Monday, December 6, 2010

STYRENE MONOMER , CHEMICAL TANKERS-- CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL

Styrene monomer polymerises at 65C . Inhibited product can start polymerising >51C with generation of great heat which can ignite the cargo and rupture the tank.



Colourless clear oily liquid

CHRIS/ STY

Sweet odour when pure, sharp disagreeable when impure

SG/ 0.904

Suspected carcinogen

Olefins

Marpol category/ Y

BP/145.2 ºC

MP/ - 30.6ºC

FP/ 32C

VP/ 6 mm Hg at 20C

VD/ 3.6

AH/ 30C

TLV/ 50 ppm

Combustible liquid

Flammable vapor

Flammable limits/ 1.1 to 6.1%

AIT/ 490ºC

USCG compatibility / 30

Nitrogen pad not done as inhibitor is oxygen dependant.

Uses/ polystyrene, protective coatings, copolymer resins etc.

Odour threshold/ 0.15 ppm

Surface tension / high—31.14 dynes/ cm at 19C

Viscosity at 20C/ 1 mPas

Solubility/ Negligible in water, soluble in alcohol and ether

Does not react with water.

Floats on water


Readily undergoes polymerisation when heated or exposed to light or an oxidising / peroxide catalyst. The polymerisation releases heat and may become explosive. Must be inhibited


Prior loading tank / lines must be free of oxidising agents. Cleanliness to water white . If at all some shippers do wall wash it will be for suspended particles like zinc dust , rust and lint. Chlorides 10 ppm and colour 10 Apha.


Ensure the manifold sample is clear and bright prior loading.


FOSFA/ Banned as any one of the last two cargoes in organically coated tanks (Epoxy ), and as the last cargo in stainless steel and inorganically coated tanks (Zinc )


Ignited by heat and open flame. Fire or contamination may cause violent rupture of tank


Avoid breathing vapours. Provide body and respiratory protection. Keep tanks cool with water spray.


Suspected carcinogen.  Vapour causes moderate irritation to the skin, liquid causes smarting of the skin and first degree burns on long exposure, inhalation or ingestion causes bodily harm. Styrene degreases the skin.


Irritates eyes and respiratory tract. Vapors cause weakness, dizziness, nausea and  sleepiness. Attacks the nervous system.STEL/ 10 000 ppm may be fatal in 30 to 60 minutes. Product can be absorbed through the skin, mucous,  membranes and eyes. Wear protective clothing


Cargo not to be exposed to excessive heat. Alarm system to monitor cargo temperature should be provided


Heating coils in tanks should be blanked.


Stowage adjacent to heated cargoes is not normally allowed. DOW allows maximum  adjacent cargo temperature 30°C.


Styrene monomer creates humidity on the bulkheads of adjacent tanks, therefore in case of simultaneous loading of Styrene Monomer and Methanol in adjacent tanks, keep the level of Methanol always 2 – 3 meters higher than level of Styrene Monomer to prevent water contamination of Methanol.  Hot moist vapour condenses on cold surface.


Styrene is inhibited by 10- 15 ppm PTCB or tertiary butyl acetechol. Styrene can be stabilised by toluene too.

Vessel should be provided with “Inhibition Certificate” from the manufacturer of cargo.


 The Certificate should specify:

The name and amount of additive present

        Whether the additive is oxygen-dependent

        Date additive was put in product and duration of effectiveness

        Any temperature limitations qualifying the additive’s effective lifetime

        The actions to be taken should the length of voyage exceed the effective lifetime of the additive.


Styrene Monomer can form polymer residues and in case of epoxy coating  the trace quantity of styrene  will soak into  the paint film and only very slowly desorb.Odour and quality critical cargoes must not be carried for at least two voyages after the carriage of Styrene in epoxy tanks.


Has low electrical conductivity. Can generate electrical charges during high turbulence.


To prevent polymerisation, present tank to surveyor as soon as practical .Never allow styrene to dry on the bulkheads.


Start washing with cold sea water one  machine circle and leave it until cleaning is started. Ensure lines are flushed .

Empty the tank and start butterworthing with COLD sea water for 1 hour

Then hot wash with 70C water for 1 hour.

Rinse with fresh water.

Steam for 2 hrs to eliminate odour

Drain lines, mop up, dry

Use smell killer only is the tank is absolutely clean.


If the next cargo is wall wash PTT will be a problem. Use inhibiter killer and recirculate. ( If your SS tank is NOT smooth, recirc with a emulsifier. )


-------CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL ( 28 YEARS IN COMMAND )






  1. Sir

    PLS HELP .

    https://www.google.com/amp/s/m.timesofindia.com/city/visakhapatnam/vizag-over-1000-fall-sick-after-gas-leak-from-chemical-plant/amp_articleshow/75590112.cms


    Gas leak at vizag

    Pls tell what to do as my relatives near the plant.
    Styrene is carcinogenic

    Pls help
    Thankyou sir
    1. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/visakhapatnam/vizag-over-1000-fall-sick-after-gas-leak-from-chemical-plant/articleshow/75590112.cms

      STYRENE IS A CHEMICAL I CARRIED ALL MY LIFE -- I SET THE STANDARDS AT SEA..

      http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2010/12/styrene-monomer-chemical-tankers-capt.html

      KNOW THE CHEMICAL..

      ARREST THE LEAK-- THEN CONTAIN..

      http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2010/12/toxic-cargo-spill-chemical-tankers-capt.html

      http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2010/12/polymerisation-and-inhibition-on.html

      IF THE INDUSTRY COMPLEX DOES NOT HAVE DETECTOR TUBES-- JAIL THE TOP BOSSES.

      http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2011/01/toxic-gas-detector-tubes-capt-ajit.html

      IN INDIA EVERYTHING IS RAAM BHAROSE..

      MODI IS EITHER ON A VOTE / EGO MASSAGE HUNT OR A FOREIGN JAUNT .. WHERE DOES HE HAVE THE TIME TO GOVERN THIS NATION?..

      http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2012/09/draeger-tube-list-on-chemical-tankers.html

      capt ajit vadakayil
      ..

    2. PUT ABOVE COMMENT IN WEBSITES OF--
      JAGAN MOHAN REDDY
      GOVERNOR OF ANDHRA
      CHIEF JUSTICE OF ANDHRA HIGH COURT
      CEO LG POLYMERS
      NDMA
      SDRF
      DGP ANDHRA
      IG ANDHRA
      COLLECTOR VIZAG
      ALL MPs / MLa OF ANDHRA
      MEDIA OF ANDHRA
      IMA
      IMA CHIEF
      PMO
      PM MODI
      AMIT SHAH
      HOME MINISTRY CENTRE/ STATES
      CJI BOBDE
      ATTORNEY GENERAL
      LAW MINISTER PRASAD / MINISTRY CENTRE AND STATES
      ALL CHIEF JUSTICES HIGH COURTS
      I&B MINISTER / MINISTRY
      NSA
      AJIT DOVAL
      RAW
      IB
      CBI
      NIA
      ED
      ALL CMs OF INDIA
      ALL MLAs OF INDIA
      ALL MPs OF INDIA
      ALL COLLECTORS OF MAJOR CITIES
      ALL STATE GOVERNORS
      PRESIDENT OF INDIA
      VP OF INDIA
      SPEAKER LOK SABHA
      SPEAKER RAJYA SABHA
      ALL INDIAN THINK TANKS
      NITI AYOG
      AMITABH KANT

    3. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/visakhapatnam/vizag-lg-polymers-gas-leak-live-updates/liveblog/75591477.cms

      WHAT FUCKIN' WET MASK?.. WHOEVER GAVE THIS ORDER KICK HIM ON HIS HEAD..

      STYRENE IS INSOLUBLE IN WATER..

      DUE TO LOCKOUT THE INHIBITION MUST HAVE EXPIRED... HENCE DO POLICE WORK AND CHECK THE INHIBITOR CERTIFICATE AND RECORDS.. IF UNAVAILABLE JAIL THE CEO OF LG..

      http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2010/12/polymerisation-and-inhibition-on.html

      http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2010/12/styrene-monomer-chemical-tankers-capt.html

      capt ajit vadakayil
      ..

      SEND THIS CRITICAL MESSAGE TO ALL PEOPLE ABOVE..

  • RUSH RUSH RUSH— SEND THIS COMMENT TO ALL PARTIES ABOVE, NOW !
    #################################

    IN VIZAG WE HAVE SUMMER HIGH TEMPERATURES AND A LOCKOUT BECAUSE OF WHICH THE STYRENE MONOMER INHIBITOR WEAKENS

    IF STYRENE MONOMER CARGO GETS POLYMERIZED INSIDE THE SHIPs TANKS- YOU HAVE TO CUT THE SHIP INTO PIECES AND THROW IT AWAY..

    THE WHOLE TANK BECOMES PLASTIC.

    IN THE BELOW LINK, THERE IS A PHOTO OF A SHIP WHICH BECAME A FIREBALL AFTER STYRENE MONONER GOT POLYMERIZED..

    https://maritimecyprus.com/2020/01/08/uk-maib-investigation-report-explosion-and-fire-on-chemical-tanker-stolt-groenland/

    THE STYRENE MONOMER GAS VENT OCCURS WHEN THERE IS AN INCREASE IN PRESSURE INSIDE THE TANK DUE TO POLYMERIZATION.

    NORMALLY, A CHEMICAL INHIBITOR SUCH AS 15 PARTS PER MILLION OF 4-TERTIARY-BUTYL-CATECHOL (TBC) IS ADDED TO THE TANK DURING TRANSPORT TO PREVENT POLYMERIZATION. THIS INHIBITOR SCAVENGES RUST AND OTHER IMPURITIES WITHIN THE TANK THAT CAN ACT TO INITIATE POLYMERIZATION.

    OXYGEN (ABOUT 10 PPM) IS ALSO REQUIRED TO BE DISSOLVED IN THE STYRENE MONOMER FOR THE TBC TO DO ITS JOB. THE TBC CONCENTRATION DECREASES WITH TIME AS IT SCAVENGES IMPURITIES; 15 PPM CONCENTRATION WOULD PROBABLY BE MOSTLY USED UP IN POSSIBLY 3 MONTHS (EVEN LESS TIME IF AMBIENT TEMPERATURES ARE WARMER).


    WITHOUT THE INHIBITOR ( DEPLETION DUE TO EXPIRY OF INHIBITOR ) , THE STYRENE MONOMER CAN POLYMERIZE WITH OXYGEN TO FORM A STYRENE-OXYGEN COPOLYMER OR BENZALDEHYDE AND/OR FORMALDEHYDE AND POLYMERIZE WITH THE RELEASE OF HEAT.

    THE HEAT FURTHER ACCELERATES THE POLYMERIZATION RELEASING MORE HEAT.

    THE INHIBITOR OR STABILIZER CAN BE USED UP OVER TIME. .. MORE INHIBITOR MUST BE USED..

    THE INHIBITING AGENT USED FOR STYRENE MONOMER, UN2055, IS 10 TO 50 PPM OF TERTIARY BUTYLCATECHOL (4-TERTIARY-BUTYL-CATECHOL), WITH THE GREATER CONCENTRATION USED FOR A HIGHER STORAGE TEMPERATURE.

    SAFETY VALVES CAN BECOME CLOGGED AND FAIL BECAUSE OF THE POLYMERIZATION. THERE CAN ALSO BE CHEMICAL IN DEAD SPACE IN AN INDUSTRIAL PROCESS LINE, WHICH IS NOT PURGED AND IS FORGOTTEN, AND POLYMERIZES BLOCKING FLOW OR RUPTURING THE PIPING OR VESSEL. THESE ISSUES MUST BE INCLUDED AS A PART OF A SAFETY-TRAINING PROGRAM.

    ##########
    AT SEA HUNDREDS OF SAILORS HAVE DIED ( ALL HUSHED UP) BECAUSE THE CAPTAIN DID NOT HAVE THE "GAAND MEIN TATTI" TO DO HIS JOB...

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2010/12/jettison-of-cargo-chemical-tankers-capt.html

    AS SOON AS A CHEMICAL ACCIDENT TAKES PLACE TRUTH IS THE FIRST CAUSALITY..

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2010/12/propylene-oxide-on-chemical-tankers.html

    http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2011/09/acrylic-acid-on-chemical-tankers-capt.html

    capt ajit vadakayil
    ..


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