Monday, August 12, 2019

Regenerate sand in our depleted river beds caused due to excessive sand mining , by releasing sand from dam reservoirs – Capt Ajit Vadakayil





HOW DO YOU DO THIS?

PRAY ?

PRITHEE ?


JUST BY LOOSENING THE BOTTOM SILT BY A UNDERWATER PROCEDURE ( USING HIGH PRESSURE AIR AND WATER VIA A SHARP STEEL LANCE  ) AT THE DAM RESERVOIR BOTTOMS AND ALLOWING THE MUDDIED WATER TO GO VIA THE DAM SLUICE GATES INTO THE RIVER ..  

THIS IS BEST DONE IN RAINY SEASON, WHEN RIVER IS IN FULL FLOW. SO THAT THE COLLOIDAL MUD / CLAY WILL BE FLUSHED OFF TO THE SEA,  LEAVING HEAVY SAND BEHIND ON THE RIVER BED ...  

THE FLUSHED MUDDIED WATER RICH SLURRY CAN BE SIPHONED OFF TOO , TO THE DOWN STREAM RIVER ..



BELOW: HYDRAULIC HARD SILT CUTTING SYSTEMS CAN BE IMPORTED .. 

WE ASK PM MODI TO WATCH THE VIDEO BELOW AND IMPORT 30 SUCH MACHINES ..

FIRST GIVE A CONTRACT TO SOME DUTCH COMPANY .. TILL WE GAIN EXPERIENCE  











SCOPE:  POOR QUALITY ORGANIC/ INORGANIC IMPURITIES LADEN EXPENSIVE  RIVER SAND CAUSING RCC ROOFS TO LEAK,   GRANITE CRUSHED CHEAPER AND MORE EFFECTIVE MANUFACTURED  SAND ,   SALT WATER INGRESS INTO RIVERS OWING TO LACK OF SAND BARRIER AT DELTA,  SAND MINING MAFIA WITH POLITICIAN/ POLICE/ JUDICIARY BACKING ,   GROUND WATER / AQUIFER DEPLETION ON EITHER SIDE OF RIVERBAKS DUE TO EXCESSIVE SAND MINING,   FLY ASH FROM COAL POWER PLANTS AS  POZZOLAN ,  SURKHI ,  RADON 220 EMISSIONS FROM PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE, HYDRAUIC SLAG CEMENT


Compressive strength of concrete is increased when we use granite crushed M sand because it can not contain any impurity / contamination – organic or inorganic..


RIVERS MUST HAVE A THICK LAYER OF SAND AT THE BOTTOM, ACTING AS A SPONGE , HOLDING WATER , WHICH BLEEDS INTO NEARBY AQUIFERS ON EITHER SIDE OF THE RIVER BANKS..


THE WATER  SEE AT SEA SIDE OF GANGES IS THIS BLED WATER --- NOT JUST MELTED ICE AT THE HIMALAYA MOUNTAIN  HEAD .  WATER FLOWING OUT OF THE MIGHTY AMAZON IS NOT JUST ICE MELT WATER OF ANDES MOUNTAIN RANGE..




Illegal and indiscriminate river bed sand mining causes critical alterations to the physical characteristics of both river and riverbed . These can give huge impact towards the ecosystem. Our rivers have lost their fish due to dams and sand mining. 

For example Hilsa fish swam right up the Ganges till Allahabad to spawn..  Today due to the Farakka barrier the fish cat do that.. Bongs now beg Bangladesh to export Hilsa fish to Bengal so that they can make MACHER JOL.. 


A RIVER, IN EFFECT, CAN BE CONSIDERED A BODY OF FLOWING SEDIMENTS AS MUCH AS ONE OF FLOWING WATER. WHEN A RIVER IS STILLED BEHIND A DAM, THE SEDIMENTS IT CONTAINS SINK TO THE BOTTOM OF THE RESERVOIR. 

THE PROPORTION OF A RIVER’S TOTAL SEDIMENT LOAD CAPTURED BY A DAM – KNOWN AS ITS "TRAP EFFICIENCY" – WHICH IS 100% IN INDIAN DAMS. THIS IS HOW STUPID WE ARE.





AS THE SEDIMENTS ACCUMULATE IN THE RESERVOIR, SO THE DAM GRADUALLY LOSES ITS ABILITY TO STORE WATER FOR THE PURPOSES FOR WHICH IT WAS BUILT.   

DURING HEAVY RAINS, LANDSLIDES AROUND THE DAM RESERVOIR CAUSE MORE SILT TO BE HELD BY THE RESERVOIR.    LANDSLIDES CAN CAUSE A SOLITON WAVE ( TSUNAMI WHICH CAN CAUSE THE DAM WALL TO BE RUPTURED, CAUSING A DISASTER..





http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2018/08/mullaperiar-dam-government-and-people.html
  1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BwUC8EgRi9o

    WE ASK PM MODI TO WATCH THE VIDEO ABOVE..

    WATCH THIS SPACE..

    https://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2019/08/regenerate-sand-in-our-depleted-river.html

    INDIA HAS NOT BE RULED BY AN INTELLIGENT LEADER SINCE INDEPENDENCE..

    TOO MUCH EGO MASSAGE IS DEMANDED ..

    capt ajit vadakayil
    ..
    1. PUT ABOVE COMMENT IN WEBSITES OF--

      PM MODI ( ASK FOR ACK --SINCE THERE IS NO EGO MASSAGE I CAN BET THIS PATHETIC GUJARATI FELLOW WILL NOT RESPOND )

      PMO ( AS FOR ACK)
      WATER MINISTER ( ASK FOR ACK )
      WATER MINISTRY CENTRAL/ STATES
      NITI AYOG
      AMITABH KANT
      CJI GOGOI
      ALL SUPREME COURT JUDGES
      ALL STATE HIGH COURT CHIEF JUSTICES
      ATTORNEY GENERAL
      CMs OF ALL INDIAN STATES
      DGPs OF ALL STATES
      GOVERNORS OF ALL STATES
      PRESIDENT OF INDIA
      VP OF INDIA
      AMIT SHAH
      HOME MINISTRY
      AJIT DOVAL
      RAW
      CBI
      NIA
      ED
      IB
      ALL IIT DEANS
      POWER MINISTER CENTRAL STATES
      POWR MINISTRY CENTRAL STATES

PRESENTLY, INDIA HAS 5254 LARGE DAMS IN OPERATION AND 447 LARGE DAMS UNDER CONSTRUCTION HAVING GROSS STORAGE OF MORE THAN 300 BILLION CUBIC METER (  UP TO DATE )

NOT A SINGLE ONE HAS BEEN BUILT WITH DE-SILTING FACILITY. 

DAMS WERE BUILT INDISCRIMINATELY, NOT FOR THE BENEFIT OF THE WATAN ,  BUT FOR POLITICIANS TO MAKE MASSIVE MONEY BY KICKBACKS..  

A BIG PERCENTAGE OF THESE DAMS ARE WHITE ELEPHANTS.. 

ON AN AVERAGE EVERY DAM IS 60% SILTED .. MAKING IT NECESSARY TO INCREASE WATER LEVEL IN RESERVOIRS..


RESERVOIRS BEHIND DAMS TRAP SEDIMENT AND RELEASE UNNATURALLY CLEAR WATER WHICH DEPRIVES THE DOWNSTREAM RIVER OF SEDIMENTS ESSENTIAL TO MAINTAINING CHANNEL FORM AND TO SUPPORTING THE RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEM.

DOWNSTREAM FROM DAMS, REDUCED SUPPLY OF SAND AND GRAVEL HAS RESULTED IN CHANNEL INCISION AND CONSEQUENT IMPACTS TO BRIDGES AND OTHER INFRASTRUCTURE.

DOWNSTREAM EROSION ALSO LEADS TO THE DEGRADATION OF AQUATIC HABITAT QUALITY, INCLUDING LOSS OF GRAVELS NEEDED BY MANY FISH SPECIES FOR SPAWNING AND REARING. GRAVELS ARE TRANSPORTED DOWNSTREAM, BUT NOT REPLACED BY GRAVELS SUPPLIED FROM UPSTREAM.

LOSS OF A RIVER’S NATURAL FINE-GRAINED SEDIMENT LOAD CAN HAVE A RANGE OF NEGATIVE IMPACTS, BECAUSE THE NATIVE SPECIES IN A RIVER ARE, BY DEFINITION, ADAPTED TO THE NATURAL CONDITIONS.


CONVERSELY, DISRUPTIONS IN SEDIMENT BALANCES CAN CAUSE DOWNSTREAM REACHES TO ERODE RAPIDLY, CREATING INCREASED LOCALIZED FINE SEDIMENT LOADS THAT CAN, SUBSEQUENTLY, DEPOSIT FURTHER  DOWNSTREAM AND ‘CHOKE’ SPAWNING BEDS AND OTHER HABITAT FEATURES. THIS IS THE REASON FISH HAVE DISAPPEARED FROM OUR RIVERS..


BECAUSE SEDIMENT IS THE PRODUCT OF NATURAL EROSION OF EARTH MATERIALS, IT IS NOT INHERENTLY A POLLUTANT.    IT FORMS AN ESSENTIAL PART OF HEALTHY AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS.   MANY AQUATIC SPECIES, PARTICULARLY IN HISTORICALLY-MUDDY RIVERS, ARE SUFFERING FROM A LACK OF SEDIMENT.

IMAGINE OUR USELESS "BOTTOM DREGS OF THE SCHOOL CEREBRAL BARREL",   " DISCARDS FROM LOSER LAWYER POOL "  ILLEGAL COLLEGIUM JUDICIARY HAVE BEEN PLAYING GOD AND CALLING THE SHOTS..  

ALL THESE MELORDS WITH NON-TECHNICAL BRAINS ARE ALLOWED IS TO INTERPRET THE LAW.BUT THEY ARE ALLOWED BY LAW MINISTERS ( CHOSEN BY DEEP STATE ) TO MAKE LAWS.. 

THEIR STUPID RULINGS MADE WITH " JUSTICE IS BLIND SANS CONTEXT " SYSTEM. ARE ILLEGALLY USED BY "STARE DECISIS " AS A LANGOT TO THE CONSTITUTION..


READ ALL 8 PARTS OF THE POST BELOW TO CHECK OUT THE CANCER IN OUR JUDICIARY




MODI WANTS TO KILL BHARATMATA BY INTERLINKING INDIAN RIVERS, AS PER HIS WHITE JEWISH MASTERs ADVISE..

MODI THINKS THAT RIVERS ARE MERE GUTTERS TO THE SEA.....

ROGUE  SADGURU JAGGI VASUDEV (  LIKE DR ABDUL KALAM ) TRIED TO CURRY FAVOUR WITH TAMIL PEOPLE , THEIR BASE -- BY SUPPORTING RIVER INTERLINKING.......

ALL WESTERN POWERS WANT INDIA TO LINK OUR RIVERS AS INDIA IS RACING TO BE THIS PLANETs NO 1 SUPERPOWER IN 14 YEARS..


THE WHOLE OF INDIA WAS MORTIFIED WHEN DEEP STATE CONTROLLED MELORDS ORDERED THE PM OF INDIA TO INTERLINK ALL RIVERS WITHIN A DEAD LINE-- AND KILL BHARATMATA..








IT IS NOT A BRIGHT IDEA TO ALLOW OUR STUPID JUDGES TO RULE – “ INCREASE THE LEVEL OF THE RESERVOIR WATER “






  1. WITH AMARAVATHI, ANDHRA PRADESH WILL FACE THE SAME FATE AS TAMIL NADU..

    KRISHNA RIVER WILL DRY UP AT THE SEA END..

    SALT WATER WILL INGRESS INTO COASTAL AQUIFERS AND CONTAMINATE THEM FOREVER..

    MIND YOU, THESE AQUIFERS EXISTED FOR MILLION OF YEARS ..

    WE HAVE BRAIN DEAD PEOPLE IN NGT AND ENVIRONMENT MINISTRY

    WE HAVE LOT OF GANGES WATER FLOWING PAST CALCUTTA INTO BAY OF BENGAL...

    THE BONGS BELIEVE THAT THIS WATER IS MELTED ICE WATER OF HIMALAYAS..

    SORRY, THIS WATER IS GROUND WATER LEACHED OUT FROM AREAS UPRIVER, FAR AWAY FROM RIVER BANKS..

    SOME AMOUNT OF FRESH WATER IN A RIVER MUST ALWAYS RUN INTO THE SEA..

    TAMIL NADU DOES NOT HAVE A BRACKISH WATER BUFFER ZONE, SO TAMIL FISHERMEN HAVE TO GO TO SRI LANKA TO STEAL FISH..

    WHAT IS THE NEED FOR THE CAPITAL OF A STATE TO BE A SUPERCITY AND THAT TOO BY SACRIFICING THE FOOD BOWL ..

    MORE CRITICALLY IMPORTANT IS SACRIFICING A RAIN CATCHMENT AREA WHICH HARVESTS GROUND WATER... WHY COVER THIS SPONGE TOP SOIL WITH IMPENETRABLE CITY CONCRETE?

    THE KRISHNA RIVER WILL GET EXTREMELY POLLUTED IN THE LAST LEG OF ANDHRA STATE ..EVEN NOW THE SOIL IS SALINE AND SODIC ALKALINE AT THE LOWER REACHES OF THE RIVER BASIN.

    WE ALL KNOW WHAT AN UNPLANNED CITY CALLED DELHI DID TO YAMUNA..

    WE ALL SAW HOW KERALA WAS FLOODED RECENTLY DURING FEW DAYS OF EXCESSIVE RAIN. ..YOU CANT FILL LANDS MEANT TO RECEIVE FLOODWATERS…

    capt ajit vadakayil
    .

NOWADAYS CONCRETE RCC ROOFS GET CRACKS AND STARTS LEAKING..
BRIDGES ARE COMING DOWN.

REASON?

RIVER SAND IS FULL OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC ( CHLORIDES / SULPHATES/ PHOSPHATES / NITRATES ) CONTAMINATION.


http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2011/09/american-pollution-capt-ajit-vadakayil.html

http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2015/11/foam-froth-on-bangalore-lakes-capt-ajit.html

http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2014/03/vanishing-lakes-rain-water-harvesting.html


http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2017/05/nitrate-water-pollution-chemical.html

ONCE WE HAD STORED TWO TRUCK LOADS OF RIVER SAND IN MY HOME COMPOUND.. AFTER ONE YEAR , THE SAND WAS FULL OF CAT SHIT.. 

CATS FROM ALL OVER THE NEIGHBORHOOD JOINED OUR CATS TO DIG MERRILY IN THE SAND , SHIT INSIDE AND MERRILY COVER IT UP. THEY LOVE DOING THAT, IT IS A PRIMORDIAL DNA PROGRAM.


EVER SINCE WE HAD THE GREEN REVOLUTION OUR RIVERS ARE POLLUTED..
DUE TO EXCESSIVE SAND MINING MUD AND SILT IS MIXED WITH RIVER SAND..

SAND STOLEN FROM RIVER REAS WHERE IT MEETS THE SEA HAS SALINE CONTENT .. THIS CAUSES CEMENT AREAS TO ABSORB MOISTURE AND CORRODE THE STEEL BARS.


WHEN CONCRETE CURES, IT FORMS LONG CRYSTALS THAT GRAB ONTO THE SAND AND GRAVEL THAT FORMS THE REST OF THE CONCRETE. THE INCLUSION OF LARGE AMOUNTS OF ORGANIC MATTER AND/OR SALT WILL WEAKEN THE BONDS. 

FOR THIS REASON SAND CONTAINING SALT OR ORGANIC MATTER NEEDS TO BE WASHED CLEAN BEFORE IT IS USED. EVEN IF THIS IS DONE, EXCESSIVE WATER IS WASTED.

BELOW:   WHEN STUPID COLLEGIUM JUDGES ( THE MOST USELESS ON THE PLANET ) RAISE THE LEVEL OF WATER IN RESERVOIRS TO OVERCOME LOST VOLUME OF WATER DUE TO SILT,  MORE LAND IS SUBMERGED INCREASING THE WATER SURFACE AREA OF THE RESERVOIR.  THIS CAUSES MORE EVAPORATION.
,



FROM HENCEFORTH ONLY GOVT MUST HAVE THE AUTHORITY TO DO RIVER SAND MINING..AND THAT TOO ONLY TO ALLOW THE RIVER TO FLOW FREELY..



JUST 50 YEARS AGO  HOLY PAMBA RIVER BED HAD TWENTY FEET THICK SAND RIVER BED.. 

TODAY THERE ARE ONLY STONES— DUE TO ANTI-HINDU CHRISTIAN / COMMIE GOVT AIDED SAND MINING.. IF PAMPA RIVER DIES, SABARIMALA PILGRIMAGE DIES.

THE ONCE MIGHTY RIVER HAS NO WATER, AND IS HIGHLY POLLUTED.


PAMBA RIVER IS IN THIS STATE DUE TO EXCESSIVE SAND MINING.. SAND ON THE RIVER BOTTOM BED ACTS AS A SPONGE AND HOLDS WATER. SAND ACTS AS A FINE FILTER  THUS PREVENTING POLLUTING GROUND WATER ENTERING BOTTOM GROUND WATER AND AQUIFER  RECHARGE FISSURES.

IT HAS DESTROYED THE HABITAT OF AQUATIC ANIMALS AND MICRO-ORGANISMS . IN ADDITION TO DESTROYING THE ECO SYSTEM ILLEGAL SAND MINING HAS AFFECTED GROUND WATER RECHARGE ON EITHER SIDE OF THE BANKS..

INDISCRIMINATE  AND MINING ACTIVITIES LEADING TO LOSS OF SAND AT THE BOTTOM, CAUSES INCREASED CONCENTRATION OF SUSPENDED SEDIMENT IN THE RIVER


THE SAND MINING MAFIA IS AS VICIOUS AS THE DRUG MAFIA AS POLICE/ JUDGES/ MINISTERS ARE ALL HAND IN GLOVE


MOSSAD SPONSORED RSS , EXISTS TO MAKE HINDUS FIGHT WITH MUSLIMS.. 

THEY DONT CARE FOR SANATANA DHARMA.. 

NOT A SINGLE RSS CHIEF ( WITH PALE EYES ) HAS MARRIED-- WHY?




..
In rivers, fish habitat is strongly linked to the stability of channel bed and banks. Unstable stream channels are inhospitable to most aquatic species.

Illegal  sand mining / sand theft must have a secure whistle blower reporting line..

BELOW , THE GOVT IS PAYING MAFIA TO STEAL SAND.

http://namma.tv/sand-lifted-instead-of-silt-from-thumbay-dam-irked-dc-stops-work

Less sand material is arriving in delta areas to replace soil lost due to dams , illegal sand mining , coastal erosion and other natural processes.

The loss of sand also means less water-storage capacity in rivers, and less water flowing in to recharge aquifers.

Loss of water holding sand on river beds,  increases the velocity of flow in river which destroy flow-regime eventually erodes the river banks.

For those living in the deltas, it can mean growing risk of floods, inundation from coastal storm surges and worsening salt contamination in drinking water, due to ingress of salt water into coastal aquifers. If a river delta receives enough sediment, it builds itself above sea level in a natural reaction..

Excessive sand mining can alter the river bed, force the river to change course, erode banks and lead to flooding. .

Sand and gravel together known as aggregate, represent the highest volume of raw material used on earth after water. The mining of aggregate has been continuing for many years. 

Now the mining of aggregates has reached a level threatening the environment and ecosystem besides also reaching a level of scarcity that would threaten the economy and survival of the nation itself.

WE KNOW HOW MUCH CEMENT IS CONSUMED IN INDIA PER YEAR.. MULTIPLY THE FIGURE WITH EIGHT AD YOU CAN ESTIMATE THE LOSS OF SAND FROM RIVER BEDS.

CEMENT PRODUCTION IN INDIA IS NOW 460 MILLION TONNES. ARTIFICIAL M SAND IS A NEW CONCEPT.


Destruction of picturesque beaches  , replacing it with eye sores affects’ tourism ..
ALL PRIVATE SAND MINING OPERATORS MUST BE BANNED. TILL WE BUILD UP SAND IN THE SEABED OF OUR RIVERS.

INDIA MUST GO FOR M SAND (MANUFACTURED SAND )..  IF REQUIRED IMPORT IT..

Manufactured sand (M-Sand) is a substitute of river sand for concrete construction .  M sand has no organic inorganic contamination..

Manufactured sand is produced from hard granite stone by crushing.

The crushed sand is of cubical shape with grounded edges, washed and graded to as a construction material. The size of manufactured sand (M-Sand) is less than 4.75mm. : The physical and chemical properties in M Sand are balanced and can withstand any harsh climatic conditions. It has the ability to overcome the defects in concrete like segregation, honeycombing, corrosion of reinforcement steel, voids, capillary, bleeding etc

A big plus point is that M sand is available nearly, thus reducing transport distances and saving on fuel.   M sand is 40% cheaper than river sand today..


M Sand has smooth surface texture and free from elongated and flaky particles as it is shaped by using VSI shaping machine. The cubicle shaped particles provide greater durability, higher strength and long life to the concrete.


M-Sand is the only alternative to river sand.

Natural sand contains marine products such as grass, algae, clay lumps, bones, shells, mica etc. which are harmful to properties of concrete. M sand has no such problems.
M Sand has higher Fineness Modules Index compared to the natural river sand, which gives good workability for concrete. 

The fine aggregate does not constitute to the strength of the concrete, the fine aggregate only completes or fills the pores in the concrete. So in the choice of natural or M sand both are preferred only when they pass or in accordance of the IS standards.

M sand offer better abrasion resistance, higher unit weight and lower permeability. Size, shape, texture play an important role in workability of concrete. The compressive strength as well as the flexural strength of concrete made from Msand is higher than natural sand.

M-Sand is,  dust free, the sizes of m-sand can be controlled easily so that it meets the required grading for the given construction.

M-Sand has balanced physical and chemical properties that can withstand any aggressive environmental and climatic conditions as it has enhanced durability, greater strength, and the overall economy...

About 35 % volume of concrete is comprised of sand.



VSI Crusher Works. Feed material drops through the feed tube onto the impeller table or enclosed rotor which, through centrifugal force, throws the material against stationary anvils made up of composite metal alloys. ... 

This method of crushing is simple and economical to operate The VSI crushers utilize velocity rather than surface force as the predominant force to break rock. In its natural state, rock has a jagged and uneven surface. Applying surface force (pressure) results in unpredictable and typically non-cubical resulting particles. 



Utilizing velocity rather than surface force allows the breaking force to be applied evenly both across the surface of the rock as well as through the mass of the rock. Rock, regardless of size, has natural fissures (faults) throughout its structure. As rock is 'thrown' by a VSI Rotor against a solid anvil, it fractures and breaks along these fissures. 

Final particle size can be controlled by 1) the velocity at which the rock is thrown against the anvil and 2) the distance between the end of the rotor and the impact point on the anvil. The product resulting from VSI Crushing is generally of a consistent cubical shape s



Horizontal shaft impact crusher:--

The HSI crushers break rock by impacting the rock with hammers that are fixed upon the outer edge of a spinning rotor. HSI machines are sold in stationary, trailer mounted and crawler mounted configurations. HSI's are used in recycling, hard rock and soft materials.



Size of particles can be controlled in CRS and RFA--  Crushed rock sand (CRS), recycled fine aggregates (RFA)

M-sand has now become more expensive due to import from foreign countries . Natural river sand is almost unavailable due to excess demand ...

CDE Asia has established a hydrocyclone process to remove the fines (<75 microns="" o:p="">



There is a huge lack of awareness and an aversion to using the M sands. Government bodies, construction industries, research and academic institutions and the media should promote use of alternative sands in construction.

Crushed sand (Manufactured sand) is produced by crushing rock (as in the case of coarse aggregate) to give particle size and grading at par with river sand,

A concrete mix necessarily contents cement, water, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate. Aggregate occupy about 60 – 70% volume of concrete. In this percentage 40 to 50 % proportion of aggregate is fine aggregate (sand). Fine aggregate selection plays vital role in concrete performance and its cost.
The crushed M sand has angular particles ensuring a better interlock between the particles.

M-Sand has balanced physical and chemical properties that can withstand any aggressive environmental and climatic conditions as it has enhanced durability, greater strength and overall economy.   Again, usage of M-Sand can overcome the defects occurring in concrete such as honey combing, segregation, voids, capillary etc.

Compressive strength of concrete is increased when we use crush sand because it can not contain any impurity.






BELOW: THE ROMAN PANTHEON  WAS BUILT BY KERALA THIYYA ARCHITECTS USING SURKHI CONCRETE FOR HINDU EMPEROR RAMA ( ROMULUS )-- USING SELECTED VOLCANIC ASH ( POZZOLANA ) AND LIME ( CALCIUM OXIDE )..  

FLY ASH WASTE FROM COAL POWER PLANTS IS A BETTER POZZOLANA.. AND INDIA HAS PLENTY OF IT..

THE CONCRETE HAS BEEN GETTING STRONGER OVER THE CENTURIES..

IT WAS A HINDU TEMPLE --NOW A CHURCH..

IT IS A WONDER, AS THE CONCRETE HAS NO STEEL !



BELOW: EYE OF THE PANTHEON 


THE HOLE IN THE DOME IS NINE METRES IN DIAMETER-- I HAVE BEEN HERE..



HINDU THIYYA KING RAMA ( ROMULUS ) STOOD AT AN EXACT  SPOT AT THE ROMAN PANTHEON , ON 21ST APRIL 830 BCE AND INAUGURATED ROME.

HE LOOKED LIKE A GOD AS ON THIS DAY THE SUNLIGHT CAME INTO THE PANTHEON AT NOON AND HIT THE DIAMOND ENCRUSTED METAL GRILLE ABOVE THE DOORWAY, SATURATING THE ENTRANCE WITH  MAGICAL LIGHT.


EVERY ROMAN EMPEROR STOOD AT THE SAME SPOT ON 21ST APRIL EVERY YEAR ON RAM NAVAMI DAY , TILL THE POWER CENTRE OF ROME WAS SHIFTED FROM ROME TO ISTANBUL ( CONSTANTINOPLE ) BY ROMAN EMPEROR CONSTANTINE THE GREAT UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF HIS JEWESS MOTHER HELENA.



WHATEVER IS WRITTEN IN WIKIPEDIA ABOUT THE ROMAN PANTHEON IS 100% BULLSHIT.


THE SUN STARTS ILLUMINATING THE NORTH-EAST/NORTH-WEST ROOMS (WHICH ARE FULLY ILLUMINATED WHEN THE SUN HAS AZIMUTHS 135° AND 225°). THEY RECEIVE THE FULL BEAM AROUND 14 APRIL WHICH IS THE DAY FOR VISHU IN KERALA.



  1. SOMEBODY ASKED ME --

    CAPTAIN YOU HAD WRITTEN LONG AGO THAT ROME WAS DERIVED FROM RAMA, THE WAY CHRIST WAS DERIVED FROM KRISHNA..

    YOU ALSO WROTE THAT ALL ROMAN CAESARS / KINGS AND SENATORS TILL ROMAN EMPEROR CONSTANTINE THE GREAT, SHIFTED THE CAPITAL TO ISTANBUL ( CONSTANTINOPLE ) WERE KERALA THIYYA HINDUS..

    HOW DID KERALA THIYYA HINDUS DO THIS? IT IS AGREED THAT THEY WERE FABULOUSLY RICH ( DUE TO SPICE TRADE ) AND WERE GREAT KALARI FIGHTERS.

    #######################

    LISTEN KERALA THIYYAS DID NOT CONQUER ITALY BY FORCE.. THEY WERE INVITED TO RULE FOR SURVIVAL ..

    ROME WAS JUST A DISEASED VILLAGE , TILL KERALA THIYYAS TOOK OVER ADMINISTRATION AS ETRUSCAN CENSORS..

    THEY WERE CONSIDERED AS SAGES AND WERE ENTRUSTED IN PRESERVING DHARMA AND WERE GIVEN POWERS OVER THE ROMAN KING BY THE PEOPLE.

    THE LAST OF THE CENSOR LINE WAS KERALA SAGE APOLLONIUS OF TYANA , ON WHOM JESUS CHRIST WAS MODELED..

    IT IS THE HINDU CENSORS WHO GAVE ROME IS NAME --INITIALLY THE PLACE WAS CALLED RAMA .

    HOW DID THE CENSORS IMPRESS ALL AND SUNDRY.. THEY BUILT THE ROMAN AQUEDUCTS USING SURKI TECHNOLOGY ( POZZOLANA ) OF KERALA..

    KERALA MULLAPERIYAR DAM IS MADE WITH SURKHI, CONCRETE..

    ROME WAS DRYING OF DISEASE--DUE TO LACK OF HYGIENE ( SCARCITY OF WATER ) ..PEOPLE STARTED DESERTING ROME AS THE AQUIFERS WERE POLLUTED WITH TOXIC WATER..

    AQUEDUCTS BROUGHT PRISTINE WATER FOR DRINKING AND SANITATION 2600 YEARS AGO..

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2016/10/the-huge-statue-of-colossus-of-rome-at.html

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2017/12/the-rotating-statue-on-nemi-ship-on.html

    KERALA THIYYA CENSORS OR ROME WERE LIKE PRESIDENT OF INDIA .. GIVEN DISCRETIONARY SUBJECTIVE POWERS AND VETO POWERS OVER THE KING BY THE PEOPLE, TO SUSTAIN DHARMA ..

    CENSORS WIELDED ABSOLUTE POWER TILL AUGUSTUS CAESAR WITH KERALA THIYYA BLOOD TOOK OVER.. CENSORS WOULD TRAVEL ON ELEPHANT..AND ALL WERE IN AWE..

    ALL ROMAN KINGS HAS KERALA THIYYA BLOOD TILL CONSTANIN II, WHO KILLED HIS FATHER CONSTANTINE THE GREAT AND TOOK OVER POWER ON 22ND MAY 337 AD.

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2018/12/helena-mother-of-roman-emperor.html

    WHEN THE POWER SEAT WAS SHIFTED FROM ROME TO CONSTANTINOPLE , ENGINEERED BY JEWESS HELENA ( MOTHER OF CONSTANTINE THE GREAT ), THE HINDU POWER DIED AND JEWS TOOK OVER .. ALL ROMAN KINGS AND SENATORS WERE JEWS AFTER THAT..

    THE ETRUSCAN CIVILIZATION IS KERALA THIYYA CIVILIZATION.. WEALTH AND TECHNOLOGY TO BUILD ROME CAME FROM THE CALICUT KING..

    THE FIRST KING RAMA OF ROME 2850 YEARS AGO WAS OF 100% KERALA THIYYA BLOOD ( HE IS CALLED ROMULUS ).. THE CITY WAS INAUGURATED ON 21ST APRIL..IN INDIA WE CALL IT CIVIL SERVICE DAY EVEN TODAY..

    THE DATE WAS FIXED BY A KERALA NAMBOODIRI ASTROLOGER CUM CENSOR NAMED LUCIUS TAROUTIUS FIRMANUS , AS RAM NAVAMI FELL ON THAT DAY..

    “Rome was founded by him on the ninth day of the month Pharmouthi ( CHAITRA ) , between the second and third hour; for it is supposed that the fortunes of cities, as well as those of men, have their certain periods which can be discovered by the position of the stars at their nativities.” (pg. 39, Plutarch's Lives, Volume 1, Chapter XII)

    THE ROMANS WERE FIRST A SUBJECT PEOPLE OF THE KERALA THIYYA ETRUSCANS WHO CAME FROM THE SEA — ALL MODERN HISTORIANS KNOW THIS ..

    ONCE THE INTELLECT AND WEALTH OF KERALA THIYYA FOUNTAINHEAD DRIED UP-- ROME DIED ALONG WITH IT..

    PROBABLY I WILL WRITE A POST ON ROMAN AQUEDUCT SURKHI ( POZZOLANA ) CEMENT LATER.. INDIA MUST NOT WASTE OUR FLY ASH WASTE FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS..

    capt ajit vadakayil
    ..



FLY ASH ( WASTE FROM COAL POWERED ELECTRIC PLANTS  )  IS COMMONLY USED IN CONCRETE IN REPLACEMENTS THAT ARE RANGING UPTO 30% BY MASS OF TOTAL CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL. 



A HIGH PERCENTAGE OF  CEMENT WITHIN CONCRETE CAN BE REPLACED BY FLY ASH WITHOUT ADVERSELY AFFECTING CONCRETE PROPERTIES.

Cement is made by heating limestone (calcium carbonate) with small quantities of other materials (such as clay) to 1450°C in a kiln. The resulting hard substance, called 'clinker', is then ground with a small amount of gypsum into a powder to make 'Cement', the most commonly used type of cement. This cement is called Ordinary Portland Cement

Portland Pozzolana Cement is a kind of Blended Cement which is produced by either intergrinding of OPC clinker along with gypsum and pozzolanic materials in certain proportions or grinding the OPC clinker, gypsum and Pozzolanic materials separately and thoroughly blending them in certain proportions.

Portland Pozzolana Cement also commonly known as PPC cement. These types of cement are manufactured by using pozzolanic materials as one of the main ingredient. The percentage of pozzolanic material used in the preparation should be between 10 to 30. If the percentage is exceeded, the strength of cement is reduced.

Again, Fly ash which is a waste product from coal fired electric power planets is a pozzolanic material.

OPC Cement gives high compressive strength at early ages and at 28 days.   . We can  mix fly ash (at least 20% by weight of cement) in concrete as part replacement of cement at site. This is not only to save on material cost of concrete but also to achieve durable properties due to pore refinement (Less porous concrete). The concrete thus prepared also has increased workability and higher strength at later ages.

Portland Pozzolana Cement is a variation of Ordinary Portland Cement. Pozzolana materials namely fly ash, volcanic ash, are added to the OPC so that it becomes PPC. Pozzolana materials are added to the cement in the ratio of 25% to 35% by weight.

PPC has an edge on OPC as PPC has slower rate of heat of hydration. Thereby PPC is prone to less cracks & reduced shrinkage), better workability and finishing (as fly ash based cement are spherical in shape and finer in size).

Ordinary Portland cement, (OPC) is used most of time for all the purposes in construction. Which don't have any blended material with it like flyash or any puzzolonic material. Heat of hydration is fast and it gains 95% early strength requiring curing of minimum 7 days.

Whereas Puzzolonic Portland cement (PPC) is cement blended with puzzolonic material like flyash or slag etc. Here heat of hydration is less faster. It gains 75% of strength in early 7 days. And 90% strength in 14 days requiring minimum of 14 days curing. But it'll get more strength as compared to OPC cement in long run.

CONCRETE WITH FLY ASH GETS STRONGER AS IT GETS OLDER.

PPC IS BEST., PROVIDED REQUIRED CURING AND CORRECT WATER CEMENT RATIOS ARE MAINTAINED.

In ordinary Portland cement, During the hydration of cement , the reactants of calcium silicates (C2S and C3S)and water fused to form the main product such as CSH(calcium Silicate hydrate)gel and byproduct Ca(oH)2(Hydrated lime).

The obtained byproduct is the culprit. It will cause detoiration of concrete involving sulphate attack, etc. and the only advantage of this byproduct is resist corrosion of rein -bars

In Portland pozzolona cement(PPC), the byproduct ( Ca(oH)2) react with fly ash(pozzolonic material) to form more CSH gels. This will increase the strength and also reduce detoiration of concrete.

Thus,  the unwanted byproduct is transformed to useful gel product in hydration of PPC.

.Fly ash can add to the concrete's final strength and increase its chemical resistance and durability.
Fly ash has a large uniformity coefficient and it consists of clay-sized particles. Engineering properties that affect the use of fly ash in embankments include grain size distribution, compaction characteristics, shear strength, compressibility, permeability, and frost susceptibility

Fly ash can replace either the Portland cement or fine aggregate (in most cases, river sand) as a filler material. High fly ash content mixes contain nearly all fly ash, with a small percentage of Portland cement and enough water to make the mix flowable. 

Low fly ash content mixes contain a high percentage of filler material, and a low percentage of fly ash, Portland cement, and water. Class F fly ash is best suited for high fly ash content mixes, whereas Class C fly ash is almost always used in low fly ash content mixes.

In the presence of water, Class C fly ash hardens and gets stronger over time. Class C fly ash generally contains more than 20% lime (CaO). Unlike Class F, self-cementing Class C fly ash does not require an activator. Alkali and sulfate (SO4) contents are generally higher in Class C fly ashes.

70% for both of fly ash types; physical properties such as fineness, lime reactivity, compressive strength, drying shrinkage and soundness are the determinant of the grade o f the fly ash.

Fly ash is pozzolanic in nature, and contains less than 7% lime (CaO). Possessing pozzolanic properties, the glassy silica and alumina of Class F fly ash requires a cementing agent, such as Portland cement, quicklime, or hydrated lime—mixed with water to react and produce cementitious compounds.

Again, A high percentage of the cement within concrete can be replaced by Fly Ash without adversely affecting concrete properties

Fly ash is a fine powder that is a byproduct of burning pulverized coal in electric generation power plants. Fly ash is a pozzolan, a substance containing aluminous and siliceous material that forms cement in the presence of water. When mixed with lime and water, fly ash forms a compound similar to Portland cement.

Fly ash isn't just filler in concrete. ... All of this makes fly ash concrete more durable than plain portland cement concrete. In addition, concrete with fly ash costs less, because fly ash is FAR cheaper than cement.

Because some fly ash contains larger or less reactive particles than portland cement, significant hydration can continue for six months or longer, leading to much higher ultimate strength than concrete without fly ash.

Fly ash bricks do emit radon gas, but only at about 40% of that emitted from concrete. Thus, if it is considered safe to use concrete or concrete products in buildings, it should be even safer to use fly ash bricks.  Leaching of pollutants from fly ash bricks caused by rain is negligible

Radon gas is a known human lung carcinogen. Prolonged exposure to high levels of Radon gas can cause lung cancer. Millions of homes and buildings contain high levels of radon gas

According to the US EPA, the average indoor radon level is about 1.3 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). People should take action to lower radon levels in the home if the level is 4.0 pCi/L or higher.


Radon is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, naturally occurring radioactive gas that is formed by the natural decay of uranium.   As radon gas decays, it produces solid decay products:  polonium lead and bismuth that are often referred to as “radon progeny.”  


Unlike radon, these charged decay products can remain in the lungs and continue to cause risk of lung cancer for several years.  Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States and there is no level of radon that is considered to be safe. 

At a 4.0 pCi/l exposure rate there is a potential for 7 out of every 1000 people to contract lung cancer.

The alpha radiation emitted by radon is the same alpha radiation emitted by other alpha generating radiation sources such as plutonium.

Basements, rooms over concrete slabs and areas over crawlspaces can have high radon levels. The more of it you breathe, combined with the concentrations of it, contribute to the risk factor. Radon is the number one lung cancer killer in non-smokers

Opening windows improves air circulation and ventilation, helping move radon out of the house and mixing radon-free outside air with indoor air.  Make sure all your basement windows are open. Concrete cures by reacting with water - hydration. But almost half of the water added to the concrete mix for workability is surplus and has to evaporate. As the surplus water in newly poured concrete pushes to the surface, it leaves behind a network of capillaries (pores).

The pores constitute 12 to 18% of the concrete by volume. Their diameter is much smaller than a human hair but the pores are much larger than radon atoms or water molecules. They let in soil gas carrying radon and water vapor.


The dominant transport mechanism by which radon gas moves through an intact concrete slab is concentration-driven diffusion.   Indoor radon entry rates can be greatly affected by the type of concrete mix employed.



The mixing proportion for bricksis generally 40-50% Fly Ash, 50-40% Sand 10% lime and 4% water. Fly ash reacts with lime in the presence of moisture to form calcium silicate hydrate which is the binder material. The raw mix is molded in the molding press/machine, pressed under a pressure into bricks.




Again, a high percentage of the cement within concrete can be replaced by Fly Ash without adversely affecting concrete properties.

.Many dams in the US have been constructed with high fly ash contents. Fly ash lowers the heat of hydration allowing thicker placements to occur.

In the United Kingdom, fly ash has been used for over fifty years to make concrete building blocks. They are widely used for the inner skin of cavity walls. They are naturally more thermally insulating than blocks made with other aggregates.

In India, fly ash bricks are used for construction. Leading manufacturers use an industrial standard known as "Pulverized fuel ash for lime-Pozzolana mixture" using over 75% post-industrial recycled waste, and a compression process. This produces a strong product with good insulation properties and environmental benefits.

Fly ash is a fine powder that is a byproduct of burning pulverized coal in electric generation power plants. Fly ash is a pozzolan, a substance containing aluminous and siliceous material that forms cement in the presence of water.

When mixed with lime and water, fly ash forms a compound similar to Portland cement. This makes fly ash suitable as a prime material in blended cement, mosaic tiles, and hollow blocks, among other building materials. When used in concrete mixes, fly ash improves the strength and segregation of the concrete and makes it easier to pump.

Currently, more than 55 %  percent of the concrete placed in the U.S. contains fly ash. Dosage rates vary depending on the type of fly ash and its reactivity level.

Fly ash requires less water than Portland cement and is easier to use in cold weather. Other benefits include:--
Produces various set times
Cold weather resistance
Can be used as an admixture
Considered a non-shrink material
Produces dense concrete with a smooth surface and sharp detail
Great workability
Reduces crack problems, permeability, and bleeding
Reduces heat of hydration
Allows for a lower water-cement ratio for similar slumps when compared to no-fly-ash mixes

.Fly ash, in view of its alkalinity and water absorption capacity, may be used in combination with other alkaline materials to transform sewage sludge into organic fertilizer or biofuel



Digression: The high concentration of elements (K, Na, Zn, Ca, Mg and Fe) in fly-ash increases the yield of many agricultural crops.

Depending upon the source and composition of the coal being burned, the components of fly ash vary considerably, but all fly ash includes substantial amounts of silicon dioxide (SiO2) (both amorphous and crystalline), aluminium oxide (Al2O3) and calcium oxide (CaO)..

Iron ore slag sand is an eco-friendly alternative building material that can be used for construction instead of river sand.

Blast furnace slag which is by-product of iron and steel industry, can be substituted in place of river sand.   It has more compressive and flexural strength compared with river sand.

Slag cement is a hydraulic cement formed when granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) is ground to suitable fineness and is used to replace a portion of portland cement. It is a recovered industrial by-product of an iron blast furnace. 

Blast furnace slag is a nonmetallic coproduct produced in the process. It consists primarily of silicates, aluminosilicates, and calcium-alumina-silicates Portland Slag cement is a kind of blended cement manufactured by either grinding the Portland clinker with gypsum and granulated slag or blending the ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) with Ordinary Portland cement.

Slag cement is a hydraulic cement while fly ash is a pozzolan.

 Roman concrete is durable due to its incorporation of volcanic ash, which prevents cracks from spreading.

Non-hydraulic cement does not set in wet conditions or under water. Rather, it sets as it dries and reacts with carbon dioxide in the air. It is resistant to attack by chemicals after setting.

Hydraulic cements (e.g., Portland cement) set and become adhesive due to a chemical reaction between the dry ingredients and water. The chemical reaction results in mineral hydrates that are not very water-soluble and so are quite durable in water and safe from chemical attack. 

This allows setting in wet conditions or under water and further protects the hardened material from chemical attack. The chemical process for hydraulic cement found by ancient Romans used volcanic ash (pozzolana) with added lime (calcium oxide).

Pozzolan-lime cements are mixtures of ground pozzolan and lime. These are the cements the Romans used, and are present in surviving Roman structures like the Pantheon in Rome. They develop strength slowly, but their ultimate strength can be very high. The hydration products that produce strength are essentially the same as those in Portland cement.

The principles of underwater construction in concrete were well known to Roman builders. The city of Caesarea was the earliest known example to have made use of underwater Roman concrete technology on such a large scale..

Gypsum and quicklime were used as binders. Volcanic dusts, called pozzolana or "pit sand", were favored where they could be obtained. Pozzolana makes the concrete more resistant to salt water than modern-day concrete.The pozzolanic mortar used had a high content of alumina and silica.

The high silica composition of Roman pozzolana cements is very close to that of modern cement to which blast furnace slag, fly ash, or silica fume have been added.

The strength and longevity of Roman marine concrete is understood to benefit from a reaction of seawater with a mixture of volcanic ash and quicklime to create a rare crystal called tobermorite, which can resist fracturing.   Seawater filtering through the concrete led to the growth of interlocking minerals that lend the concrete added cohesion.

Tobermorite is a calcium silicate hydrate mineral with chemical formula: Ca5Si6O16(OH)
As seawater percolated within the tiny cracks in the Roman concrete, it reacted with phillipsite naturally found in the volcanic rock and created aluminous tobermorite crystals. 

The result is a candidate for "the most durable building material in human history". In contrast, modern concrete exposed to saltwater deteriorates within a decade.




FLY ASH USES VERY LITTLE WATER COMPARED WITH TRADITIONAL CEMENT.




Fly ash  is a substance containing aluminous and siliceous material that forms cement in the presence of water. When mixed with lime and water, fly ash forms a compound similar to  Portland cement. This makes fly ash suitable as a prime  material in blended cement, mosaic tiles, and hollow  blocks, among other building materials. 

When used in  concrete mixes, fly ash improves the strength and segregation of the concrete and makes it easier to work.

Fly ash can be used as prime material in many cement based products, such as concrete block, and brick.   Cement sets or cures when mixed with water which causes a series of hydration chemical reactions. The constituents slowly hydrate and crystallize; the interlocking of crystals gives cement its strength maintaining a high moisture content in cement during curing increases both the speed of curing, and its final strength. 

Gypsum is often added to Portland  cement to prevent early hardening or “flash setting”,allowing a longer working time. The time it takes for cement to cure varies Depending on the mixture and environmental conditions initial hardening can occur in as little as 20 mins,  while full cure take over a month. 

Curing is the process in  which the concrete protected from loss of moisture and kept within a reasonable temperature range. The casted cubes shall be stored under shed at a place free from the vibration for 24 hours covered with wet straw or gunny sacking.

The fine particle ash that rises up with the flue gases is known as fly or flue ash while the heavier ash that does not rise is called bottom ash; collectively these are known as coal ash.

Bottom ashes are waste of coal fired thermal power plant generally disposed in landfills. Post washing (basically done to remove carbon, unwanted in concrete), it can be used for replacing sand to the amount of 35% in a concrete mix. Its Availability is limited, restricted to power plant area.

India is currently producing in excess of 100 million tonnes of coal ash. Out of the total ash produced in any thermal power plant, approximately 15 –20 per cent is bottom ash and the rest is fly ash. Fly ash has found many takers but bottom ash still continues to pollute the environment with no safe disposal mechanism on offer.
Coal ash is what remains after the coal has been combusted

When left dry the ash can be used to make concrete and other useful materials. There are also several environmental benefits. Bottom ash may be used as raw alternative material, replacing earth or sand or aggregates, for example in road construction and in cement kilns (clinker production).

Bottom ash is the coarse, granular, incombustible by-product of coal combustion that is collected from the bottom of furnaces.

When pulverized coal is burned in a bottom boiler, most of the unburned material is caught in the flue gas and captured as fly ash. Only about 10-20% of this ash is bottom ash. This ash is dark grey in colour, and is about the size of sand. 

This ash is collected in a water-filled hopper at the bottom of the furnace and removed by high-pressure water jets. It is deposited in a collection pond and stored for disposal or later use after recycling

Bottom ash can also be added into hot asphalt









INDIAN THERMAL COAL HAS VERY LOW SULPHUR CONTENT

WE DON’T CARE FOR CO2 EMISSIONS AS WE CONSIDER CO2 A GOOD LIFE SAVING GAS

OUR THERMAL COAL DOES NOT PRODUCE ACID RAIN

GRAY SMOG IS MOSTLY FROM SULFURIC ACID FROM BURNING COAL.

ACID RAIN IS CAUSED BY A CHEMICAL REACTION THAT BEGINS WHEN COMPOUNDS LIKE SULFUR DIOXIDE  ARE RELEASED INTO THE AIR

POWER PLANTS RELEASE THE MAJORITY OF SULFUR DIOXIDE WHEN THEY BURN FOSSIL FUELS, SUCH AS COAL, TO PRODUCE ELECTRICITY.

WHEN COAL IS BURNED THE SULFUR COMBINES WITH OXYGEN AND THE SULFUR OXIDES ARE RELEASED TO THE ATMOSPHERE. ... THIS REACTS WITH WATER MOLECULES IN THE ATMOSPHERE TO FORM SULFURIC ACID, A STRONG MINERAL ACID. THIS MAKES RAIN ACIDIC.

ACID RAIN DAMAGES SOIL BY DISABLING SOME OF THE IMPORTANT ORGANISMS ABILITY TO MAINTAIN HEALTHY SOIL. ACID RAIN CAN CAUSE TOXINS TO SPREAD IN THE SOIL AND ALSO LEACH AWAY IMPORTANT MINERALS NUTRIENTS FROM SOIL.


When coal is burned the sulfur combines with oxygen and the sulfur oxides are released to the atmosphere. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) becomes sulfur trioxide (SO3) when reacting with oxygen in the air. This reacts with water molecules in the atmosphere to form sulfuric acid, a strong mineral acid. This makes rain acidic.

The below shows the chemical reactions that take place in formation of sulfur trioxide, which reacts with water to form sulfuric acid.

2 SO2 + O2 = 2 SO3

SO3 + H2O = H2SO4

H2SO4 =  H+ + HSO4-


India produces more than 36 million tons of fly ash which can be stored in abandoned coal mines.   Concrete and concrete ingredients use fly ash markets. It is NOT a waste .

In India there is TOTAL lack of knowledge about fly ash, its properties and potential applications. India can seek help from Germany.

Coal ash is a beneficial raw material not an inferior waste product.

Fly ash can be used for the refilling and reclamation of depleted opencast lignite mines. They can be  used in underground mining, for surface recultivation, soil beneficiation, cement production and as addition to concrete.

Fly ashes rich in lime are effective for stabilizing soils, due to the amount of free calcium oxide. Those with low lime content can be used in combination with cement or lime for the same purpose.

Fly ash can be used as filler in asphalt.

Fly ash has  two classes: Class F and Class C.   The Class F fly ashes are normally generated due to combustion of anthracite or bituminous coal.

The Class C fly ashes are produced due to burning of lignite or subbutiminous coal.   Most fly ashes are rich in SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3, and contain significant amounts of CaO, MgO, MnO, TiO2, Na2O, K2O, SO3, etc.

Class C fly ashes (high-lime fly ashes) typically contain CaO in excess of 10% up to 40%, and Class F fly ashes (low-lime fly ashes) generally contain less than 10% CaO.    Due to high CaO content, Class C fly ashes participate in both cementitious and pozzolanic reactions whereas Class F fly ashes predominately participate in pozzolanic reaction during the hydration process.

Therefore, Class C fly ashes are classified as cementitious and pozzolanic admixtures/additives and Class F fly ashes as normal pozzolans for use in concrete.

The inclusion of fly ash in construction fills and embankments not only provides economical alternatives to natural soils and rocks due to its availability in urban areas but also it improves their properties such as shear strength, pozzolanic properties, ease of handling, moisture insensitivity, etc

Fly ash has favorable properties of this material, such as light weight, high shear strength, self-hardening properties, etc.

The behavior of the fly ash and the stabilizer mixture is similar to that of a fine-grained soil cement mixture, but pozzolanic reaction of the fly ash results in an increase in strength and impermeability with time. This enhances the durability of the base or sub base course.

Fly ash alone or in combination with lime, is used to stabilize the subgrade in order to reduce plasticity, enhance strength, and improve workability of weak soils.

Fly ash is an excellent cover material for landfills due to its several favorable properties such as compactability, shrinkage, and cementing behavior. It can be used in place of silts or clays for daily, intermediate, and final covers.

Addition of fly ash to soil results in improvements of infiltration characteristics, moisture-holding capabilities, and plant nutrients (trace elements).

Fly ash can be used to neutralize the acidity of soil by increasing its pH value

The reclamation of soil to be used for agriculture, turf-grass, parkland, etc., has been accomplished by adding fly ash to it.

The flowable ash slurry is a low strength material whose strength can vary between 50 to 1200 psi (0.34 - 8.22 MPa). This type of material contains large amounts of fly ash (20 to 90% of the total mix), low amounts of cement, and requires high water-to-cementitious material ratio to produce a high degree of fluidity.

The resulting material is suitable for foundations, bridge abutments, buildings, retaining walls, utility trenches, as backfills, etc.; for abandoned tunnels, sewers, and other underground facilities as fills; and as embankments, grouts, etc

Fly ash can be utilized in water pollution control. This includes neutralization of acidic wastewaters, phosphorus removal from wastewater, physical conditioner for sludge dewatering, sorbent for various organics, sealing of contaminated sediments, etc

Fly ash is used as either a raw material in the production of the cement clinker, interground with the clinker or blended with the finished cement . Fly ash can be substituted for up to 8% of the clinker in manufacture of cement . Gypsum obtained from FGD process may be added to the clinker as a set retarding agent.

Concrete pipe made with fly ash is superior to no-fly ash concrete pipe . Fly ash pipes are more watertight and more resistant to weak acids and sulfates attack relative to plain portland cement concrete pipes.

RCC is very low in water-to-cementitious ratio (zero slump) and contains higher proportions of fine particles to reduce segregation. The lower water-to-cement ratio results in higher strength compared to the conventional mix. Fly ash can be used in large amounts as a fine filler material as well as a pozzolan in the RCC mix

Autoclaved cellular concrete (ACC) or aerated concrete is a lightweight material. It is manufactured using powder silica sand, portland cement, limestone, aluminum powder, and water as raw materials.  In the case of fly ash ACC, fly ash replaces 30 to 100% of the sand. In order to manufacture ACC, the ingredients are mixed into a slurry and poured into greased molds up to two-thirds of their depth.

The reactions that occur between the aluminum powder, calcium hydroxide, and water generate hydrogen gas which aerates the mixture producing millions of non-connected microscopic cells.

Fly ash is used in the production of autoclaved concrete blocks.

Compared to plain portland cement ACC, the fly ash ACC offers several advantages such as lower weight, higher insulation capability (R-value of 10 to 12 for six  inch thick material), a fire rating of at least two hours, more easily worked with carpenter's tools, etc.

Fly ash can be utilized in manufacture of the fired, unfired, and steam cured bricks

A mixture of large quantities of fly ash, low amounts of cement, and sand, can be proportioned to produce good quality bricks. Blocks and paving stones can also be manufactured by adding appropriate amount of coarse aggregate to the mixture .

Fly ash as a binder can be used to manufacture mortar for brick walls, grouts, etc

Fly ash can be used in high-flexural strength ceramics. These include railroad ties, electric line insulators, fence posts, etc. Currently these products are being made with concrete or clay-based materials.

Fly ash can be used as a mineral filler in the asphaltic concrete mixtures.

The use of fly ash as an asphalt additive is economically attractive, and its performance in the asphaltic mixture compares favorably with other fillers.
In the west artificial reefs with blocks composed of fly ash, bottom ash, FGD sludge, lime, and cement.

Coal ash is utilized effectively in stabilization/solidification technologies for both industrial and municipal wastes.

These wastes can be inorganic, organic, or combined/complex. The wastes can be further classified as hazardous or non-hazardous wastes. Addition of fly ash to wastes can improve their handling characteristics due to increased fluidity. Fly ash is used as a binding agent alone or in conjunction with other binders such as lime, portland cement, etc. for stabilization of the wastes.

The reactions of fly ash in the mix, both cementitious and pozzolanic, results in formation of C-S-H matrix in which wastes are entrapped or microencapsulated . The mixture of waste containing fly ash with or without other binders is proportioned to meet environmental criteria especially leaching characteristics, and strength and durability requirements.

Several metals have been extracted from fly ash. In general, two methods are used to recover metals from fly ash: the direct acid leaching (DAL) and pressure digestion- acid leach (PDA) for extraction of metals. The major metals extracted from fly ash are alumina and iron, and the other trace elements include chromium, cobalt, manganese, etc. The resource components of fly ash for which favorable cost-effective process exists are carbon, magnetite, cenospheres, and metals such as alumina, iron oxide, etc

Cenospheres derived from fly ash are an ideal filler material for manufacture of polymer matrix composites . The polymeric matrix can be composed of either thermoplastic or thermosetting plastics.

Due to spherical shape of these particles, they offer several advantages over the fillers having irregular shapes .

These include: ease of wetting and dispersion, uniform stress distribution during molding, reduced shrinkage during cooling, reduced warpage of injection molding components, reduced wear of fabrication equipment, etc. The use of such fillers not only reduces the demand for costly plastic matrix materials but also improves several properties of the matrix.

The polymer matrix materials that have been used in such PMC include epoxy resins, polypropylene, nylon, PVC, polyethylene, etc. The improvement in properties of the composites due to inclusion of the cenosphere are compressive strength, elastic modulus, reduction in thermal expansion, and thermal conductivity.

However, mostly tensile strength and fracture properties deteriorate due to inclusion of large amounts of the filler. Therefore, optimum level of the filler concentration should be determined for a particular application.

Fly ash has been used as a component of the metal matrix of a suitable composite prepared by foundry processes .The second phase particles can improve physical, mechanical, and tribological properties of the matrix material. In general, inclusion of fly ash particles in aluminum alloy matrix has shown a decrease in its density, and increases in its elastic modulus, abrasion resistance, and hardness .

Besides, the replacement of aluminum with fly ash would provide large savings in cost of the materials. Such a low-cost composite can be made suitable for a number of automotives and electromechanical applications such as pistons, cylinder liners, bearings, and current collectors.

Filler applications include asphalt roofing shingles, wallboards, joint compounds, carpet backing, vinyl flooring, industrial coatings, etc.

The fly ash cenospheres have also been found appropriate for numerous applications such as: (1) tape for fireproofing and insulating high voltage cables; (2) closed pore insulating material being used as heat shields in aerospace industries; (3) liquid epoxy molding systems for electronic castings; (4) foundry sand to reduce weight and improve flow of sand used in molding; (5) molded ornament panels used in furniture; (6) fabrics for protecting personnel from  molten metals; (7) replacement for glass beads in synthetic foam used to achieve buoyancy in 23 oceanographic applications; and, (8) medium for growing turf grass.

Mineral wool is primarily a glassy, fibrous insulating material. It is generally manufactured from mixtures of metal processing slags and limestone or silica Mineral wool can be manufactured using either bottom ash or fly ash. These ashes can be processed to produce fine insulating fibers, similar to that of commercial mineral wool.

The mechanical properties of special concrete made with 32  per cent replacement of natural sand with washed bottom ash by weight has an optimum usage in concrete in order to get a favourable strength and good strength development pattern over the increment ages.

We must use  copper slag as a substitute for sand in the production of concrete .  What is the problem.   The result can the tested , right?

Again, a high percentage of the cement within concrete can be replaced by Fly Ash without adversely affecting concrete properties.



Again, fly ash is composed of the particulates (fine particles of burned fuel) that are driven out of coal-fired boilers together with the flue gases. 

Ash that falls to the bottom of the boiler's combustion chamber is called bottom ash.




In modern coal-fired power plants, fly ash is generally captured by electrostatic precipitators or other particle filtration equipment before the flue gases reach the chimneys. 

Together with bottom ash removed from the bottom of the boiler, it is known as coal ash., but all fly ash includes substantial amounts of silicon dioxide (SiO2) (both amorphous and crystalline), aluminium oxide (Al2O3) and calcium oxide (CaO), the main mineral compounds in coal-bearing rock strata.

In the United States, fly ash is generally stored at coal power plants or placed in landfills. About 44% is recycled,  often used as a pozzolan to produce hydraulic cement or hydraulic plaster and a replacement or partial replacement for Portland cement in concrete production.

Fly ash material solidifies while suspended in the exhaust gases and is collected by electrostatic precipitators or filter bags. Fly ash is a heterogeneous material. SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 and occasionally CaO are the main chemical components present in fly ashes.

Ash that is stored or deposited outdoors can eventually leach toxic compounds into underground water aquifers. For this reason, much of the current debate around fly ash disposal revolves around creating specially lined landfills that prevent the chemical compounds from being leached into the ground water and local ecosystems.


When two parts are mixed a bonding gel was formed to tie inert rock pieces of the hatch together. These rocks were used as a strong filler material much in the same manner as is used in standard concrete practices. So we can easily relate the calcium hydroxide molecules from the Portland cement to that of the ancient lime, and the amorphous silica of the fly ash to the volcanic pozzolan.

The components (cement, ash, and rock) must be mixed with  as little water as possible to give stuff, "no-slump" concrete; spread it in layers on the dam; and pounded it into place by large vibrating rollers to make RCC.

The Romans mixed their components (wet lime and volcanic ash) in a mortar box with very little water to give a nearly dry composition; carried it to the job site in baskets placing it over a previously prepared layer of rock pieces; and then proceeded to pound the mortar into the rock layer. special tamping tools were used to build a cistern wall.

Close packing of the molecular structure by tamping reduced the need of excess water, which is a source of voids and weakness. But also close packing produces more bonding gel than might be normally expected.

The Roman port at Cosa built by Kerala Thiyya King Rama 2850 years ago, was built of pozzolana-lime concrete that was poured under salt water, using a long tube to carefully lay it up without allowing sea water to mix with it. The three piers are still visible today, with the underwater portions in  excellent condition

At the basis of the pozzolanic reaction stands a simple acid-base reaction between calcium hydroxide (as Portlandite) and silicic acid. The pozzolanic activity is a measure for the degree of reaction over time or the reaction rate between a pozzolan and Ca2+ or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) in the presence of water. The pozzolanic reaction is the chemical reaction that occurs in portland cement upon the addition of pozzolans.

It is the main reaction involved in the Roman concrete invented in Ancient Rome and used to build, for example, the Pantheon. The pozzolanic reaction converts a silica-rich precursor with no cementing properties, to a calcium silicate, with good cementing properties.




Roman structures such as aqueducts or the Pantheon in Rome used volcanic ash or pozzolana (which possesses similar properties to fly ash) as pozzolan in their concrete As pozzolan greatly improves the strength and durability of concrete, the use of fly ash is a key factor in their preservation.
Fly ash contained the same amorphous siclica compounds as the ash from volcanos. And hydrated Portland cement released the calcium compound recognized in the lime part of the Roman concrete formula.

In chemical terms, the pozzolanic reaction occurs between calcium hydroxide, also known as portlandite (Ca(OH)2), and silicic acid (written as H4SiO4 or as Si(OH)4):

Ca(OH)2 + H4SiO4   = CaH2SiO4•2 H2O

or summarized in abbreviated notation of cement chemists:

CH + SH   → C-S-H


The product CaH2SiO4•2 H2O is a calcium silicate hydrate, also abbreviated as C-S-H in cement chemist notation, the hyphenation denotes the variable stoichiometry. The ratio Ca/Si, or C/S, and the number of water molecules can vary and the above-mentioned stoichiometry may differ.


Pozzolana are naturally occurring pozzolans of volcanic origin.




Cement is a mixture of different compounds. It consists of Calcium oxide(CaO),Silicon dioxide(SiO2),Aluminum oxide(Al2O3),Iron oxide(Fe2O3),Water(H2O),Sulfate(SO3) and do not have any specific formula.

In the manufacture of Portland cement, clinker occurs as lumps or nodules, usually 3 millimetres to 25 millimetres  in diameter, produced by sintering (fusing together without melting to the point of liquefaction) limestone and aluminosilicate materials such as clay during the cement kiln stage.

Clinker, if stored in dry conditions, can be kept for several months without appreciable loss of quality. Because of this, and because it can easily be handled by ordinary mineral handling equipment, clinker is traded internationally in large quantities

Portland cement clinker is ground to a fine powder and used as the binder in many cement products. A little gypsum is sometimes added. It may also be combined with other active ingredients or chemical admixtures to produce other types of cement including: ground granulated blast furnace slag cement.

Cement and clinker are not the same material. Cement is a binding material used in construction whereas clinker is primarily used to produce cement.. Clinker is a nodular material which is used as the binder in cement products.

Ordinary Portland cement can contain up to 95% clinker (the other 5% being gypsum).. Gypsum plays a very important role in controlling the rate of hardening of the cement.  During the cement manufacturing process, upon the cooling of clinker, a small amount of gypsum is introduced during the final grinding process.   Gypsum is added to control the setting of cement.

Despite cement being used in India for 12,000 years , in a better form called Surkhi, JEW Joseph Aspdin patented it in his name.. so what else is new ?  Jews are soooo intelligent, right ?  My left ball— they are thieves..













TO BE CONTINUED --




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