

 

If consciousness itself were self-luminous, it too could be the knower and the knowable. As it does not possess the power to be both, a wise yogi disciplines it, so that he may be alive to the light of the soul.  It is stated in the Bhagavad Gita (11.69) ‘One who is self-controlled is awake when it appears night to all other beings, and what appears to him as night keeps others awake’.

 

 

या निशा सर्वभूतानां तस्यां जागर्ति संयमी |

यस्यां जाग्रति भूतानि सा निशा पश्यतो मुने: || 69||

 

ya nisha sarva-bhutanam tasyam jagarti sanyami

yasyam jagrati bhutani sa nisha pashyato muneh

 

Translation

BG 2.69: What all beings consider as day is the night of ignorance for the wise, and what all creatures see as night is the day for the introspective sage.

 

A yogic sadhaka thus realises that when consciousness is active, the seer is asleep and when the seer is awake, it is night to the consciousness.  Similarly, in the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, the word ha is used to indicate the seer as the ‘sun’, which never fades, whereas tha represents consciousness as the ‘moon’, which eternally waxes and wanes.

 

We know that mind itself can be cognized. But, the whole cognition process happens only through the mind. It must be clear to us that cognition of the mind and cognition of the external matters and objects cannot happen simultaneously through the same mind itself. Nor can both the mind and the illuminating process be cognized simultaneously.

 

Awareness of mind and witness don’t coexist: It is not possible to be aware of an object in the mind field at the same time there is awareness of one’s true nature as the illuminator of the mind. It cannot execute the focus of both at the same time. If the mind were self-luminous it would be able to cognize everything at the same time, which it cannot. 

 

If the mind were self-luminous there would be no limit to the impressions it could receive. The Purusa can cognise all in one moment; therefore the Purusa is self-luminous, and the mind is not.  Consciousness cannot comprehend both the seer and itself at the same time.

 

4.21- – –  chittantaradrishye buddhibuddheratiprasanggah smritisankarashcha

 

If consciousness were manifold in one’s being, each cognising the other, the intelligence too would be manifold, so the projections of mind would be many, each having its own memory.

 

Plurality of consciousness would result in lack of understanding between one mind and another, leading to utter confusion and madness. Patanjali thus concludes that consciousness is one and cannot be many. 

 

As a tree has numerous branches, all connected to the trunk, similarly, the various wavelengths of thoughts are connected to a single consciousness. This consciousness remains unadulterated and divine at its source in the spiritual heart.

 

When it branches from the source towards the head, it is called created consciousness – nirmita chitta, which, being fresh, is inexpert and uncultured. The moment it comes into contact with objects, it becomes tainted, creating moods in the thought-waves.

 

These moods are the five fluctuations (vntis) and five afflictions (klesas) . Moods should not be mistaken for a plurality of minds. The mind stays the same, but moods generate an illusion of several minds. If the minds were really many, then each would have its own memory and intelligence. This becomes outrageous. J

 

ust as a room fitted with mirrors baffles the onlooker, similarly, the idea of many minds causes confusion and irrationality. The practice of yoga disciplines and cultures the consciousness of the head, by which it perfects the art of analysis (savitarka), judges precisely (savicara), experiences unalloyed bliss (ananda), becomes auspicious (sasmi-ta) and moves towards mature intelligence (consciousness of the heart) and unalloyed wisdom (rtambhara prajna). 

 

If one mind were illumined by another, as its master, then there would be an endless and absurd progression of cognitions, as well as confusion. The Yogi seeks only pure consciousness: Since the mind is not self-illuminating, and there is not endless chain of minds, the Yogi seeks only to have the direct experience of the pure consciousness or purusha .

 

If consciousness were manifold in one’s being, each cognizing the other, the intelligence too would be manifold, so the projections of mind would be many, each having its own memory. Unless there is a spirit behind a mind, there would be no perception in that energy.

 

 

4.22- – chiterapratisankramayastadakarapattau svabuddhisanvedanam

 

Consciousness distinguishes its own awareness and intelligence when it reflects and identifies its source – the changeless seer – and assumes his form.

 

Through the attainment of pure consciousness comes knowledge of the unchangeable seer, who rests on his own intelligence and nowhere else.  When consciousness no longer fluctuates, then its pure nature surfaces to comprehend itself.

 

Consciousness has two facets – one pure, divine and immutable, the other changeable, transient and exhibitive. It has no light of its own but acts as a medium or agent between the seer and the objects seen. Due to ignorance, it does not realise that it is impersonating the seer.

 

But the seer has knowledge of the movements of the consciousness.  When one facet of consciousness ceases to operate, it ends its contact with the external world and stops collecting impressions. The other facet is drawn to the seer, and the two unite. Intelligence and consciousness fuse in their abode – the atman, and the soul comes face to face with itself. 

 

A dirty mirror mists reflection; a clean mirror reflects objects clearly. The illumined consciousness becomes purified and reflects objects exactly as they are. The reflector is called bimba-pratibimba vada, or the elucidation of double reflection.

 

There is no difference between the source object and the reflected image. The soul reflects the soul. It is the fulfilment of yoga; Chitta is identified with the seer. This is svabuddhi samvedanam or intuitive understanding of the inner voice. 

 

An everyday instance of human consciousness taking on the absolute quality and form of the object one observes is when one gazes into the dancing flames of a fire, or at the waves of the sea, or the wind on the tree-tops. One feels absolutely engrossed in watching, without thought or impatience, as if one was the unending waves or the flickering flames, or the windswept trees.

 

Chitta by itself has no illuminating power or power of cognition. That Power rests with the Purusha or Consciousness.

 

Purusha is at once self-illuminating and one who illuminates the mind as well. Purusha does not operate  by himself to experience the world of objects.  Purusha experiences the whole world, only through the mind, which operates through the senses. But, Purusha does not need another illuminator for itself.

 

Purusha stays as the witness of all that the mind projects through mind itself. Purusha however undergoes no changes whatsoever by all these inputs from the mind. He remains the unchanging witness. When the mind stays very pure, without the usual colouring of the senses, it receives the illumination from Purusha to the fullest extent, and the cognition process is in its finest form.

 

This means that Chitta now remains clean and clear and unwavering. Then, the Chitta’s awareness of the process of cognition also is at its peak. It poses no hindrances before the final witness of the Purusha in the cognition process.

 

When the unchanging consciousness appears to take on the shape of that finest aspect of mind-field, then the experience of one’s own cognition process is possible.  Consciousness provides the light or life force so that the subtlest aspect of mind-stuff can operate, yet like with the mirror, it cannot itself be grasped and is unchanging.

 

It is as if the consciousness, though unchanged, wraps itself around the subtle object called mind, and, in turn, all of the objects of the mind. This has been described in the beginning of the Yoga Sutras as the essential obstacle to be transcended, or disidentified with. 

 

The tool must be set aside: By realizing the extremely subtle nature of how the consciousness allows the mind-field to be active, it is evident that to know the absolute, unchanging Truth or Reality, one must let go of even this finest instrument. Through that letting go, the experience of the unchanging, eternal consciousness is there, standing alone, and this is the experience of Self-realization. It is the meaning of resting in one’s True nature that is introduced in the beginning of the Yoga Sutras .

 

The consciousness of the Purusha is unchangeable; by getting the reflection of it, the mindstuff becomes conscious of the Self. Consciousness distinguishes its own awareness and intelligence when it reflects and identifies its source — the changeless seer — and assumes his form.

 

The pure consciousness of the Atman is unchangeable. As the reflection of its consciousness falls upon the mind, the mind takes the form of the Atman and appears to be conscious. When the mind is not linked to external objects and it does not respect an external form to the Perceiver, then it takes the form of the Perceiver itself.

 

Patanjali says that knowledge is not a quality of the Purusa. When the mind comes near the Purusa it is reflected, as it were, upon the mind, and the mind, for the time being, becomes knowing and seems as if it were itself the Purusa.

 

 

4.23- – drashtridrishyoparaktan chittan sarvartham

 

Consciousness, reflected by the seer as well as by the seen, appears to be all-comprehending.

 

Consciousness, being in conjunction both with the seer and the seen, appears to an average individual to be all pervading, omniscient and real. When one is cultured and purified, one realises that consciousness has no existence of its own but is dependent on the seer.

 

As the physical frame is the body of consciousness, therefore consciousness is the body of the seer. Consciousness is the bridge between nature and soul, and its conjunction is either illumined by the seer or tainted by the seen. The wise yogi frees consciousness from the qualities of nature; he keeps it clean, so that it is reflected without distortion both by the seer and the seen.

 

When the waves of the sea subside, they lose their identities and become the sea. In the same way, when the waves of the seer – the senses of perception, mind, intelligence and consciousness – subside, they lose their identities and merge in the ocean of the seer, for the seer to blaze forth independently. This is the sight of the soul.

 

Patanjali explains that consciousness is no longer a subject but an object. It is not a knower but the known. As it is trained by sadhana towards maturity (paripakva chitta), it gains purity (suddha chitta) through pure intelligence (iuddha buddhi). 

 

Until now, consciousness was under the impression that it was the reflector (bimba) and all other images were its reflected reflections (pratibvhba). This sutra explains that consciousness in its immature state takes itself to be all-powerful and all-pervading, but the truth is that the seer is actually the reflector. Patanjali illustrates that the impersonating consciousness is transformed to the level of the seen, so that both the reflector and its reflection, gitta, are identical. 

 

It is said in the Bhagavad Gita (vi.19) that as a lamp in a windless place does not flicker, so the sheaths of a cultured yogi do not shake.

 

यथा दीपो निवातस्थो नेङ्गते सोपमा स्मृता |

योगिनो यतचित्तस्य युञ्जतो योगमात्मन: || 19||

 

yatha dipo nivata-stho nengate sopama smrita

yogino yata-chittasya yunjato yogam atmanah

 

Translation

BG 6.19: Just as a lamp in a windless place does not flicker, so the disciplined mind of a yogi remains steady in meditation on the Supreme.

 

They remain untouched by the wind of desires for the seer to reflect his own glorious light,  atmajyoti, and to dwell in that light – purusa jnana. Purusha is the seer and the witness of all that is seen. All objects received through the senses and the mind are the seen.

 

Chitta or mind receives the inputs and presents before Purusha. On one side,Chitta is colored by the Purusha. On the other side, it is coloured by the objects outside, the Drisya. Then, the dual colouring on it makes the comprehending process self-enabled and clear.

 

Mind always remains the medium through which the Purusha witnesses the world. The mind can now know all that can be known. It can know everything that can be known. But, in reality, it is only a medium and the actual knower remains the Purusha.

 

For Patanjali, the Purusha, who rules from behind the mind, the mind itself, the world  outside and the whole cognizing process are all real. Maya enters in when Purusha’s existence is not understood and mind starts thinking that it is the actual seer.

 

Therefore, the mind field, which is colored by both seer and seen, has the potential to perceive any and all objects. Coloured by the seer and the seen the mind is able to understand everything. The mind is able to perceive because it reflects both the Atman and the objects of perception. The mind field, which is colored by both seer and seen, has the potential to perceive any and all objects.

 

 

4.25- – visheshadarshin aatmabhavabhavanavinivrittih

 

For one who realises the distinction between chitta and atma, the sense of separation between the two disappears.

 

When the difference between consciousness (chitta) and the projector of the consciousness (citi) is recognised, the search for Self-Realisation ends.  Patanjali takes the sadhaka progressively to the realisation that consciousness is not the all-knower, but simply an instrument of the soul.

 

 For one who is not sure of the difference between consciousness and soul (chitta and citi), an analogy is given; the blades of grass which shoot up during the rainy season prove the existence of the hidden seeds. 

 

In this sutra Patanjali explains that the seed of the soul (atma bija) is sown at the right time for the knowledge of the soul (atma jnana) to be securely established. As one mistakes a rope for a snake at first glance, but realises upon examination that it is a rope, consciousness at this stage realises that it is not all-knowing, but an instrument of the soul.

 

Avidya is vanquished and the practitioner thoroughly understands objective as well as subjective knowledge, without colourisation. Here all moods and modes cease to flow, and consciousness is elevated to the optimum degree to behold the inebriated state of the seer.

 

The yogi is no longer drawn towards the temptations of the world. His search for the self ends. He becomes a master of yoga and a master of himself. He is yogesvara. This is the substance (svarupa) of yoga and a distinct attribute of the seer (visesa darsinah).

 

For one who has experienced this distinction between seer and this subtlest mind, the false identities and even the curiosity about the nature of one’s own self come to an end.

 

After the yogi has explored the many currents and cross currents of the gross and subtle mind, there comes the realization of the separateness from all of these levels and pure consciousness. It is then, that all of these questions cease. It is not a case that they are analytically answered in logical words. Rather, the questions are resolved; they simply evaporate in understanding.

 

Patanjali is now explaining the nature of that yogi who has realized the distinction between the seer, the seen and the mind very clearly. In other words, he is now the viveki, the one proficient in discriminating faculty; the one who can perceive the truth and differentiate it from the one which is not – easily.

 

At this stage, the mind also is the purest possible reflector of external reality, without any coloring either on itself  or on the scenery.  The seer, the Purusha, the pure consciousness knows this. He has experienced the external reality in its purest form, since no coloring affects it now.

 

There are now no false identities.  There is not even any further curiosity about the nature of one’s own self. There is complete cessation of all doubt between the seer, the seen and the nature of mind. There is a complete cessation of any desire, including the desire to reside in the Purusha.

 

The pure mind has come close to the Purusha and is accepting his Mastery. To one who sees the distinction between the mind and the Atman, thoughts of mind as the Atman cease forever.

 

For one who realizes the distinction between chitta and atma, the sense of separation between the two disappears. The man of discrimination ceases to regard the mind as the Atman. For one who has experienced this distinction between seer and this subtlest mind, the false identities and even the curiosity about the nature of one’s own self come to an end.

 

 

 

 

4.26- – tada vivekanimnan kaivalyapragbharan chittam

 

Then consciousness is drawn strongly towards the seer or the soul due to the influence  of the exalted intelligence.

 

Kaivalya, (Sanskrit: “separateness”) in the Samkhya Vedanta concept of Hinduism, a state of moksha that the consciousness of a soul (Purusha ) achieves by realizing that it is separate from matter (prakriti).

 

Kaivalya is the ultimate goal of aṣṭaṅga yoga and means "solitude", "detachment" or "isolation", a vrddhi-derivation from kevala "alone, isolated".

Samadhi is the final limb of the Ashtanga Yoga where a yogi becomes one with his nature itself. It is called the ultimate tool of Yoga and not the ultimate goal. The ultimate goal of yoga is to attain Kaivalya, which can be referred the highest stage of Samadhi

 

When the exalted intelligence is ablaze, consciousness is illumined; it becomes free and tinged with the divine (chitta suddhi). Due to this divine light, chitta, with its exalted intelligence, is attracted as if by a magnet towards its source – the indivisible seer who is alone, free and full.

 

Before reaching the state of exalted intelligence, consciousness is attracted more towards the pleasures of the world. When intelligence is free from doubts and prejudices, it gravitates towards the absolute seer.

 

As a farmer builds dykes between his fields to regulate the flow of water, similarly, exalted intelligence builds a dyke for the consciousness, so that it does not move again towards the world, but turns and flows towards union with the divine seer. This is kaivalya, an existence filled with freedom and beatitude.

 

Such a yogi becomes a king amongst men. Viveka means clear discrimination between Truth and what is not truth. Truth liberates from ignorance, while what is not truth binds the sadhaka to Ignorance. The mind-field is always looking outward through the senses and its perception is always coloured. But, once the coloring is removed, the mind-field, the Chitta also becomes a clear, pure receiver of external wisdom because of the illuminating power that it has received from the Purusha. 

 

Now, mind is inclined towards clear viveka or discrimination faculty in its power of perception and therefore, the ignorance binding it, comes down and down and tends to remove the veil of ignorance from the Purusha. Purusha is now shining clearly.

 

Mind also therefore gravitates towards total liberation. What is the liberation? It is nothing but the dropping of all barriers to wisdom, the barriers to truth that had arisen in mind due to the covering of Ignorance.

 

What is the ignorance of the mind-field? It is its identification with the body-mind complex. Once the self realizes that it is not the body-mind complex, the barriers covering the mind-field drop away easily. The mind-field should detach from the drisya and become and efficient aid of the real Master, the Prabhu, the Purusha, the self, the consciousness.

 

Now, all barriers drop off. Discrimination, viveka comes home automatically. Renunciation, vairagya and liberation happen effortlessly, effectively and automatically.

 

Then the mind is inclined towards the highest discrimination, and gravitates towards absolute liberation between seer and seen. When even the subtlest questions of life subside, there is only one direction left to go, and that is towards the realization of the absolute reality that is beyond.

 

This is not a case of a lethargic mind having no question about the meaning of life; such a mind has not even entered the path of Self-realization. Rather, it comes from having questioned, explored, searched, and longed, through the gross, subtle, and causal levels, until finally, the point of the final discrimination stands in front of the seeker.

 

When the mind is bent on the practice of discrimination, it moves toward liberation. And their clarity takes them to their only concern; to reach and remain in a state of freedom.  The yogi has to achieve this.  It does not come by wishful thinking. 

 

Only through higher yoga can this be achieved consistently. Practice of Yoga leads to discriminating power, to clearness of vision. The veil drops from the eyes, and we see things as they are.  When discrimination comes by long practice fear ceases, and the mind attains isolation.

 

4.30- – tatah kleshakarmanivrittih

 

Then comes the end of afflictions and of karma.

 

The effect of dharma megha samadhi is freedom, freedom from the five afflictions and fluctuations. It is the highest form of intelligence and evolution. From this rain-cloud of virtue, sufferings cease of their own accord and in their place, divine actions with no reactions flow forth like a river from the yogi.

 

This is freedom. Avidya, the mother of afflictions, is eliminated, root and branch, along with residual subliminal impressions. The sadhaka will not deviate from the path of divinity nor perform an act that binds, hinders or preconditions his consciousness. He is free from the bondage of karma.

 

In the Bhagavad Gita (V 1.5),  Krishna says that each individual has to cultivate himself to become enlightened, and to learn not to degrade himself, for the Self alone is the friend of the individual self, and the Self alone is the enemy of the egotistical self.

 

उद्धरेदात्मनात्मानं नात्मानमवसादयेत् |

आत्मैव ह्यात्मनो बन्धुरात्मैव रिपुरात्मन: || 5||

 

uddhared atmanatmanam natmanam avasadayet

atmaiva hyatmano bandhur atmaiva ripur atmanah

 

Translation

BG 6.5: Elevate yourself through the power of your mind, and not degrade yourself, for the mind can be the friend and also the enemy of the self.

 

As the light of a lamp fades as the oil runs out, so the lamp of the mind is extinguished as its fuel, the actions producing joys and sorrows, is exhausted.

 

As nirmana chitta is extinguished of its own accord, its root motivation is burnt out, leaving no opportunity for the production of effects The cycle of cause and effect is at an end, and the yogi is liberated from the grip of nature.

 

Even in this liberated state, he will not relinquish his practices. He will continue to maintain them as a divine command, so that the freedom earned may not be lost by neglect.

 

Patanjali says – if the yogi goes beyond even this barrier of virtuous cloud or Dharma megha, then, all the deepest impressions or samskaras in him dissolve totally and all the kleshas or sorrows, pains and afflictions cease totally and absolutely.

 

Dharma megha Samadhi is thus the last barrier to cross for the successful yogi.After that dharma-meghah samadhi, the colorings of the kleshas and the karmas are removed.

 

Burning the seeds of karma: This is the final dealing with the colorings (kleshas). First, the mind was stabilized . Then these colorings were reduced in their gross form , then they were dealt with in their subtle forms. These kleshas (colorings) moved through four stages of active, separated, attenuated, and then were reduced to seed form.

 

Now, those seeds are parched, so as to not be able to grow again. First, there were glimpses of Truth, which had the effect of negating the obstacles . After a great deal of sadhana (spiritual practices), there came a temporary discriminative enlightenment that was accompanied by breaches . Now, with the neutralizing of the colorings of the samskaras that cause karma, the realization is finally firm of ground.

 

The yogi rests in the True nature of the Self . From that samadhi all afflictions and karmas cease. After that dharma-meghah samadhi, the colorings of the kleshas and the karmas are removed. From that comes cessation of pains and works.

 

When that cloud of virtue has come, then no more is there fear of falling, nothing can drag the Yogi down. No more will there be evils for him. No more pains  When the yogi reaches the causal level and sees the various clouds of energy (meghah) in which the dharmas or laws for righteous life, are created and maintained, he gets an ease in his higher yoga practice. 

 

He smiles for he will never again fall into the trap of making spiritual missions to help or to save others

 

 

 

 TO BE CONTINUED






CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL

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