Wednesday, May 5, 2010



Cargoes which react with water to form acid are called hydrolysable cargoes. 

People get squeamish about this because zinc silicate cannot take pH less than 6 and most organic epoxies cannot take pH less than 3.5 on the acid scale.

They are carried in stainless steel tanks. Examples:-- Esters ( Acetates and Acrylates ) Pthalates and certain halogenated compounds like Methylene chloride.

Hydrolysable cargoes must be carried in perfectly dry tanks with moisture content less than 100 ppm ( 200 ppm for zinc ). It is important to vent to eject aBsorbed/ aDsorbed cargo in coating. This must be done prior doing tankcleaning with water.

However certain viscous non-volatile products like DOP and Texanol cannot be evaporated by venting and must be cleaned off by warm water immediately after discharge.

Hydrolysis :-- salt + water = acid + base

Since epoxy coating absorbs cargo like a sponge , it means that two successive cargoes may require to be compatible with each other. For example after EDC if you load a cargo containing water, Hydrochloric acid will be formed which will destroy the epoxy coating.

Vinyl acetate monomer plus water gives Acetic acid. Chloroform plus water gives Formic acid.

Esters can saponify in contact with water at higher temperatures resulting in increased short chain type FFA which can be aggressive to tank coatings.

Hydrolysis is a chemical process in which a molecule is cleaved into two parts by the addition of a molecule of water. This is distinct from a hydration reaction, in which water molecules are added to a substance, but no cleavage occurs.

Hydrolysis is an oxidation reaction between Chlorinated HC and residual water. Oxidation occurs due to exposure to radiation or the presence of certain catalysts and can be prevented by inhibitors. Hydrolysis is accelerated at higher temperatures.

Chlorinated carboxylic acids are very corrosive and not carried in SS tanks.

After carriage of Hydrolyzable cargoes such as Acetates, the tanks should be ventilated to remove all traces of cargo before any water is introduced.

The breakdown of vegetable and animal oil fats to fatty acids is promoted by the presence of water particularly at higher temperatures. Hydrolysis is also promoted by the action of certain micro-organisms. Tanks in which the oil is being stored or shipped should always be clean and dry before use.

Chlorinated/ Brominated solvents hydrolyse in presence of water to form Organic and Inorganic acids which spoil the paint coating. Shippers must give the moisture content in PPM. Water content should not excced 100 ppm or 0.01% especially for epoxy. Nitrogen pad is a must to exclude moisture.

Chlorinated solvents are slowly hydrolyzed to acids, SO ENSURE water tank cleaning is NOT stopped in an early stage.



FFA of certain heating veg and animal oil cargoes will increase if the moisture content is too high.

Veg and animal oils have different SG at different levels after long storage. FFA of the layer closest to the coils increases faster and cause damage to the bottom— so recirc Vegetable oil and Animal oil in coated cargo tanks.

Advantages are less manual labour for squeezing after discharge and not allowing a difference in the FFA content between the lower and upper levels in the tanks.

Fat is combined with glycerine and fatty acid. When the fat is hot , it get decomposed to FFA and glycerine ( hydrolysis ). Increase of FFA means the cargo will become worse in quality. The quality of vegetable oils and animal fats is largely determined by their AV acid value. A fresh oil or fat has low AV. Parcels having different FFA shall not be commingled . Rapid heating results in increase in FFA content or discolouration of the cargo.

Vegetable oil and Animal oils have a FREE FATTY ACID content (FFA). The hydrolysis of edible fats and oils is promoted by the presence of water, particularly at higher temperatures. If hot prewashed FFA will increase rapidly to a level, which will coagulate the albumen in the Vegetable/Animal oil. This damages the surface of the zinc silicate lining.

Changes in quality of the veg fats and oils occur during shipment due to hydrolysis and oxidation , and this loss in quality is taken into account when edible fats and oils are processed further into food during refining.

Previous cargoes that are able to accelerate hydrolysis of edible fats and oils are:
acids and bases e.g. acetic acid, acetic anhydride, citric acid, fatty acids, phosphoric acid, sulphuric acid, and sodium hydroxide solution.

The general loss of quality due to oxidation (increase in peroxide values) or hydrolysis (increase in free fatty acid [FFA] content) during a voyage can be eliminated by , nitrogen-blanketing the tank, especially if the cargo is refined oil to be used directly in the food-chain without re-refining.

Normal values for refined oils in the Codex Standards indicative for oxidative or hydrolytic rancidity status are:
Peroxide value: up to 10 meq active oxygen/ Kg oil
Acid value/saponification value: up to 0.6 mg KOH/g oil.

Oxidation affects the colour and flavour (taste, odour) of the oil, producing oxidative rancidity.

Hydrolysis affects the flavour (taste, odour) and acidity of the oil, producing hydrolytical rancidity.

Analytical methods for hydrolysis are based on determination of the hydrolysis products. Hydrolysis tests are based on the determination of the FFA content, humidity, acid value (or saponification value) or hydroxyl value. The acid value is the most widely used test method. Refined oils for domestic consumption are most susceptible to hydrolysis .

The Chief officer on a chemical tanker must smell the tanks before they are loaded or unloaded and look into them during loading and unloading. Smell is a very sensitive sense. The purpose of deodorization is to reduce the level of free fatty acids and to remove odours, off-flavours and other volatile components, such as pesticides and light polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Deodorization of edible fats and oils is done by distillation.

Neutralization ( alkali refining) is performed on edible fats and oils to reduce the content of free fatty acids and oxidation products of free fatty acid.

FFA of veg/ animal oils attack zinc silicate paint which can cause zinc to shed contaminating cargo-- Zinc Silicate paint cannot take pH < 6 . Recirc of veg/ animal oil in Zinc coated tank is a must to equalize the FFA content between the upper and lower layers.



  1. Dear Captain,

    Looking forward to your valuable guidance (whenver you have a couple of mins more :O) )

    I'm planning to go to music classes (& possible drawing classes if time permits)..
    As my son(2.5 yrs) is growing (who is always eager to learn) and another young one is due by Dec.... I feel I should have something in me to teach.

    Neither know head nor tail about music, although I always love to hear classic instrumentals (anything from tamboori to veena)

    Looking forward to your priceless guidance, if I should focus on any particular music instrument to learn (& unlearn / destress).
    (PS: Cannot affort costly instruments Captain given my current situation).

    (sorry to seek extending your guidance, given your time constraints...If you have another couple of mins, would be helpful to get your valuable inputs)
    My entire 15 years of career has been in IT.. don't know if I've already become Mandhbuddhi (or 'shallow minded' if I use your terminology).

    Going through a lot of stress, as I've plans to end my career in IT (shore job with golden handcuffs - Ref : Pep talk to your cadets) and looking to switch for an alternative source of income (own business);
    I'm looking forward to a decent income to keep my family and self happy.... No high goals, career etc... planning to get in to just plain buy and sell kind of business.
    (My deep inner voice is always sided on agriculture.. however some day I would have my own land and will start agriculture / farming)

    Had already tried working on ecommerce startup... but didn't click..(rather it was due to my introvert nature)
    Read the 'Core Values - What must be', Maturity Lessons which were a great piece of wisdom, put across precisely.

    Would be greatful, if you could let me know what are the key points/ principles, qualities that I need to always stick to and nurture in me Captain? considering the shift I intend to do in the next couple of months.

    Going forward, I want to be a 'Free willed' person without 'wrinkles like you, doing my duties , managing my family responsibilities duly.
    At 35, I've more wrinkled lines, when I smile (than a normal aged person at age 60) although I'm slim and most times mistaken for a 25 yr old.

    (I know you would say you are a bad role model, nonetheless there can never ever be another man like you with your real time experience across the globe with the your kind of perception)

    Always remember your interview with Sindon and it brightens me up :0)

    Grace & Peace,




  2. Dear Captain,

    Thank you for very much for your valuable guidance... :0)
    Will do as suggested reg music and a huge 'Yes' to give my best in all what I intend to do.
    (Only efforts can be ours, results are HIS)..Thanks again Captain.

    Wishing you and your family, a very happy and wonderful 'Gowri - Ganesha festivities' in advance.

    Captain, I've another question (not related to above topic)

    You had told that, most of the Gods/ dieties whom we do pujas are cosmic allegories personified for easy understanding ( powers of nature).

    The reason I ask is "We are celebrating Ganesha festival".. You had mentioned that Ganesha also is a cosmic allegory who is the guardian of Mooladhara chakra.
    Only if he unties the moolagranthi, the energy at the Mooladhara chakra can raise to Sahasraara.

    My doubt is "Would these powers apart from doing their duties (balancing/ maintaining the creation), can they hear and respond directly to us humans ? (creations with lower frequencies)."
    I do agree, that in everybody's experience, maybe atleast once, everyone would experience our prayers(requests) get answered.

    (The only thing that I'm aware is, when we do as part of Puja is we are thankful / show gratitude for all what the Lord / creator has showered).

    How does that really work and why would it vary from one individual to another.
    (Please excuse/ ignore if my question sounds stupid)

    Grace & Peace,

  3. Dear Captain,

    Nice to see you couple... Wonderful pic :0) in the recent blog (Justice cannot be blind).

    May God's blessing be upon you and your family always.

    Many of your readers haven't met you in person.. however that something (do not the exact word) is keeping us like the bees in the hive to your blog. Could notice from all the birthday wishes from your avid blog readers.

    Sincerely thank you from the bottom of my heart, for all the knowledge you share ( & to know something which is going to happen in future - your revelations) and SOS replies. :O).

    Grace & Peace,

  4. Dear Captain,

    Need your guidance.

    Wifey is in 8th month and she's still recovering from the after-affects of hospitalization (due to Dengue)
    Do not want the mother's experience affect the kid's mental and character imprints, when in womb.

    For first baby, she used to read Bhagavatha by herself very diligently.
    However after the incident(Dengue related), she's not very keen on reading Bhagavatha, even after I keep asking her to do repeatedly.

    I remember, on the day of my first kid's delivery, had read the chapter to wifey where Brahma praises the creator Narayana.
    This time, I'm a bit worried as many things went haywire and not much she could focus.

    Please could you recommend any ragas / mantras, which is very good for both the kid and mother, as we have just another 6-8 weeks (due date).

    Grace & Peace,




  5. Dear Captain,

    Sure, will do as suggested so she is happy from within.
    I'm hoping for the same.

    Thank you very much :0).

    Grace & Peace,

  6. Dear Captain,

    Wishing you and your family, a safe, happy & wonderful Deepavali festivities.

    May the festival of lights, enrich your ever-high spirited souls further with the creator's blessings.

    Grace & Peace,

  7. Dear Captain,
    May be it sounds stupid... however couldn't resist and therefore posting this questiosn.
    Please reply, if you find valid.

    1) Is the creation / creator or Brahman, partial towards evil (things / people / characters ....etc)
    All the good (things, people)in the past & current, have always received the short end of the stick..(they go through the suffering /pain ...etc and what not Millions of lives have been destroyed few couple of centuries back)

    Today... only what is bad / worse for a human being in terms of habits, food, culture is always at

    ex: the entire world has been run, ruined by only a few (Mslm/Mghl rulrs, who enjoyed all possible things beyond the best of people's reach).

    You may say Karma...etc still... long back it was with few stupid ppl who ruined and today it's with few retarded idiots(R-grp/n-wo/bldbg), who is ruining.

    (Even few mythological characters...did all the ruining only to be killed by Vishnu avatars and they suffered the pain for few minutes only during their death)

    2. You had mentioned, that the Brahman keeps receiving feedback from jivanmukth souls...

    What feedback, can you expect from these souls, as these souls raise themselves beyond the normal and for them everything they see as part of nature and therefore all in the same weigh scale... (Gold and stone are the difference and same with good/ bad aswell)

    (for ex: it doesn't matter to them the materialistic life/things in the current world; however the root cause of all the evil is this)

    3. Do you think the n wo / R / bldbg club have mastered some of any rituals / mantras / tantras..etc so they keep ruining the entire world and still go scot-free ?
    (As they had access to all our Vedic texts which they got it translated).

    Looking forward to your replies for each of the above qstns..Thx.

    Grace & Peace,

  8. Dear Captain,


    Very glad to inform you that, I've been blessed with a baby boy y'day evening (normal).
    Both baby and mother are doing fine. This is my second child.
    (Most surprisingly, today is our marriage anniversary :-)

    Sincerely, thank you for all the guidance received, till date.

    Request your blessings, Captain.
    (Would be great, if Ma'm could also join you in blessing the new born... :o) )

    (Have always felt that unseen /unknown happiness and joy brimming within me, whenever I see your couple pics :0) )

    Grace & Peace,

    1. HI P6



  9. Dear Captain,

    Thank you very very much for your divine blessings :)))))

    Grace & Peace,

  10. Dear Captain,


    Request your valuable guidance; this is regarding the blood test results of my new born.

    We got our baby the mandatory BCG and blood tests done after a week from the hospital.

    Baby's blood group was B+ve.
    We couple are O+ve and our first kid aswell; Also from my side, parents, brother are all O+ve.
    (I'm not too sure on the Wife's side regarding blood group).

    The blood group being B+ve was surprising for us and RH+ve. (Wifey is O+ve with RH -ve)

    Generally, is the new grouping possible ?

    Also, Wifey was admitted to hospital fro Dengue. she was given the Donor platelets - random (RDP) - 12 satchets & single (SDP) - 4 satchets.

    Would there be a possibility that this has influenced the blood grouping (due to receiving platelets)?
    Sorry for my ignorance on the blood grouping part. Looking forward to your clarification.

    Grace & Peace,

    1. (Wifey is O+ve with RH -ve)



  11. Dear Captain,


    Need your guidance.

    My 2nd son is 1.5 months. He has the umblical cord bulging out.
    My 1st son had no issues like this.

    However we showed to the regular Ayurvedic doc, who mentioned that it's Umblical Hernial..
    Immediately referred to your blog (

    The doctor also mentioned that it may get normal by 3 months.

    You had mentioned in your blog that it requires surgery.

    Also, at the end where the bulge is there, if we press very lightly, it goes inside as thought some air is there.

    A bit scared, if the little one has to undergo surgery. Need your valuable advice.

    Grace & Peace,

    1. my blog is VERY VERY clear -- there is NO ambiguity..

      take the opinion of an expert doctor

  12. Dear Captain,

    Thank you very much.
    Will sure do.

    My apologies...Went through the blog again, as it was a result of my half-baked speed reading thingy due to anxiety. (It may take some time to master speed reading like you)

    Grace & Peace,

  13. Dear Captain,

    Happy Republic Day.

    As your revelations are unfolding one by one, look forward to see our country be glorious again and most importantly I hope the people of this country also are imbibed with Sanatana Dharma values.

    This is more important than just being a Super Power trying to compare our countries with others who are cunning.

    Also Captain, just have question (it's a long one and didn't have anything to cut short it)

    In this age of Internet, except truly realized ones (who are unassumingly very rare to find one), you are the only one, who can talk about anything and everything from micro to macro level, with that deep clarity / clairvoyance.

    Still after reading and following your blogs thoroughly, most of the new blogs you write are still which are at Least Common Denominator level, it's still tough to digest, given the ignorance within which we were/are living (or forced to live).

    No wonder we (followers of your blog) are blessed to get the truth / knowledge through you (free of cost) ( I can only think of those enlightened ones who would say 'Thathaasthu' for anything you ask)

    If we pick the most learned man (in this world) at the moment and pit him against you, he/she cannot get past two domains of any field / topic.

    Direct / indirect, I've always been spreading your truths to those who don't use Internet often and most importantly, wouldn't forget those times you would reply at that hopeless / helpless situation we were in and couldn't believe that you had already replied us at those unearthly hours.

    ==> When I saw your comment 5 years back. (.... my blogsite is viewed by xxnxx ppl.... is worth... so & so $$$$ and ranks '123'), I couldn't understand at that time.
    Now it's more of profile views.

    Not to forget, you are already behind successful events in the recent past.

    JNU, Jallikattu, DTrum p victory (most of your advise were directly followed).

    Is it just that it gives you a kind of satisfaction - Numbers ? :0) OR you want to know the reach of your blogsite.
    OR is there a more genuine reason for satisfaction related to this ?

    Not serious, however very curious :o) (to know what actually goes on in the Captain's mind)

    Grace & Peace,




  14. Dear Captain,

    Need your valuable inputs.

    Wifey is going for nose piercing along with ear piercing for my second kid.

    ( Had always insisted to get it done since marriage.
    She said she would look like aunt; although it looks good on her).

    You had mentioned that it should be on the Right side.
    Also was checking Ma'ms pics where you both were standing and was not clear.

    Should we also check the muhurtham to get it done .

    Could you confirm, please. Thank you.

    Grace & Peace,

    1. hi p6,

      my wife does NOT have nose ring

      choose a convenient time and do it

      capt ajit vadakayil

  15. Dear Captain,

    Thank you very much. Sure, will get it done accordingly.

    Grace & Peace,

  16. Dear Captain,

    My 3 year old kid, has a red spot on his left eye since morning.

    Only today morning, I was telling my wife, he has such a lovely eyes.

    Thanks to "My" cursed evil eyes (buree nazarwaale)
    It feels bad that, whenever I appreciate something good with my family, it immediately has a reverse affect.

    Need your guidance on both the above

    - Kids red spot in the eyes

    - How do I get rid of my buree nazar ??
    (Another instance/s - Whenever he's playing well and I feel happy to see him like that; then after a while he would've hurt himself and crying loudly)
    I try to distance myself from my son, wherever possible.

    Grace & Peace,

  17. Dear Captain,

    Thank you very much Captain.
    Sincere heart felt thank you to 'You' and 'Your family' for all the divine support, guidance we get.

    Spreading the 'Proud to be Hindu' link for maximum reach to ppl is my next goal on Internet.

    Regarding the eye, Sure Captain will wait for it to clear.

    When showed to our regular Ayurvedic doctor, said that it's a light injury which has happened and the bleeding has happened at the first layer and it should heal.

    Any suggestions (if time permits ) to cure my evil eyes.
    (This evil eyes /buree nazar doesn't work on evil things :o) )

    Grace & Peace,

  18. Dear Captain,


    Need your help.

    For long(4+ years) I've avoided this question.
    I'm seeking this out of desperation and not convenience.

    I've spent , lost enormous amount out of my savings on seeking astrologers and after following almost all they've to say, still just floating like a dead leaf losing my savings.

    Incurring several losses in all the investment I do from my paltry savings and those trustworthy people itself are the main culprits, when giving back my dues.

    If you are fine, request you to share any known good astrologers who suggest / guide based on Cowrie shells.

    There was one astrologer who used to guide and it was pinpoint accurate.
    I almost lost my job when my first kid was to be born.

    Had tried several companies (daily used to send 5-10 genuine applications) for a job for over 1.5 years and had lost hope.

    This guy perfectly said, not to worry, I would get the job and there would be an overseas travel just by seeing my palm and it exactly happened the same.

    That person is no more.. Hence requested.

    Grace & Peace,



  19. Dear Captain,

    Thank you for your reply.
    Have already stopped consulting them from several months.

    Yes Captain, it was only for starting something new (Biz to be precise with my moderate savings) to be self-sufficient.
    (Burnt my fingers severely trying with two biz).

    The fear factor, dent in confidence is driving me and off-late have become blank.

    Once in your comment had mentioned that genuine astrologers who guide by using cowrie shells were very accurate. Hence was curious.

    Sure, will avoid visiting them Captain.

    Grace & Peace,

  20. Dear Captain,

    Need your guidance.

    Had put my son in playhome last year, where he actually went for 4-5 weeks in a span of 2-3 months and eventually stopped going there.

    Now he is 3.3 yrs now. I had made admission to PreNursery (it's not even LKG or UKG below that - to make the kids socialize and prepare for LKG).

    My Kid refuses to go to school.. he keeps saying "please no school" (in mother tongue.)
    Also, whenever we mention school, he gets fever for 2-3 days.

    Although fees are skyhigh, I had paid the fees.

    Recently in one your comments, you had mentioned that Kids should start going to school around 5 years.
    ( I also don't want to force him to school...and want him to show interest when he sees the all the other kids going to school)

    Should I go ahead and put him in school OR I'll ask for a refund and put him to school next year.

    Any inputs would be helpful... Thank you Captain.

    Grace & Peace,

  21. Dear Captain,

    Thank you very very much.. :0) Will send him to school next year.

    When we were young, it was only LKG, UKG and then 1st std.
    Now Playhome, PreNursery and then LKG, UKG.
    Fees aren't nominal either and it's become a money making business.

    So much for Social pressure (Sending kids to school).
    Without knowing everyone are falling in the same trap.

    Good to see kids being playful and full of joy.
    Thanks again, Captain.

    Grace & Peace,

  22. Dear Captain,


    The pvt schools off late have started to fill their coffers using the ***Non-Refundable** clause.

    I had recently paid 18550/- (partial amount)

    Dear Captain,


    My Kid (3.3 yrs) is going to toilet several times a day (Around 8-10 times). Almost every 1-1.5 hrs.

    He says 'Stomach pain', runs to toilet.. He is done withing 3-4 mins.The stools are neither loose motion nor constipated type.
    Checked for worms in stools.. Didn't find any.

    Had been to Ayurvedic doctor, who has given tonic to remove any worms.
    The next day, he was fine .. Went around 2-3 times).

    However it's back to again 8-10 times today.
    When checked with doctor, if it is related to Irritable Bowel Syndrome.. who said it is 'not'.

    He is having food normally, plays fine (jumping, running..etc.) No issues. However the cycle repeats.

    Are we missing anything, Captain.
    Looking forward to your suggestion. Thank you.

    (Also Captain, regarding the pre-nursery, the school denied to refund the amount.

    Idiots, didn't send my kid to the school not even for a day.. Had informed them 2-3 weeks before)

    Grace & Peace,

  23. Dear Captain,
    Thank you very much.
    Yes.. curds wasn't part of the meal for quite some times. Will start giving curds. Thanks again.

    Grace & Peace,

  24. Dear Captain,

    Today Kid has gone to toilet almost 10 times.
    It's been loose motion today.

    One of our relative suspected the Rice we cooked..due to the recent 'Plastic rice' threat.

    We took boiled rice, made a ball and put /threw it on the floor and it bounced a good 2-3 inches.
    Not sure, if this is the way to check the rice quality.

    Have given him tender coconut water.

    Going to doctor again now... as I suspect it's going to be more severe for the remaining day.

    Keeps telling that it's stomach pain.

    Any thing we need to do further Captain.

    Grace & Peace,