Wednesday, July 20, 2022

SOUL MATTERS , PART 28- Capt Ajit Vadakayil

 

THIS POST IS CONTINUED FROM PART 27, BELOW 

 

 

according to adi sankaracharya, the vrittis are distinguished as ego and mind.  “manifest in the mind, consciousness shines being reflected.  mind is two-fold: one aspect is ahankara-ego, the other is antahkarana-mind” (drig-drishya viveka, verse 6).

 

vedanta repeatedly emphasizes the fact that ahankara is a vritti and not the real self.    it is a common mistake to consider ahankara as the real self.  if it is a vritti, it can be ignored as any other vritti.

 

ahankara or the i-vritti is a modification of consciousness in the form of ‘ i ‘.  like any other vritti, ahankara appears and disappears in the mind.  in deep sleep, ahankara disappears, and the body becomes insentient.  in dream, the ahankara is half-manifest.  in waking, it is fully manifest”, (drig-drishya viveka, verse 10).

 

this proves that ahankara is not permanently present.  for example when we deeply enjoy our favourite music, the ahankara disappears for a few seconds and in that moment consciousness illumines without any distraction.  

 

when we come out of that moment, ahankara appears again.  this proves that like any other vritti, ahankara appears and disappears in the mind, and it is not permanent.

our first need, is to neutralize those feelings: our emotional reactions; our likes and dislikes; our attractions and aversions; our attachments and repulsions. hence patanjali’s definition of yoga as chitta vritti nirodha — the neutralization of the vortices of feeling.

 

vritti, literally “whirlpool”, is a technical term in yoga meant to indicate that the contents of mental awareness are disturbances in the medium of consciousness. .

our subtlest and most intimate feelings, pertain directly to the ego itself, and act as constant ego-reminders: ego-boosters, ego-deflators. these tendencies must be completely eliminated before we can achieve liberation.

 

each vortex of feeling draws energy inward to its center in egoic awareness. the ego itself forms the supreme vortex.

 

chitta through the vrittis gives us experiences of varied types. it projects different images within its confines– in its own space, mental space, even though the projections appear to be in the outside real space.

 

for the sake of convenience several works divide functionally the chitta into manas (mind), buddhi (intellect), ahamkara(ego) and smriti/chitta(memory).

 

i receive information from the outside world through my senses, eyes, ears, etc., due to the vrittis of the indriyas.  then the manas or mind which is also known as the 11th indriya collates and coordinates and presents to another faculty of the chitta called buddhi.  

 

buddhi analyzes all the information and makes a judgment and then the ego or ahankara aspect of chitta comes into play.  if it likes the presentation, it is happy but if not it shows its unhappiness and produces various reactions.

 

when the buddhi or intellect is active then the chitta vritti is also known as buddhi vritti but when it is dominated by ahankara aspect of chitta the chitta vritti is  known as ahamkara vritti. 

 

the chitta vritti is the totality of my experience at any given moment.  the one that experiences or observes all these successive chitta vritties is the real  “i”, the purusha, the drashta or observer or the non-changing and hence eternal pure consciousness.

 

patanjali says the chitta is capable of transcending all the vrittis and remaining oblivious to all the vrittis.   while ordinarily the chitta wallows in these vrittis, patanjali talks about a state in which the chitta  transcends all the vrittis mentioned above and remains in that state. that is the state of yoga.

 

it happens when the chitta uses all its faculties and yogic training to concentrate and knows for sure the true nature of the observing self/soul, the non-changing, hence eternal consciousness.

 

with that knowledge, with that direct experience, the chitta remains in a state of resolution, on realizing the nature of the  the self in its true form (svarupa).

 

when there is realization in the chitta that nothing, none of the vrittis changes the essential nature of the pure purusha, it becomes quiet– completely quiet. in that state the chitta does not have any of the vrittis mentioned above.

 

ahamkara or egoism is the self-arrogating principle in man. it is a vritti or modification that arises in the mind. patanjali  calls this by the name ‘asmita’. the same mind assumes the form of egoism when man self-arrogates himself.

 

Ahamkara ( ego )  is a veritable disease. pride, lust, anger, delusion, greed, jealousy, love and hatred are the attendants of ahamkara. ahamkara destroys our virtues and peace of mind. it spreads the snare of affection to entrap us.

 

he who is free from egoism is very happy and peaceful. desires multiply and expand on account of egoism. our inveterate enemy, egoism, has spread about us the enchantments of our wives, friends, children, etc., whose spells it is hard to break. there is no enemy greater than egoism.

 

ahamkara means ‘i-maker’, it is the sense of ‘i-ness’ within you. it is not the self in self-awareness, but it is a vritti and thinks it is the ‘self’. it masquerades as the self and ahamkara is just a mental a wave form, ‘i’ or ’self’.

if ahamkara was the self, it would never feel incomplete, inadequate and get only momentary doses of bliss and happiness – it would always feel complete and have continuous ananda.( bliss)

 

the vrittis, from the 5 senses and also the chitta, the memory bank of past events, is presented to the ahamkara.   you have object vrittis coming in from your senses. the ahamkara now has to interact with these vrittis.

 

buddhi could handle parallel processing by handling multiple inputs at the same time.  the interaction between ahamkara and these wide range of object vrittis happens only one at a time.  

 

you can only have one experience at a time. the ahamkara interacts only with one vritti at a time and it gives ‘my-ness’ to the vritti .

 

how does ahamkara choose between the different vrittis which are available. there are two ways this can happen

 

ahamkara chooses a vrittia  , vritti chooses ahamkara

 

whenever ahamkara interacts with an object vritti, it will modify the object vritti according to its likes and dislikes. in vedanta this is called raga and dvesha.

 

ahamkara is also a mental waveform and when it interacts or superimposes with the object vritti the resultant vritti is a vritti modified by raga and dvesha.   if you like something you will modify the vritti differently than when you dislike something.

 

रागद्वेषवियुक्तैस्तु विषयानिन्द्रियैश्चरन् |

आत्मवश्यैर्विधेयात्मा प्रसादमधिगच्छति || 64||

 

raga-dvesha-viyuktais tu vishayan indriyaish charan

atma-vashyair-vidheyatma prasadam adhigachchhati

 

translation

bg 2.64: but one who controls the mind, and is free from attachment and aversion, even while using the objects of the senses, attains the grace of god.

 

raga-dvesha, is the cause of bondage

 

raga (attraction), dvesha (repulsion) and tatastha vritti (indifference) are the three important vrittis of the mind.

 

raga and dvesha (like and dislike or love and hatred or attraction and repulsion) are the two currents in the mind which bind a man to the samsaric wheel of birth and death.

 

raga and dvesha are the two doshas or faults in the mind that have brought you to this world. the svarupa of bandha (bondage) is raga and dvesha. the svarupa of ajnana is raga and dvesha.

 

all the emotions come under the category of raga-dvesha. these two currents are the dharma (characteristics) of the mind and not of the spirit. pleasure and pain, harsha and soka, exhilaration and depression are due to raga-dvesha. if raga and dvesha vanish from the mind, harsha-shoka also will disappear.

 

the bottom line is that the ahamkara modifies the incoming vritti according to its own disposition. if ahamkara is feeling angry, it will react to the vritti differently than it would if it is feeling happy and peaceful.

 

ahamkara or ego adds a personal touch to the interacting object vritti. in fact, it also adds the ‘i-ness’ to the vritti.

 

ahamkara can become attached or addicted to certain vrittis because they give it momentary happiness and it wants to repeat these moment of happiness.

 

the sanskrit term ‘ahankara’ literally means ego.  ahankara has deep importance in a person’s life.  it is the ahankara which makes a person to involve in the worldly activities, at the same time it is responsible for many of our problems in life.

vedanta teaches to balance this difference.  ahankara according to vedanta is ‘the thought which creates the concept of i-sense’.

 

the fundamental ahankara, the i-sense is pure.  however, gradually the ahankara turns into a bundle of thoughts and concepts about our own self.  when a child is born it has pure ahankara.

 

it expresses only its individuality and it is of pure nature.  when the child gradually matures in to different stages,( by the age of 27 months )  the pure ahankara associates itself with different concepts and experiences, then the pure ahankara becomes a collection of labels and concepts like ‘i am rich, i am fat, i am educated and so on’.

 

at this stage ahankara involves in comparison and it becomes a problem..  ahankara is a great obstacle for a person’s spiritual and intellectual evolvement.

 

spirituality helps to understand this profound concept and when understood properly, it transforms a person in to a free person.

 

in sanskrit, thoughts are called vrittis.  mind itself is a pool of vrittis.  mind is the manifestation of the supreme consciousness and so are the thoughts.  mind exists in consciousness.  vrittis can be otherwise said as the form of consciousness.  consciousness is limited by the form of vritti.

 

just as the brightness of the reflected sunlight depends on the medium (waves and purity of the water), the reflected consciousness depends on the vrittis of the mind.  when the vrittis are fewer and pure, the reflected consciousness is brighter.

 

this bright reflection is seen in jnanis and spiritually evolved persons.  they represent the pure form of consciousness.  the vrittis of their mind are fewer and pure and they do not distract the reflected consciousness.

 

reflected consciousness is said as an experience and every experience is a conditioned consciousness.  when the consciousness illumines the mind full of worldly vrittis, the reflected consciousness mingle with worldly vrittis, and hence the reflected consciousness is said as experience.

 

consciousness is all pervasive, but experience makes it appear as limited.  each of our experience is consciousness in the form of vritti.  vrittis are superimposed on consciousness.  for instance, a wave is nothing but water in the form of a wave.  likewise, experience or reflected consciousness is nothing, but consciousness in the form of vritti.

 

worldly matters occur between the subject (i-sense) and the object (worldly activities).  all the worldly experiences appear as vrittis in the mind.  every individual has a basic concept of their own and this is ahankara, the subject.

 

the life full of karmas (actions) and experiences are based on this ahankara and they are considered as objects.  for example, when i say, “i am writing”, the ‘ i ‘ represents the ahankara (subject), and ‘writing’ is an experience (object).

 

the ahankara ‘ i ‘ is identified with the different experiences.  all our experiences are the combination of the subject and the object.  when the ahankara gets identified with the body, mind, emotions, feelings etc, it is defined accordingly.  when ‘ i ‘ say, ‘i am a woman’, the ahankara gets identified with the body.

 

when i say, ‘i am sad’, the ahankara gets identified with the emotions.  thus the mind has only two types of vrittis, the ahankara vritti and the virttis of different experiences.

 

failure to recognize ahankara as a vritti is the cause for all kinds of suffering.  ahankara is an assumed concept and it keeps on changing according to experiences and situations, we ignorantly consider it as the real self.

 

ahankara is a vritti, and the self, the supreme consciousness illumines that vritti.  a being is much more than a mere vritti,   vritti keeps on changing, whereas the soul is omnipresent and omniscient.

 

when i say, ‘i am talented’, the ‘ i ‘ belongs to the ahankara and the ‘talent’ belongs to the buddhi.  they both are mere vrittis.  an ignorant person unnecessarily associates both with the atman, the self.

 

this is the root cause for samsara and it is the real problem in life.  when the body is ill, then it is a fact, but when the ahankara associates with the body deeply, then it is suffering.

 

suffering is a vritti, it can be made to disappear by diverting the attention.  considering a vritti as permanent is the next problem.  the suffering and excitement are vrittis and they should not be associated with the real self.

 

identification of ego with reflected consciousness is like a glowing hot iron ball.  due to identification of ego with that (reflection) the body gains sentiency” (drig-drishya viveka, verse 7).

 

when an iron ball is placed in fire, the heat of the fire is superimposed on the iron ball, and the iron ball glows like a fire ball.  similarly, the experiences are superimposed on ego and the ego also identifies with the experiences.

 

by this superimposition, the ego feels that, ‘i have this experience’.  when ahankara identifies itself with other vrittis, it limits itself.  only when the ahankara identifies with the body, the body gains sentiency.  the ahankara identifies with the other vrittis and thus it involves in the worldly activities.

 

identification of the ahankara with reflected consciousness, body and witness is natural, due to karma and due to ignorance – each of these three respectively”, (drig-drishya viveka, verse 8).

 

identification of ahankara is analyzed in three fundamental ways.

1. identification with the reflected consciousness – it is natural

2. identification with the deha (sthula and suksma sarira) – due to karma

3. identification as the sakshi (witness-consciousness) – due to ignorance

the identification of ahankara with the reflected consciousness gives us various experiences.  adi sankaracharya says that this identification is natural.  it cannot be destroyed but can be ignored.

 

when the ahankara fails to identify with the worldly experiences, it cannot do any karma and it is difficult to survive in the world.  at the same time, when it identifies with the worldly experiences, it is suffering and excitement.

 

therefore, there must be some functional identification to solve this problem.  since the vrittis and its mutual identification are natural, vedanta tells to destroy the ignorance associated with the vrittis and not the vrittis itself. 

 

due to ignorance we think that the vrittis are the reality.  by knowledge one must treat the vritti as the mere appearance.

 

.yoga is control of the mind, restraint of the mind-stuff. yoga is chitta-vritti-nirodhah. as a word, vritti means literally vortex (of consciousness), or “circular activity with no beginning and no end”.

 

 training in yoga in the larger sense – namely, concentration, attention, and meditation – can help stop these fluctuations and quiet the chatter, so that you can get in touch with a truer sense of self, and a more peaceful, watchful sort of awareness.

 

in the context of hinduism and yoga, vrittis refer to different tendencies, or psycho-physical propensities, which give scope for the mind to express a variety of feelings and emotions.

 

hindu texts describe samskaras to be a result of past actions and experiences that have left an imprint on the mind. the expression of samskaras gives rise to vrittis, which collectively represent the behaviour that makes each person unique: their desires and repulsions, their predispositions and complexes

 

in the context of yoga, the presence of vrittis in consciousness is regarded as impediments to enlightenment.  

 

the goal of yoga to “still” or “silence’ the modifications in consciousness, the vrittis, and thereby set the stage to learn the technique of samadhi, an advanced mental method for achieving enlightenment.

 

the goal of the yogi is thus not to suppress, or annul their vritties, rather it is to find a harmonious balance, and ultimately, to channelize these tendencies inward mind gains great strength when the vrittis are harnessed.

 

 

when the seer is perceived as distinct from the “i” that claims, the yogin then loses interest in the generation of compulsive chitta-vrittis (mind chatter )..

 

raga (attraction) in the mind is as much dangerous as dvesha (hatred or repulsion). whenever there is raga, there is dvesha also.

 

not only the dvesha-vritti (the modification of dislike), but also the vritti of raga gives pain to man. if an object gives pleasure, you get raga for the object. but when there is viyoga (separation) from the object, as in the case of death of your dear wife or son, you get immense pain which is indescribable.

 

raga-dvesha has four avasthas, viz., dagdha (burnt up), tanu (attenuated or thinned out), vicchinna (concealed) and udara (fully expanded). the first two states pertain to a yogin; the last two to worldlings. in a fully developed yogin, the vrittis of raga-dvesha are burnt up by nirvikalpa samadhi.

 

they are dagdha (like burnt-up seeds). in a yogin who is practising, the impressions of raga-dvesha are tenuous. they are in a fine state. he has control over these two vrittis.

 

in those who are given to enjoyments (ordinary mortals), they are concealed and fully expanded. in the vicchinna state, they are concealed.

 

when the wife shows affection to her husband, when the raga-vritti is in operation, her anger and hatred remain concealed for the time being. the moment she gets displeased with him for some reason or other, the dvesha-vritti manifests itself.

 

in the last (expanded) state, the samskaras of raga-dvesha, having favourable surroundings, attain to great activity. a worldly-minded man is a mere slave of raga-dvesha currents.

 

he is tossed about hither and thither by these two currents of attraction and repulsion. that yogin or jnanin who has destroyed these two vrittis of raga and dvesha is the highest man in the three worlds.

 

he is the real king of kings, emperor of emperors. the chief linga or distinguishing mark of a jivanmukta or a liberated soul is freedom from raga-dvesha.

 

even if a jnanin or yogin sometimes exhibits traces of anger, it is abhasamatra (mere appearance). just as the impression made in water with a stick passes away soon, as also the anger will disappear in the twinkling of an eye, even though it manifests in a jnanin. this can hardly be understood by worldly people.

 

 amongst the several vrittis in the mind, raga-dvesha and moha are very deep-rooted. they demand strenuous and persistent efforts for their eradication.

 

in your mental lives, you can either keep hold of the rudder and so determine exactly what course you take, what points you touch or you can fail to do this and, failing, you drift and are blown hither and thither by every passing breeze, by every emotion, by petty raga-dvesha currents.

 

ego is a vritti or modification of the mind. first aham vritti manifests and then all other vrittis cling to this aham vritti.

 

from ego is born mind. reflection of intelligence that is associated with ego is jiva. it makes the jiva identify himself with the physical body. then the notion of ‘i’ in the body arises. this is the cause for human sufferings and miseries.

 

egoism is the self-arrogating principle in man. it is a vritti or modification that arises in the mind. patanjali maharshi calls it by the name, asmita. the same mind assumes the form of egoism when man begins to self-arrogate. ahankara manifests first and then comes mamata or attachment.

 

the literal meaning or vachya artha of ‘aham’ pada is the aham vritti that arises in the mind, the little ‘i’ which identifies itself with the physical body. the indicative meaning or lakshya artha of ‘aham’ pada is atman or brahman or the infinite ‘i’.

 

mere illusion or maya is the cause of egoism. knowledge is the cause of egoism. knowledge is produced through the illusory objects such as, the body, tree, river, mountain, animals, etc. if the objects do not exist, we can neither think of, nor know anything.

 

if there are no objects, we will have no knowledge of objects at all. then egoism, the seed of manas will be absorbed.

 

the idea of ‘i’ which is the nest, containing all frailties is the seed of the tree of mind. the sprout which at first germinates from the seed of ahankara is buddhi or intellect. from this sprout, the ramifying branches called sankalpas take their origin.

 

through such a differentiation, the mind, chitta and buddhi are but the different names or qualities of the one ahankara. the branches of vasanas will naturally produce innumerable crops of karmas, but if, with the sword of jnana, you sever them from the heart’s core, they will be destroyed.

 

cut the branches of the dire tree of mind and eventually destroy the tree at its root completely. cutting the branches is only a secondary thing-the primary being the eradication of the tree at its root.

 

if you through virtuous actions destroy the idea of ‘i’ at the root of the tree (mind), then it will not spring up. atma jnana or knowledge of the soul is the fire which destroys the conception of the ahankara, the seed of the tree (mind).

 

THE ULTIMATE AIM OF YOGA IS COMPLETE FREEDOM FROM THE MIND AND ITS MODIFICATIONS (VRITTIS). Capt Ajit Vadakayil

 

while brahmacharya and grihasta show the ‘ pravritti  marga ‘ (towards theworld) , vanaprasta and sannyasa indicate the ‘ nivritti marga’ (away from theworld) through introspection and renunciation.

 

ahimsa paramo dharmah” “non-violence is the supreme dharma.” this is applicable only in the sannyasa stage.. not in  brahmacharya / grishasta / vanaprasta stages when you must fight evil and eliminate  it to sustain dharma.. ganddhi was rothschilds agent..

 

https://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2020/01/the-father-of-our-nation-is-chanakya.html

 

ahimsa cannot be strictly practiced by householders .  it can be practiced by sannyasins who tread the nivritti marga. real sannyasins do not defend themselves even when their lives are in danger, because, they know that existence is in reality changeless. a sannyasin is one who has no body, and who identifies himself with brahman or the atman.

 

annihilation of lust, anger, etc., leads to thinning of egoism.

 

through repetition of acts, lust, anger and pride are strengthened. they become deep-rooted or inveterate. you must struggle very hard with great patience and indomitable will to eradicate these evil vrittis. .

 

wherever there is ego, there are selfishness, likes, dislikes, arrogance, conceit, impertinence, vasanas, trishnas or cravings, vrittis and sankalpas, clinging to earthly life of hypocrisy and the idea of agency and doership.

 

you must have a very clear understanding if you wish to annihilate this ego. only patient and sustained efforts can give you success.

 

||23||द्रष्टृदृश्योपरक्तं चित्तं सर्वार्थम् ॥२३॥draṣṭṛ-dṛśy-opa-raktaṁ chittaṁ sarva-artham ||23||the actual purpose of that which is mutable in human beings (chitta) is to see close up both the observer (drashtu) and the observed object. ||23|-  patanjali yoga sutra 5000 bc … 

 

mad fellow charles darwin, in an 1881 book on earthworms, wanted “to learn how far the worms acted consciously and how much mental power they displayed.” tee teee.. this cunt’s theories are 100% bullshit..

 

darwin can shove his goody bag of finch beaks and toes up the kosher chrons asshole of karl marx..

 

http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2010/12/charles-darwin-and-his-apple-capt-ajit.html

this quantum compass relies on the interaction of electron spin with the geomagnetic field. the quantum body resonates with any atom of the cosmos. the resonance brings about the direct knowledge of the universe.

 

what kind of action is a simple observation? it is nothing but the act of consciousness , a field of scalar energy. all orderliness that we find exhibited in all levels of nature – from the smallest atom, through the living organisms, to the largest cluster of galaxies – is the expression of the infinite orderliness that is contained in consciousness..

 

all spacetime events are conscious: they are conscious of other space time events.. longitudinal scalar waves which travel faster than light from your mobius supercoil dna couples with intention and consciousness. intentions enhance the body’s natural flow of scalar energy produced by dna. .

 

zero point field is an information field as it encodes everything that has left its traces in the form of scalar waves in this universe. this boils down to the recording of every little thought that was ever thought and every little move that was ever made.

 

it is from this field that maharishis downloaded the vedas.. sanatana dharma is the only religion which is not man made.. consciousness creates our space time. since quantum stuff reacts to consciousness, the universe is constructed by consciousness. by adding the dimension of time to 3d space, our consciousness is given the ability to evolve..

 

 without change there is no evolution, hence the vortex golden spiral. what appear to us as fundamental dimensions and attributes of the physical world—space, time, matter and energy—are but the fundamental dimensions and attributes of the forms appearing in consciousness.

 

thus the smallest item would be a unit of perception, a unit of experience. it would be a quantum of consciousness, a quantum of chitta. cells themselves have the ability to perfectly reprogram their own dna when the external environment demands it. how were the ancient maharishis able to record the distances between planets and their diameters? why is 108 a divine number in sanatana dharma?

 

http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2016/12/108-numerical-equivalent-of-hindu-king.html

 

.yoga is control of the mind, restraint of the mind-stuff. yoga is chitta-vritti-nirodhah. as a word, vritti means literally vortex (of consciousness), or “circular activity with no beginning and no end”.

 

 training in yoga in the larger sense – namely, concentration, attention, and meditation – can help stop these fluctuations and quiet the chatter, so that you can get in touch with a truer sense of self, and a more peaceful, watchful sort of awareness.

 

in the context of hinduism and yoga, vrittis refer to different tendencies, or psycho-physical propensities, which give scope for the mind to express a variety of feelings and emotions.

 

hindu texts describe samskaras to be a result of past actions and experiences that have left an imprint on the mind. the expression of samskaras gives rise to vrittis, which collectively represent the behaviour that makes each person unique: their desires and repulsions, their predispositions and complexes

 

in the context of yoga, the presence of vrittis in consciousness is regarded as impediments to enlightenment.  

 

the goal of yoga to “still” or “silence’ the modifications in consciousness, the vrittis, and thereby set the stage to learn the technique of samadhi, an advanced mental method for achieving enlightenment.

 

the goal of the yogi is thus not to suppress, or annul their vritties, rather it is to find a harmonious balance, and ultimately, to channelize these tendencies inward mind gains great strength when the vrittis are harnessed.

 

when the seer is perceived as distinct from the “i” that claims, the yogin then loses interest in the generation of compulsive chitta-vrittis (mind chatter )..

 

the idea of ‘i’ which is the nest, containing all frailties is the seed of the tree of mind. the sprout which at first germinates from the seed of ahankara is buddhi or intellect. from this sprout, the ramifying branches called sankalpas take their origin.

 

through such a differentiation, the mind, chitta and buddhi are but the different names or qualities of the one ahankara. the branches of vasanas will naturally produce innumerable crops of karmas, but if, with the sword of jnana, you sever them from the heart’s core, they will be destroyed.

 

cut the branches of the dire tree of mind and eventually destroy the tree at its root completely. cutting the branches is only a secondary thing-the primary being the eradication of the tree at its root.

 

if you through virtuous actions destroy the idea of ‘i’ at the root of the tree (mind), then it will not spring up. atma jnana or knowledge of the self is the fire which destroys the conception of the ahankara, the seed of the tree (mind).

 

the ultimate aim of yoga is complete freedom from the mind and its modifications (vrittis).

 

while brahmacharya and grihasta show the ‘ pravritti  marga ‘ (towards theworld) , vanaprasta and sannyasa indicate the ‘ nivritti marga’ (away from theworld) through introspection and renunciation.

 

“ahimsa paramo dharmah” “non-violence is the supreme dharma.” this is applicable only in the sannyasa stage.. not in  brahmacharya / grishasta / vanaprasta stages when you must fight evil and eliminate  it to sustain dharma.. ganddhi was rothschilds agent..

 

https://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2020/01/the-father-of-our-nation-is-chanakya.html

 

ahimsa cannot be strictly practiced by householders .  it can be practiced by sannyasins who tread the nivritti marga. real sannyasins do not defend themselves even when their lives are in danger, because, they know that existence is in reality changeless. a sannyasin is one who has no body, and who identifies himself with brahman or the atman.

 

annihilation of lust, anger, etc., leads to thinning of egoism.

 

through repetition of acts, lust, anger and pride are strengthened. they become deep-rooted or inveterate. you must struggle very hard with great patience and indomitable will to eradicate these evil vrittis. .

 

wherever there is ego, there are selfishness, likes, dislikes, arrogance, conceit, impertinence, vasanas, trishnas or cravings, vrittis and sankalpas, clinging to earthly life of hypocrisy and the idea of agency and doership.

 

you must have a very clear understanding if you wish to annihilate this ego. only patient and sustained efforts can give you success.

 

 

 

the mind is guided in such a way that it becomes absorbed, and imbues towards its source. movements in the form of thoughts in the mind are the waves, and chitta, or the seat of consciousness, is the ocean.

 

the sadhaka must learn to keep the chitta motionless and thoughtfully silent, without creating waves of thought. this effort of stilling and silencing the chitta brings forth the sorrow less effulgent light of the soul

 

one can also contemplate each stage of an asana or each movement of breath in order to bring the chitta to a state of desirelessness. if consciousness is kept free from desire, it becomes chaste.

 

whenever a yogi meditates he can keep out all other thought; he becomes identified with that on which he mediates; when he meditates he is like a piece of crystal; before flowers the crystal becomes almost identified with flowers. if the flower is red, the crystal looks red, or if the  flower is blue , the crystal looks blue.

 

with refinement, the consciousness becomes exceedingly sensitive, choiceless, untainted and chaste. the perceiver, the instrument of perception and the perceived object, evidently reflected, are nothing but the seer. like an object reflected immaculately on a clean mirror, the perceiver, the perceived and the instrument are reflected

 

transparent reflecting quality of consciousness is termed samapatti, which means assumption of the original form of the seer. patanjali’s description of samapatti emphasises the subtle distinction between yoga, samadhi and samapatti.

 

 yoga is the utilisation of the means to attain samadhi. samadhi is profound meditation and total absorption. samapatti is the equilibrised state of mind of the seer who, having attained samadhi, radiates his own pure state.

 

yoga and samadhi, in other words, can be looked upon as practices; samapatti stands for the state towards which they lead. when all the fluctuations of mind’s sattvic, rajasic and tamasic nature reaches a culmination, mind quits to gather and convey information, and cilia is like the placid, clear water of a calm lake.

 

it transforms itself to the level of the seer, and reflects its transparency without refraction. like a transparent jewel, it becomes at once the knower, the instrument of knowing and the object known.

 

thus the sadhaka experiences the true state of the soul. samapatti is enshrined in abhijatamani, which means faultless jewel. chitta is now a faultless jewel. by yogic discipline and contemplation, the sadhaka develops these intuitive qualities of transparency and honesty and realises the faultless quality of consciousness. through it, he becomes the seer and emanates rays of wisdom through his words, thoughts and actions.

 

). in the yoga sutras of patanjali, samapatti is discussed as the universal form of the yoga called samprajñāta-samadhi, or savikalpa samadhi, followed by asamprajñāta-samadhi, or nirvikalpa samadhi. 

 

 it has as its prerequisite the annihilation of all (non-sattvic) modifications (vṛtti) of consciousness (chitta). savitarka meditation relates to concentration on a gross object while still accompanied with other activities of the mind. it involves the co-mingling of three things: the object itself, the word or name we give to the object, and knowledge related to the object.

 

, as  rivers cease to have their individual existence on uniting with the sea, all volitions and impressions of the unconscious, subconscious, conscious and super-conscious mind cease to exist.

 

all these rivers of consciousness unify with the ocean of the seer. nirbija samadhi is the conquering of the chitta where the root mind is one with the seer. as all invading thoughts are brought to an end by practice and detachment, the soul is freed from the pinions of earthly vehicles – the body, senses, mind, intelligence and consciousness.

 

the seer is in the amanaskatva state. when chitta is dependent on an object, idea or symbol, the state is called sabija samadhi. in nirbija samadhi, chitta dissolves and no deposit of impressions remain. all residual impressions, the thinking faculty and the feelings of ‘t’ are extinguished without trace and become universal.

 

the soul alone manifests and rages without form, in immaculate clarity. you remember that our goal is to perceive the soul iself. we cannot perceive the soul because it has got mingled up with nature, with the mind, with the body.

 

the most ignorant man thinks his body is the soul. samskaras cover the soul. the real nature of the soul is not perceived until all the waves have subsided; so, first, patanjali teaches us the meaning of these waves; secondly, the best way to repress them; and thirdly, how to make one wave so strong as to suppress all other waves, fire eating fire as it were.

 

red adiar put out large oil rig fires by using the same medium ( not water , it wont work ) — he produced a second huge fire which he could control by remote, it just ate up the smaller oil rig fire– and then he put it off by remote.   the truths of life are congruent till a laxman rekha–  after that the reverse happens– when only one wave remains, it will be easy to suppress that also, and when that is gone, this samadhi of concentration is called seedless; it leaves nothing, and the soul is manifested just as it is, in its own glory.

 

 soul cannot be born, it cannot die, it is immortal, indestructible, the ever-living essence of intelligence. it is a part of the mother field of brahman.

 

 

according to the law of karma, every condition in the nature of human birth and life stem from one’s past actions, and are responsible for the experiences, pleasant or otherwise, which one meets in life.

 

the fruits of the actions gathered in this  past lives  are called soul samskaras, which become residual imprints or impressions.   soul samskaras are impressions remaining unconsciously in the mind from past good or bad actions, giving rise to pleasure or pain.samskaras become the cause of future actions.

 

every action leaves a deep trace in the chitta as printing or impression ( samskara ). all the impressions accumulated in the chitta and which is the fruit of action is what we mean by karmāśaya. .

 

the individual counterpart of cosmic intelligence (mahat) is consciousness, or chitta. chitta consists of mind (manas), which reviews sensory and vibrational stimuli, intelligence (buddhi), which is the discriminative faculty and ego or small self (ahamkara) which is the individual ‘i’. in addition, hidden deep within man’s nature is a powerful hidden spiritual weapon – ‘conscience’ (antahkarana or dharmendriya) which personifies ethical and moral principles.

 

antahkarana observes right and wrong in one’s conduct and motives, helps to cultivate chitta and directs it to perform only the righteous actions. there are also the five senses of perception – ears, tongue, eyes, nose and skin, and five organs of action – legs, arms, speech, genital and excretory organs.

 

krishna advises arjuna that “he who sees himself not to be the doer, he sees indeed (bhagawad gita  xiii:29). when the seer is perceived as distinct from the “i” that claims, the yogin then loses interest in the generation of compulsive chitta-vrittis (mind chatter )..

 

nothing is claimed by the “i”. with this movement the sediment of prior conditioning (samskara) is cleared away; objects shine forth devoid of inherent, defined form (svarupa-sunya); the consciousness-of or “i-vs.-that” consciousness has retreated; pure witnessing takes place.

 

in this state of pure consciousness, attention cannot be separated from the intended: awareness is both subject-free (anahamvadi) and object-free (nirvastuka). yoga may thus be defined not as a union of appropriating self with objects, even religious objects of appropriation, nor as cartesian separation of thinker from thought, but rather as a moment in which there is the nonseparation of knower, knowing, and known.

 

 the point of yoga is to have direct access to the intended world without the interference of impure residues. yoga seeks to sever projects, present from a time without beginning, that obscure direct perception through the seer. the yogi excises a part of his corpus of being–chitta vritti–so that the unseen seer, the witness, may be known.

 

‘mind’ is not a proper english translation of what the yoga calls ‘chitta’, especially in the system of patanjali. the entire mind-stuff is called chitta. it is better to use the word ‘psyche’ instead of the word ‘mind’, because the former denotes a larger composite structure than the single function indicated by the word ‘mind’.

 

mind is that which thinks in an indeterminate manner; the intellect is that which thinks in a determinate manner; the ego is that which asserts the individuality of one’s own self. there are other functions of the psyche such as memory, often associated with the subconscious level.

 

it is impossible for anyone to be aware that something is outside, unless there is an isolated thinking or an individualising principle, known in the vedanta psychology as the antahkarana, and in the yoga psychology of patanjali as chitta. “antahkarana” is a sanskrit term, which literally translated into english, would mean, “the internal organ”. that is perhaps the best way we can put it in english.

 

 the internal organ, by which we cognise or perceive things outside, is the antahkarana. the same thing is called chitta in yoga psychology. yoga is control of the mind, restraint of the mind-stuff. yoga is chitta-vritti-nirodhah. as a word, vritti means literally vortex (of consciousness), or “circular activity with no beginning and no end”.

 

2.27—  tasya saptadhaa prantabhoomih prajna

through this unbroken flow of discriminative awareness, one gains perfect knowledge which is composed of seven spheres.

 

according to patanjali, the seven states of conscious awareness are – emerging consciousness (vyutthana chitta), restraining consciousness (nirodha cittta), sprouted or individualised consciousness (nirmana cittta), tranquil consciousness (prasanta chitta), attentive consciousness (ekagrata chitta), fissured or rent consciousness (chidra chitta) and ripe or pure consciousness (paripakva or divya chitta). 

 

samyama means  integration.  dharana, dhyana (the seventh limb), and samadhi (the eighth limb) taken together compose samyama. by the practice of samyama, the yogi gets knowledge and powers.

 

patanjali says that samadhi appears when we are able to let go of our mental machinations, samskaras (past psychic imprints), klesha (afflictive emotions), karma (programming), vasana (habitual tendencies), and similar habitual impositions of conditioning and conditioned belief systems, which support the chitta-vrtti (spinning or slant/tilt of the mindfield). since samadhi is essentially nirvikalpa (beyond concepts), and since concepts are built upon words, then obviously the words have to be let go.

 

dhyana (meditation) brings forth the dawning of an extraordinary transpersonal (more rarefied than the most subtle) consciousness which can not be brought about without the complete stilling (nirodha) of the ordinary mind which is constantly being modified, colored, and disturbed (yogash chitta-vrtti-nirodah). the profound and sacred trans-rational (nirvikalpa), trans-cognitive (asamprajnata) and all encompassing non-dual truth of reality-as-it-is is self revealing once the doors of perception are opined — once the practitioner gets in touch with the intrinsic light of wisdom within and the veil is lifted.

 

 various applications of samyama can lead to the siddhis (accomplishments, abilities, masteries, and powers), but they are not to be seen as attainments because no ego attains or possess it. 

 

the yogi’s true insight has seven ultimate stages. there are seven frontiers to be integrated between the seen (prakrti) and the seer (purusa). they comprise – integration of the body (safira samyama), the senses (indriya samyama), energy (prana samyama), mind (mano samyama), intellect (buddhi samyama), consciousness (chitta samyama) and soul (atma samyama), each realising its own individual identity. expertise in yoga will bring this sevenfold knowledge.

 

concentration on the regulation of breath (prana vrtti), exhalation (bahya vrtti), inhalation (antara vrtti) and retention (stambha vrtti) is called sabtja (seed) pranayama, because attention is on the breath itself. inhalation moves from the core of being – the seer – towards the consciousness.

 

 as mahat or cosmic intelligence is the first principle for nature’s activity, its individual counterpart – chitta, acts to excite the soul to activity. the inbreath is made to touch the five sheaths of the body – anandamaya, vijnanamaya, manomaya, pranamaya and annamaya, or the elements – akasa, vayu, tej, ap and prthvi; while the out breath touches in the reverse order.

 

bracing of the inbreath is the evolution of the soul or the ascending order of the purusa. when the self comes in contact with the physical body, inhalation is complete. here, the purusa encompasses prakrti.

 

the outbreath moves from the external body towards the seer, layer after layer. it is involution, or the descending order of prakrti to meet its lord, purusa. if the inbreath is the divine union of purusa with prakrti, the out breath is the union of prakrti with purusa.

 

retention of the former is antara kumbhaka, retention of the latter is bahya kumbhaka. if antara kumbhaka establishes dedication of the seer (svarupa pratistha), bahya kumbhaka releases one from the four aims of life (purusartha sitnya).

 

kumbhaka is the pause between an inhale and exhale. retention or holding the breath, is a state where there is no inhalation or exalation.   the khumbhaka which follows the inhale is called the bahya kumbhaka and that which follows the exhale is called the antara kumbhaka. (bahya means outer/exterior. antara means inner/interior).

 

 antar kumbhaka,is ceasing of breath when the inhalation (or poorak) is complete and the lungs are filled up with air. in this kumbhaka, inhalation is recommended to be slightly forceful to take more air than normal and ceasing it as per one’s ability. 

 

bahya kumbhaka, is ceasing of breath when the exhalation (or rechak) is complete. it is also recommended to exhale more than normal and then cease it as per one’s ability. 

 

sahit kumbhaka, is the kumbhaka performed with inhalation or exhalation.  in kevali kumbhaka, inhalation or exhalation is not required or not focussed in exercising kevali kumbhaka. it is the extreme stage of kumbhaka which is attained only by continuous long term pranayama and kumbhak exercises. 

 

respiration includes inhalation and exhalation. in between these two processes there is a very minute gap or pause (normally in milliseconds) which is usually not noticed and it recurs, i.e., inhalation-pause-exhalation-pause-inhalation…. and it continues.

 

the maximum gap or pause is observed in the state of rest. kumbhak enforces to increase the pause by ceasing the breath routinely and continuously by various types of pranayama and kumbhaka exercises. 

 

it has been said that it is being observed that the more time spent for pranayama (and kumbhaka); the more is the concentration and the better is the control over mind. various ancient yogis (expert in yoga and pranayama) noticed the importance of respiration and its correlation with activities of mind and vital forces.

 

aging is also seen proportional to frequency of respiration or respiratory rate, i.e., frequency of inhalation and exhalation in one minute. medical science recorded normal respiratory rate in humans as 12-16 breaths per minute with life span of 70–80 years.

 

practicing kumbhaka for a long time increases endurance of physiological as well as psychological structure of an individual. continuous and long term practicing increases the hold or control on breath up to an extent where it reaches to its extreme stage (kevali kumbhak) and the respiration is ceased permanently unless desired to get into normal state.

 

aging is proportional to metabolism which in turn is proportional to respiratory rate. metabolism lowers down as the respiratory rate decreases and this helps prevent aging or at least lowers down the process.

 

 it has not been recorded scientifically whether kevali kumbhaka can increase age (or can make immortality a fact) by lowering down the basic reactions which support life, however, various yoga sutras and religious scriptures define samadhi and immortality an approachable aspiration for determined individuals.

 

the pranayama technique intends to shorten the period of these inhalation and exhalation processes in order that the force with which this process goes on, or continues, is brought to the minimum so that there is no strength in this flow, though the flow is tending to go outward and inward as it has been doing ever since the birth of the individual.

 

how long does the breath remain outside in exhalation? how long does it remain inward in inhalation? these are the things to be observed.  we have to infer the movement of the prana when we inhale merely by feeling its movement within.

 

if we are cautious and contemplative, we can feel how the prana moves when we deeply breathe in. the purpose is to stop this lengthening of the breath, outwardly as well as inwardly – to shorten it as far as possible, until it becomes so short that there is practically no movement at all. that cessation of movement is called kumbhaka.

 

this cessation of the breath can be brought about in many ways. though the yoga shastras speak of several types of pranayama or kumbhaka, patanjali concerns himself with only four types – which are actually not four, really speaking. they are only one, mentioned in four different ways.

 

bāhya ābhyantara stambha vṛttiḥ (ii.50) are the terms used in the sutra. bahya is external; abhyantara is internal; stambha is sudden retention; vritti is the process. the external retention is what is known as bahya vritti,the internal retention is what is known as abhyantara vritti, and the sudden retentionis what is known as stambha vritti.

 

these vrittis, or the processes of the movement of the prana, are measured across different parameters, as enumerated through the other terms in the sutra, deśa kāla saṁkhyābhiḥ (ii.50), for calculating the retention of the breath.

 

 the prana can be stopped by way of retention after exhalation. this was referred to in an earlier sutra where a particular method of breathing was prescribed as a way of bringing about peace of mind when the mind is very much disturbed. that sutra is in the samadhi pada: pracchardana vidhāraṇābhyāṁ vā prāṇasya (i.34). pracchardana is expulsion; vidharana is retention.

 

the expulsion and the retention of the breath are supposed to be one of the means of bringing about composure of mind.  this is almost the same as one of the pranayamas mentioned here as bahya vritti. we breathe out, gradually and intensely, in a very spontaneous, flowing manner, and then do not breathe in; this is one pranayama.

 

we can press the abdomen inward and then raise up the diaphragm. after the inhalation, generally the chest is forward at this time. the breath is then blown out – not suddenly with a jerk, which should not be done – but very calmly so that we will not even know that it is blowing out. then, we do not breathe in immediately; we see how far we can maintain this position of expulsion without it being followed by inward breathing.

 

this sort of retention of the breath, which means to say the cessation of breathing in after the breathing out, is called bahya vritti – the pranayama, or the kumbhaka, which follows expulsion. or there can be abhyantara vritti, which is retention of the breath after inhalation.

 

we breathe in, in the same way as we exhale – calmly, forcefully, deeply – and then do not breathe out. that retention of the breath after deep inhalation is a pranayama by itself. the way in which we retain the breath is called kumbhaka. kumbha means a kind of pot which can be filled with things. we fill our system with the whole prana in pranayama. though the prana is moving everywhere in the system even at other times than during the time of kumbhaka, something very peculiar takes place during kumbhaka which does not happen at other times.

 

 during kumbhaka the prana in the system is filled to the brim, and it remains unmoving and unshaken, just as a pot may be filled to the brim and the content or liquid inside does not shake due to its being filled up to the brim, to the utmost possible extent. there is no movement of the prana in kumbhaka; it is not trying to escape from one place to another place.

 

the escaping of the prana from one place to another place actually means the difference which it introduces in the density of its activity, which is the cause of unequal distribution of energy in the system. because there is no equal distribution of force in the body, there is difficulty – physiological as well as psychological.

 

the senses, especially, become very active and uncontrollable on account of the unequal distribution of energy, or prana, in the system and a capitalist attitude of the prana towards the senses only, where it is stored up in an excessive measure, depriving the other parts of the required energy.

 

 when a particular sense organ is very active, there is an excessive measure of prana supply given to that particular location of the organ which intends to fulfil itself. there is the irritation of the senses or an itching of the particular organ due to the excessive flow of the prana there. it may be the eye, the ear, or any organ. we have ten organs, and one of the organs will start itching.

 

this itching, or irritation, or craving of a particular organ is due to an abundant supply of prana in that particular part of the body, which implies a deprivation of other parts of the body from the requisite energy.

 

 the kumbhaka process is a technique by which this excessive emphasis which prana lays on any particular part of the body is obviated, and it is allowed to equally distribute itself in the whole system, which is another way of saying that the rajas of the prana is made to cease.

 

 the excessive emphasis of the prana in any particular part of the system is due to rajas, which means there is movement. without movement, how can there be any kind of unequal distribution of energy? this is prevented by the process of kumbhaka. the filling of the system with the pranic energy means distributing the energy equally in the whole system and making it felt everywhere equally, with equal intensity, and without the special favour it sometimes does to a particular limb or organ.

 

this is what happens in kumbhaka. it can be done, as mentioned, either after exhalation or after inhalation. either we breathe out and retain the breath, or we breathe in and retain it. these are the two types of kumbhaka mentioned as bahya vritti and abhyantara vritti.

 

 there is a third type called stambha vritti, which is not followed either by inhalation or exhalation. any kind of sudden stopping of the breath is called stambha vritti.

 

when we are deeply absorbed in a particular thought, very deeply absorbed, and we are not able to think anything other than that one particular thought due to intense affection or intense hatred, or for any reason whatsoever, the prana stops; there will be no breathing at that time.

 

when we are overpowered with the emotion of love, or fear, or hatred, there will be a stoppage of prana. thus, raga, bahya and krodha are the causes of the prana suddenly stopping – intense raga, intense bahya and intense krodha. here we are not concerned with bahya or krodha, or with raga of the ordinary type; but if we want to call it raga, we may call it so.

 

it is a great love for the great ideal of yoga; the ardour that is expected in every student of yoga. the yearning that he cherishes within, the longing that is uncontrollable for god-realisation may be regarded as a kind of superior raga that is present, which prevents the mind from thinking anything else. when the prana is suddenly withheld – not accompanied either by expulsion or inhalation – that type of retention which is suddenly introduced, for any reason whatsoever, is called stambha vritti.

 

they are the three types of kumbhaka mentioned in the sutra, bāhya ābhyantara stambha vṛttiḥ.  now patanjali mentions deśa kāla saṁkhyābhiḥ paridṛṣṭaḥ (ii.50). the measure or the calculation of the method of breathing for the purpose of retention is referred to here. we can find out to what extent we have mastered the technique of pranayama by the extent of the length of space occupied by the movement of the prana, externally or internally.

 

 a cotton fibre held near the nostrils will give us an idea of the space that is occupied by the prana in expulsion. when we have greater and greater mastery over the prana, the distance will be lessened gradually so that we may have to bring the cotton fibre nearer and nearer the nose to see its movement.

 

so also is the case with internal movement, or inhalation. this has to be practised very, very gradually. what the sutra tells us is that kumbhaka, or retention of the breath, should be acquired by a gradual diminishing of the distance covered by the movement of the prana in expulsion as well as inhalation; that is desa. kala means the time, the ratio, or the proportion that is maintained in the processes of inhalation, retention and expulsion.

 

there are various views or opinions expressed by the yoga shastras and by adepts in yoga in regard to this proportion. proportion means the time that we take to inhale, the time that we retain the breath for, and the time that we take to exhale. this is what is called prop

ratio. 

 there should be no retention at all in the earlier stages; there should be only deep inhalation and exhalation. for some days and months perhaps, we may have to practise only inhalation and exhalation without retention. later on, when retention is introduced, it should not be in this ratio of one to four to two, as it is a more advanced practice. there should be only a comfortable retention, to the extent possible, even if the ratio is not maintained.

 

by the measurements of the processes of breathing, in respect of place, time and number, the quality of the pranayama should be determined. it is either dirgha or it is sukshma; it is elongated, protracted, or it is short and subtle.

 

it may be a protracted breathing, or it may be a very subtle breathing, which means to say that it can be elongated in quantity and intensified in quality; that is the meaning of dirgha.

 

or it can be contracted, and reduced in quantity as well as in quality; that is sukshma. when this is acquired, this mastery is gained, some sort of a control is maintained over the pranic movements. great consequences – unexpected and unforeseen – will follow. we will see strange phenomena appear within us as well as outside us if we gain mastery over the prana, because this kumbhaka that we are speaking of is nothing but another form of concentration of mind, as the mind is associated with the prana always.

 

the object, or the ideal before oneself, is united with the meditating consciousness in a fast embrace, as it were, when the prana is withheld, and it is made to stick to one’s consciousness inseparably.

 

it becomes one with one’s own self, and there is a sudden impact felt upon the object on account of the kumbhaka that we practise. the kumbhaka, the retention of the breath that we practise, coupled with concentration of mind on the object that is before us, will tell upon the nature of that object which we are thinking of, whatever be the distance of that object. it may be millions of miles away – it makes no difference.

 

this is because prana is omnipresent. it is like ether, and so it will produce an impact upon the object that we are thinking of in our meditation. it will stir it up into an activity of a desired manner, according to what we are contemplating in the mind. this effect cannot be produced if the prana is allowed to move hither and thither, distractedly.

 

if we want quick success in meditation, the retention of the breath is absolutely necessary because it is this that impresses upon the object of meditation the necessity to commingle itself with the subject. therefore, a combination of pranayama and dharana, concentration, is the most effective method of bringing about a union of oneself with the ideal of meditation.

 

https://www.youtube.com/embed/fcpjvp4la8a?feature=player_embedded

 

as a bird cannot fly if one of its wings is cut off, so is it in the case of the sadhaka. the two wings of yoga are practice, from yama to pranayama, and renunciation, from pratyahara to samadhi.

 

both are necessary for flights. then the yogi dwells in his soul, perceiving all things directly, without the intrusion of chitta – the conscious faculty. in ordinary everyday life, consciousness helps the senses see the objects of the world with thoughts of acquisition, rejection and resignation.

 

 they become hypnotised by them, and are drawn outwards, towards pleasure. in pratyahara, the senses are directed inwards, towards the realisation of the soul. pratyahara is the withdrawal of the mind from its contact with the senses of perception and organs of action; then its direction is towards the soul.

 

the relationship between the mind and the senses is justly compared to that of bees following the queen bee. if the queen bee moves, the others follow. when she rests, the others rest. they do not function independently from their queen. similarly, when the mind stops, the senses, too, stop working. this is pratyahara. it is the beginning of man’s return journey towards his maker.

 

it is the science of restricting the senses by depriving them of that that feeds them – the external objective world. it liberates them, by denying the supply of nourishment in the form of desires and their fulfilments. nature consists of five gross elements : earth, water, fire, air and ether with their five subtle counterparts : smell, taste, shape, touch and sound. these interact with the three gunas – saliva, rajas and tamas. chitta, comprising ego, intelligence and mind is the individual counterpart of mahat, cosmic intelligence.

 

this cosmic intelligence is the unevolved primary germ of nature, or the productive principle, for creation of all phenomena of the material world.

 

. internally, the mind penetrates the soul, the core of one’s being – the object is, in reality, pure existence. for higher meditation, everything is within the mental and emotional energy fields.

 

the paradox of it is this: the very same mental and emotional energy which caused us to become attached to this world, can also in turn, cause liberation. the gate for exiting this world is in the same mento-emotional energy (chittasya).

 

concentration (dharana) is holding the mind within a center of spiritual consciousness in the body, or fixing it on some divine form, either within the body or outside it.

 

the mind has reached the ability to be directed [dharana] when direction toward a chosen object is possible in spite of many other potential objects within the reach of the individual. a perennial flow of dharana is called dhyana or meditation.

 

if dharana is the drop, dhyana is the river. many concentrations make a meditation. qualitatively they are non-different, but functionally there is a distinction between them. when the student enters into dharana, he can know something of his personal structure. he becomes an observer of himself and an object of his study

 

even this perfection of dharana, dhyana and samadhi appears external to one who has experienced the seedless samadhi, the direct vision of the soul.

 

chitta is divided into five states: 1. ksipta, a mental force, which is scattered, in a state of disarray and neglect 2. mudha, a foolish and dull state 3. viksipta, agitated and distracted, neither marshalled nor controlled 4. ekagra, a state of one-pointed attention 5. niruddha, where everything is restrained, for the sadhaka to reach the threshold of kaivalya. as samyama is dependent on a support or a form, it is called ‘external’ compared to nirbija samadhi.

 

once the vehicles of nature (body, organs of action, senses of perception, mind, intelligence, reason and consciousness) cease to function, the soul (atman) shines forth, and the sadhaka dwells in kaivalya and not on its threshold. sleep comes naturally when mental activities cease without effort.

 

in the same manner, perfection in sabtja samadhi takes one towards the seedless state of samadhi or kaivalya, as smoothly as falling asleep. the soul surfaces of its own accord.all eight rungs of the yoga sutras come to be seen as external practices, when considered in relation to nirbija samadhi.

 

the state where the mind has no impressions of any sort and nothing is beyond its reach [nirbijah samadhi] is more intricate than the state of directing the mind towards an object [samadhi]. however, these three practices are external, and not intimate compared to nirbija samadhi, which is samadhi that has no object, nor even a seed object on which there is concentration.

 

3.09 — vyutthananirodhasanskarayorabhibhavapradurbhavau nirodhakshannachittanvayonirodhaparinamah

 

study of the silent moments between rising and restraining subliminal impressions is the transformation of consciousness towards restraint (nirodha parinamah).

 

transformation by restraint of consciousness is achieved by study of the silent moments that occur between the rising of impressions and one’s impulse to hold them back, and between the restraining impulse and the resurgence of thought. sensory involvement leads to attachment, desire, frustration and anger. these usher in disorientation, and the eventual decay of one’s true intelligence. through the combined techniques and resources of yama, niyama, asana, pranayama and pratyahara one learns control.

 

these are all external means of restraining consciousness, whether one focuses on god, or the breath, or in an asana by learning to direct and disseminate consciousness. all this learning develops in the relationship between subject and object. it is relatively simple because it is a relative, dual process. cutting one’s ties to sense objects within one’s own consciousness carries immensely more weight than any severance from outside objects; if this was not so, a prisoner in solitary confinement would be halfway to being a yogi.

 

through the inner quest, the inner aspects of desire, attraction and aversion are brought to an end. nirodha parinama is associated with the method used in meditation, when dharana loses its sharpness of attention on the object, and intelligence itself is brought into focus. in dharana and nirodha parinama, observation is a dynamic initiative. through nirodha parinama, transformation by restraint or suppression, the consciousness learns to calm its own fluctuations and distractions, deliberate and non-deliberate.

 

the method consists of noticing, then conquering and finally enlarging those subliminal pauses of silence that occur between rising and restraining thoughts and vice versa. as long as one impression is replaced by a counter-impression, consciousness rises up against it.

 

 this state is called vyutthana chitta, or vyutthana samskara (rising impressions). restraining the rising waves of consciousness and overcoming these impressions is nirodha chitta or nirodha samskara.

 

the precious psychological moments of intermission (nirodhaksana) where there is stillness and silence needs to be prolonged into extra-chronological moments of consciousness, without beginning or end. the key to understanding this wheel of mutations in consciousness is to be found in the breath.

 

 between each inbreath and outbreath, one experiences the cessation of breath for a split second. without this gap, one cannot inhale or exhale. this interval between each breath has another advantage – it allows the heart and lungs to rest.

 

this rest period is called ‘savasana’ of the heart and lungs. the yogis who had discovered pranayama called this natural space kumbhaka, and advised humans to prolong its duration.

 

so, there are four movements in each breath – inhalation, pause, exhalation and pause. consciousness, too, has four movements – rising consciousness, a quiet state of consciousness, restraining consciousness and a quiet state of consciousness.

 

inhalation actually generates thought-waves, while exhalation helps to restrain them . the pauses between breaths, which take place after inhalation and exhalation are akin to the intervals between each rising and restraining thought. the mutation of breath and mutation of consciousness are thus identical, because both are silent periods for the physiological and intellectual body.

 

they are moments of void in which a sense of emptiness is felt. sadhakas are advised by patanjali to transform this sense of emptiness into a dynamic whole, as single-pointed attention to no-pointed attentiveness this will become the second mode – samadhi pannama.

 

in this process one often loses awareness on account of suppression and distraction. having understood these silent intervals, one has to prolong them, as one prolongs breath retention, so that there is no room for generation or restraint of thoughts (lord krishna says in the gita that ‘what is night for other beings, is day for an awakened yogi and what is night for a yogi is day for others’ (11.69) this sutra conveys the same idea. when generating thoughts and their restraint keep the seeker awake, it is day for him, but night for the seer.

 

when the seer is awake in the prolonged spaces between rising and restraining thought, it is day for him, but night for the seeker. to understand this more clearly, one can imagine the body as a lake.

 

the mind floats on its surface, but the seer is hidden at the bottom. this is darkness for the seer. yoga practice causes the mind to sink and the seer to float. this is day for the seer. just as one feels refreshed after a sound sleep, the seer’s consciousness is refreshed as he utilises this prolonged pause for rejuvenation and recuperation. but at first, it is difficult to educate the consciousness to restrain each rising thought.

 

it is against the thought current (pratipaksa) and hence induces restlessness, while the movement from restraint towards rising thought is with the current (paksa), and brings restfulness. to transform the consciousness into a pure sattvic state of dynamic silence, one must learn by repeated effort to prolong the intermissions . if no impressions are allowed to intrude, the consciousness will remain fresh, and rest in its own abode.

 

this is ekagrata pannama. consciousness has three dharmic characteristics – to wander, to be restrained and to remain silent. the silent state must be transformed into a dynamic but single state of awareness. patanjali warns that in restraint old impressions may re-emerge – the sadhaka must train to react instantly to such appearances and cut them off in their source.

 

each act of restraint re-establishes a state of restfulness. this is dharma pannama. when a serene flow of tranquillity is maintained without interruption, then samadhi pari-qatna and laksana pannama begin.

 

during this phase the sadhaka may become trammeled in a spiritual desert. at this point he must persevere to reach oneness with the soul and abide in that state (avastha pannama) eternally. this final goal is reached through ekagrata pannama.





TO BE CONTINUED-




CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL

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