Sunday, November 18, 2012

AUTO IGNITION DANGERS ON CHEMICAL TANKERS- CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL




AUTO IGNITION AND SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION-  CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL 

The autoignition temperature or kindling point of a chemical or substance is the lowest temperature at which it will spontaneously ignite in a normal atmosphere  WITHOUT  an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark.


This means , you will be surprised to know that,  a fine spray of hydraulic oil or luboil or no 1 Fuel oil , will catch fire faster than a fine spray of Methanol or  Naptha or even Hydrogen.

This temperature is required to supply the activation energy needed for combustion. The temperature at which a chemical will ignite decreases as the pressure increases or oxygen concentration increases

Certain Lub oils have a AIT of 250 deg C.


Fuel or Chemical/   ( deg C)
Diethyl ether   160
Acetaldehyde  175
Fuel Oil No.1  210
Kerosene         210
n-Heptane       215
n-Octane         220
n-Hexane         225
Cyclohexane   245
Fuel Oil No.2   256
n-Pentane        260
Fuel Oil No.4   262
Gasoline          280
n-Pentene        298
Ehtyl Alcohol  365
Methyl Alcohol  385
Isopropyl Alcohol   399
Petroleum        400
n-Butane         405
Butane            420
Isopentane       420
Neoheaxane    425
Isooctane         447
Neopentane     450
Propylene        458
Isobutane        462
Xylene            463
Acetone           465
Isobutene        465
Propane           480
Ethylene          490
Styrene            490
Hydrogen        500
Ethane             515
p-Xylene         530
Toluene           530
Naphtha          550
Benzene          560
Coal-tar oil      580
Methane (Natural Gas)      580
Light gas         600
Carbon monoxide       609
Light hydrocarbons     650

The lowest temperature at which a substance will ignite in the presence of an external source of ignition is known as its flash point.

Hydrogen is less flammable than a fine spray of  Kerosene.

For liquids, it is defined as the lowest temperature at which a drop of solvent will ignite spontaneously.

Ethyl ether has an auto ignition temperature of 160°C , and its vapors have been ignited by hot pressurized steam pipes.




SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION


Some materials when damp or soaked with oil, especially oil of vegetable origin, are liable to ignite without the external application of heat as the result of gradual heating within the material produced by oxidation. 

The risk of spontaneous combustion is smaller with petroleum oils than with vegetable oils ( like rapeseed ) , but it can still occur, particularly if the material is kept warm, for example by proximity to a hot pipe. Boiler suits must not be dried in engine room.

Cotton waste, rags, canvas, any similar absorbent material should therefore not be stowed near oil, paint, etc. and should not be left lying on the jetty, on decks, on equipment, on or around pipelines etc. If such materials become damp, they should be dried before being stowed away. If soaked with oil they should be cleaned or destroyed.

Certain chemicals used for boiler treatment are also oxidising agents and though carried in diluted form are capable of spontaneous combustion if permitted to evaporate. Oxidising chemicals must be stowed under supervision of Chief officer/ Chief engineer.


I remember stowing Chinese Calcium Hypochlorite containers on top most outboard end row--away from the accomodation,  incurring a small fortune in container shifting charges in 1993 -- 

-- and all were terribly upset with me.  My crew were surprised when I would tell them to spray some seawater using hoses on a very hot sea voyage afternoon , on these containers.


The German charterers complained to the Dutch Owners and the Owners to the Hong Kong Tech Managers-- in a sort of "we don’t want this Captain , if you cant shape him up".  They were of the opinion that this Indian Captain is stupid . 

But my shit did NOT smell those days, with my tech Mangers – they were all scared of me-- as they considered me as the Hitler type Belgian Jew MD’s ”blue eyed boy”.

This Belgian Jew was the type who would send goons to your house to break your bones-- if you fu#k around with him.  He is dead now-- otherwise I would have given a nice bio data about him.

I am a hard core Chemical man, and I did NOT care for these ignorant bosses ashore .  This is what is good at sea--you don't need to be a hypocrite.

I just told them to FU#K OFF !!   

On Capt Vadakayil's ship nobody can ever order him "HARD A PORT" ,  from ashore— PERIOD!.


It took another decade for proper legislation to take place, and that too after several Containerships were totally gutted with loss of life..  Between 1997 and 1999 there were 6 very large (multi-million pound loss) incidents on container ships involving calcium hypochlorite in various forms, including the “Contship France”, “Maersk Mombasa”, “Sea Express”, “DG Harmony”, “Aconcagua” and the “CMA Djakarta"

Calcium Hypochlorite is used extensively world wide for purifying water supplies and to a great extent in swimming pools. The chemical readily decomposes to release chlorine and oxygen, the components which make it useful as a disinfectant product. 

A side effect of this process is the reaction with combustible materials leading to spontaneous ignition and severe fires, promoted by the oxygen released from the chemical which renders ineffective the gas smothering systems typically used for fire fighting in ships holds. 

This characteristic as an oxidising agent had led to calcium hypochlorite being classified within Class 5.1 of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code. drums of calcium hypochlorite had a propensity to undergo a self-accelerating decomposition reaction that concluded with an explosion releasing large clouds of thick white “smoke”. 

This occurs when the heat produced by the decomposition reaction is unable to escape from inside the chemical package (because it is big, well insulated or in a hot environment). The temperature at which decomposition was initiated was found to be about 70 degC for drums of good quality material. An increase in the water content of the chemical could decrease the temperature at which the self accelerating decomposition could start, as could the presence of several different types of contaminants.  


Calcium hypochlorite was subsequently classified under 3 headings, UN1748, the high strength, dry material (with more than 39% available chlorine); UN2880, hydrated material with between 5.5% and 10% moisture, and UN2208, low strength material (typically known as bleaching powder) with between 10% and 39% free chlorine. 

Material with less than 10% available chlorine was not classified within the IMDG Code. UN1748 material was only to be carried on deck and “away from” sources of heat. UN2880 and UN2208 material could be carried under deck, UN2880 material also being stowed “away from” sources of heat “where temperatures in excess of 55oC for a period of 24 hours or more will be encountered”. 

The International Group of P&I Clubs initiated a serious study. The study found that self-accelerating decomposition in a 40ft container.  Self combustion could start at temperatures as low as 36 deg C. 


The IMDG Code currently has 3 entries for calcium hypochlorite:

UN 1748  Calcium Hypochlorite, Dry or Calcium Hypochlorite Mixture, Dry with more than 39% available chlorine (8.8% available oxygen)
UN 2208  Calcium Hypochlorite Mixture, Dry with more than 10% but not more than 39% available chlorine
UN 2880 Calcium Hypochlorite Hydrated or Calcium Hypochlorite Hydrated Mixture with not less than 5.5% but not more than 16% water.

The Code notes that these materials are liable to exothermic decomposition at elevated temperatures and shall be shaded from direct sunlight and all sources of heat and placed in adequately ventilated areas. It also warns that decomposition can be initiated by impurities. 


The changes came into effect in January 2001.-- better late than never




CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL
( 29 YEARS IN COMMAND) 
..

8 comments:

  1. Dear captain,
    in your opinion will there be a three days of darkness during the galactic alignment in December?

    regards

    rajan

    ReplyDelete
  2. hi rajan,

    there will be NO visual effects.

    can we see gravity? --same way!

    capt ajit vadakayil
    ..

    ReplyDelete
  3. Thank you for your comment on my blog 'gaelikaa's diary'. In reply:

    @Capt Ajit Vadakayi - Okay, I said I was finished commenting - but in reply to your comment...

    This has been said to me many times, but maybe not 'Hindu India' - which is secular after all, but as in 'you are in Hindustan now' Not only by doctors either. That happens all the time.

    Captain Sahib, like yours, my country has been invaded by foreigners many times. The race which did the invading is immaterial, black, white or otherwise.. I've gotten over it and moved on. So should you.

    You seem to see this as the white westerner looking down on the unchurched pagan. I've never seen it that way. I would say that the Irish are one of the least prejudiced races in the world. Perhaps I'm wrong?

    I said it before and I'll say it again. Wait for the result of the investigation. Then say whatever you want.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. hi maria,

      indeed we have moved on.

      after 800 years of abject slavery, where from the richest nation, we were reduced to the poorest and ridiculed by the thieves ( of material wealth and knowledge ) themselves as " a land of lepers ,snake charmers"--

      we have now been free for 65 years-- and now we are sliding back to slavery , thanks to a white italian woman .

      i do hope you have some idea at least 0.0001% of what indians went though.

      punch into google search UNQUANTIFIED HOLOCAUST AND GENOCIDE- VADAKAYIL.

      who cares about what we went through?

      capt ajit vadakayil
      ..

      Delete
  4. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  5. hi ,

    on chemical tankers when we carry vegetable oils, we do manual squeegeing , using ship's crew.

    for ship's crew only " as per the new IBC code wef 1st jan 2007, this practise is not irrelevant--

    --as ROB is specified , and then charterers have to pay for shore pre-wash if there is too much clingage due to freezing weather.

    any injuries or death the ship's crew --and you can sue everybody involved .

    it is now ILLEGAL to squeegee even for PURE veg oils.

    from what i can see ship's crew is forced to do manual squeegeing even for compounds like BIOFUELS , palm oil fatty acid compounds and animal fats and fish oil ( which contain viruses and vermin ).

    any sailor who is forced to do this-- must quote this blog post -- made by capt ajit vadakayil--

    and complain to the port state control and IMO. except for paris MOU -- rest of the PSC MOU are ignorant, including the almighty US COAST GUARD mou for USA.

    you can construe that CAPT VADAKAYIL IS AN EXPERT ON THIS SUBJECT ON THIS PLANET.

    when we carry spontaneous combustion veg oils like rape seed oil i do NOT allow the crew to dry their boiler suits in the engine room , or even electric spin driers.

    once my officers and crew challenged me in a safety meet, regarding this.

    so the next day i arranged a boilersuit to be dipped in rapeseed oil, got it washed for 1 hour in the laundry machine.

    then i got it in a sunny area on the monkey island ( hot day ) placed it in a metal drum painted black, half covered with a black painted lid -- with constant human watch.

    after sometime someone came running to the wheelhouse , that smoke has started coming --and soon the boiler suit was fully burnt .

    NOW REGARDING HUMAN BEING BURSTING INTO FLAMES.

    this can happen only of the subject is fully drunk with potent alcohol , and he had been on a low carb diet which produces ACETONE, and then he fell asleep while smoking.

    in one of my posts an INDIAN ARMY MAJOR, was burnt completely in his army tent -- and the indian army out this as suicide. his tent mate, another fellow officer escaped.

    this can happen only if the army major was fast asleep, and his enemy poured liquor over him and set him on fire-- probably to jumpover him and get a promotion .

    you see how many of our judges are perceptive enough?

    how many of them can pass a simple IQ test?

    when my elder son got a high flying job in the R&D divn of a major software company in USA, after 9 hours of coding, math , tech tests --

    ---the final test is a 2 minute IQ test in which you have to answer 10 questions.

    there is no technology or education involved here as even a illiterate urchin on the street can answer these.

    you fail and you are OUT -- as many geniuses from MIT and ivy league universities found out the hard way.

    PERCEPTION BHI KUCH CHEEZ HOTA HAI!

    this is why indians dont want rahul gandhi as our prime minister.

    punch into google search WHY RAHUL GANDHI IS UNFIT TO BE PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA- VADAKAYIL.

    capt ajit vadakayil
    ..

    ReplyDelete
  6. CH
    October 13, 2014 at 6:35 AM
    Respected Captain,

    What is special about Tamil Nadu?

    How come it is able to continuously produce word geniuses like Ramanujam, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, C.V. Raman, A.R. Rahman, Abdul Kalam, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan Anand, Illayaraja, etc?

    Even till recently the Chief Justice of India, the Finance Minister, the RBI governor are all Tamils?

    Is there any scientific reason behind this? Because no other region has produced such super genius people in such numbers.

    Regards

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    #####################
    Capt. Ajit Vadakayil
    October 13, 2014 at 7:06 AM
    hi ch,

    i am sure if i were a lawyer, i will NEVER EVER become CJI.

    i am sure if i were an economist, i will NEVER EVER become finance minister.

    you want me to continue ?

    when i was on my training ship in mumbai with 250 other cadets ( two years ) -- the biggest TELUs ( oily and slimy ) and SNEAKS ( snitches ) became SCC ( senior cadet captains ) , CC ( cadet captains ) , CL ( cadet leaders ) etc.

    i used to be in the CAPTAINS MONTHLY BREAKFAST PARTY ( cadet with maximum negative marks for OFFICER LIKE QUALITIES ) -- to be chewed up for breakfast every month .

    i got an EXTRA FIRST in every subject --except OFFICER LIKE QUALITIES.

    now what are OFFICER LIKE QUALITIES-

    being a son of a bit#h, being a sneak, being a hypocrite, being a as$ kisser , being a leader who will sell out his team, being a back biter, being an informer , being the best in playing to the gallery.

    so, so--

    at the passing out parade --most of the cadets who got all PRIXES were leaders -- they all got BOOOOOEEEEED !

    I remember i got only one prize--for being the best REPORTER IN ENGLISH -- the claps I got from the entire hall still resound in my ears -- along with another ROC ( royal officer cadet -who did NOT care to become a sold out leader ).

    and mind you -- i was in every single team which made my TOP ( starboard fore top ) the champion TOP.

    i was a champion sailor, rower, signaller, marks in subjects, soccer team in both years --

    but i lacked OLQ ( officer like qualities ) of being a FU#KIN' SLIME BALL.

    so in my passing our certificate , after two years of training -- i had an EXTRA FIRST in all subjects -- except OLQ where i was third grade

    so i guess they held a special meeting and GRACED ME TO FIRST CLASS --a young 18 year old boy -- .TEE HEEE !

    AT SEA, THE SAILORS DO NOT CARE FOR YOUR FOUR STRIPES- THEY ONLY CARE FOR WHO YOU ARE--

    AT SEA PEOPLE WHO KNOW ME , OR HAVE HEARD OF ME -- OR SAILED WITH ME, WILL VOUCH--

    CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL WAS A SLAVE MORE POWERFUL THAN THE MIGHTY FU#KIN' CAESAR -- BY LIGHT YEARS .

    this has now passed on to LORE -- never ti happen again in the annals of sea .

    am i boasting ?

    -- so be it !

    humility is NOT about having a low opinion of yourselves to please the JEALOUS party.

    see, this would have been part of my post-- GAMES CAPTAIN PLAYED--

    you made me reveal it prematurely --with your TAMIL PRIDE ! TAKE IT EASY !

    check out my training ship-

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MwpFBPMtnj4

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k0BxC3kFET8

    capt ajit vadakayil
    ..

    ReplyDelete
  7. Capt. Ajit Vadakayil
    October 15, 2014 at 7:00 PM
    STOP PRESS:

    I AM WRITING THIS AS I PROMISED ONE OF MY READERS 45 MINUTES AGO-- HE RAN UP TO ME DURING MY MORNING WALK--

    HE WANTED TO KNOW OUT OF MY 300 PLUS SCOOPS IN MY NEARLY 845 ODD POSTS--WHICH IS NO 1 AND WHICH IS NUMBER 300.

    ############

    well let me make it clear , these 300 scoops are CONSTRUCTIVE SCOOPS .

    all these 300 scoops are in the plane of INVENTION and NOT innovation.

    none of these 300 scoops are DESTRUCTIVE -- so my posts proving that edison, newton, darwin, einstein etc are IDIOTS does not find a place in these scoops.

    so waht could be the no 1 scoop?

    it is about providing a HINT on how to make a astronaut hibernate while travelling to mars -to cut down on food and water .

    it is about keeping alive a seriously wounded soldier till he can find proper medical care.

    punch into Google search-
    HIBERNATION WITH HYDROGEN SULPHIDE GAS VADAKAYIL

    and

    FUMAROLES FOR FREE ENERGY AND HYDROGEN SULPHIDE SUICIDES IN JAPAN VADAKAYIL


    one of my russian chief engineers who lived near siberia , a place infested with HUGE bears had once woken up a bear while on hibernation in a cave ( as a child ) and he told be how furious the animal was. Before they go into months of hibernation they would kill a large animal ( bury the dead animal it in the ground ) and would NOT eat it unless it became putrid , reeking of rotten eggs..

    WELL WHAT WOULD BE NO 300 RANK.

    it is about PIN WORMS on as$hole.

    Check out the comment dated 18th Dec 2013 , about surcharging the anus with oxygen 5 times a day to prevent pinworms disrupting your REM sleep. This is a 6000 year old Ayurvedic cure for pinworm which happens when you eat non-veg heavy meats and do NOT wash your as$hole after a crap.
    Punch into Google search-
    VEDIC PRACTISES IN MECCA VADAKAYIL

    If I were a white JEW, I would have been an international celebrity. but then who cares?

    I have reached a stage where ONLY I can evaluate myself--

    one of my DUTCH bosses tried to patronise me nearly 2 decades ago -- he said he has given me a good confidential service report-

    so i told him something in Hindi -- with its translation.

    VADAKAYIL KHUD QUESTION PAPER SET KARTA HAI !

    VADAKAYIL KUD EXAM LIKTHA HAI !!

    VADAKAYIL KHUD NUMBER DETA HAI !!!

    capt ajit vadakayil sets his own exam question paper, he writes the exam , and then he gives himself the marks .

    THIS IS THE MEANING OF LIBERATION.

    believe me -- that man hugged me ( NO patronising here ) and said -- he expected such an frank retort from me .

    he said- every other captain would have said thank you .

    he was told to enter into this dialogue by the single man owner of that shipping company . this was about my " CUT THE CRAP " EMAILS -- where i would point out that the EMPEROR IS NAKED .

    99% of the people will NOT even understand the wisdom and gravity of the statement above.

    capt ajit vadakayil
    ..

    ReplyDelete