Friday, April 30, 2010



A chemical parcel man must understand the pH scale.

For example--- Zinc tanks can take cargoes only between pH 6 to 9 or zinc will shed and contaminate the cargo. Most epoxies cannot take pH less than 3, though the manufacturer will NEVER declare this.

The pH scale is from zero to 14.

Neutral fresh water pH is zero . In pure water which is neutral, the conc of Hydrogen ion is 10 raised to -7 equivalent/litre which corresponds to pH of 7.

Zero pH is an acid of highest strength like Hydrochloric acid . pH 14 is a base of highest strength like Caustic .
pH is a measure of hydrogen ion concentration in that solution. A small change in pH represents a large change in hydrogen ion concentration. As the conc of H+ ions increase by 10 times, the value of pH decreases by one unit and vice versa. This is because the pH scale is logarithmic. This means each change of one in pH value is 10 times more acidic.

So a substance with pH 2 is 1000 times more acidic than one with pH 5. In other words ( better to understand this well ) diluting a strong acid of pH 2 , ten times increase the pH value to pH 3.

Acidic soil is infertile, so lime is added. Thiobacillus ferro oxidans ( bacteria ) lowers pH to 2 or even 0.7. Some lakes are fairly acidic ( pH 3.7 to 5.5 ). Be aware when a charterer while trying to save some money for TCFW tells you to dilute say molasses cargo with lake intake. Boiler feed water water cannot be acidic so additives are added to keep it basic.

Neutral or pure water has an equal conc of H+ ions and OH- ions. When an acid is added the conc of H+ ions become greater than that of OH- ions. Similarly when a base is added the conc of OH- ions increases while that of H+ decreases.

Thus an acid solution is one in which H+ is greater than 10 raised to -7.

pH changes with temp. It decreases on heating. pH of boiling water is 6.56.

The pH of DI water drops from 7 to 5.5 due to some reaction in water when splashed in air. Rain ph is 5.6 as CO2 dissolves to form carbonic acid. This is the reason why the DI water spray turns slightly acidic

Few pH values:---

Hydrochloric acid/ 0
Gastric stomach juice/ 1
Coca cola/ 2.5
Orange juice /3.0
Tomato/ 4.1
Black coffee/5
Urine/ 6
Milk/ 6.6
Fresh water/ 7
Blood/ 7.4
Sea water/ 8
Tooth paste/ 9.9
Ammonia/ 11.9
Caustic/ 14

Prior loading certain cargoes the pH value of the tank internals and attachments are taken to make sure they are neutral ( Phenol ).

Canned food is sterilized by lowering pH using acidulants like citric, acetic, fumaric, ascorbic, propionic, lactic, adipic, tartaric etc.

pH in water at room temp 25C-- there is only one hydrogen ion for every 555 million water molecules. Basically ph scale measures the amount of H+ and OH-.

A person cannot survive if his blood ph drops to 7 or rises to 7.8. The buffering capacity of blood prevents such swings in pH level.

The gentleman who invented pH wanted to know how acidic his beer was. Beer needs yeast and yeast uses enzymes. Enzymes work only if pH is right. Beer is pH3

For the erudite— The pH of a solution depends on the concentration of ionized protons and not the total concentration of acid. If there is an excess of protons it is an acidic solution. If there is a shortage of protons it is basic.

Bufferclean 5.5 removes all zinc white salts and brings it down like snow fall.

Buffer solution resists any change of its pH value due to dilution or an addition of solution of acid/ alkali. The process by which H+ or OH- ions are removed so that pH remains constant is known as buffer action.


Once i joined a chemical tankers with zinc silicate coating, with zinc shedding-- and coating permanently destroyed. Zinc Silicate coating cannot take pH l outside the range 6 to 9. 

When you produce DI / Demi water with 2 bed systems -- you have to be careful. Taste the water to see if it is NOT sour ( acidic ) .

Filtered water is first passed through cation exchange cylinder which removes CA2+/ MG2+ ( water hardness ions ) cations from it and an equivalent amount of H+ ions are released into the water. The water is now softened.  (THIS ACIDIC WATER CAN DESTROY YOUR ZINC SILICATE COATING WHICH CANNOT TAKE pH LESS THAN 6.)

Then this water is passed through an anion exchange cylinder which removes SO42- CL- ( chlorides ) anions from it and an equivalent amount of OH- ions are released into the water. The chlorides are now removed. The water is now called de ionized water or de mineralized water.



  1. how will u find out the ph of tank internals

  2. David,

    soak DI water at crevices and orifices and read off on pH paper.

    capt ajit vadakayil

  3. Respected Captain Ajit – My husband and I regularly read your blogs. We would like to express our gratitude for sharing your invaluable knowledge. It has made great difference in our lives. I have a very personal question to ask you. I request you to delete the comment once I receive your advice.

    I am a 32 year old female. We are married for 8 years now. My husband and I have been trying for baby for the last 4 years. I have been diagnosed with “vaginismus”. Since it is not happening naturally, we decided on trying out IUI on Natural cycle (without any medication). Our Test result was positive but the Pregnancy was not viable because of low Progesterone.

    Here are few test results that were performed prior IUI.
    FSH - 19.3 mIU/ml
    Estradiol - 9.2 pg/ml
    AMH - 0.018 ng/ml
    TSH -1.880 uIU/ml
    Prolactin - 19.6 ng/ml

    My Husband’s test results were all Normal.

    We both are of the opinion that if we are to get pregnant it should be naturally and not through Artificial procedures or Hormonal supplements.
    We would like your advice or any guidance that you could provide on what Natural herbs or supplements would help us because of low AMH (Egg Reserve). Do you recommend any Ayurvedic center for treatment/Consultation?

    Thanks for your help in advance


    1. hi aw,

      there are so many women like you.

      you are still young-- there is NO tearing hurry to go for artificial means atleast for another 2 years .


      Vaginismus is highly treatable and a full recovery from vaginismus is the normal outcome of treatment. Successful vaginismus treatment does not require drugs, surgery, hypnosis, nor any other complex invasive technique.


      Vaginismus does not interfere with sexual arousal, but it can prevent penetration.

      Vaginismus is a learned reflex. A useful way to look at it is to compare it to getting a finger in our eye. We’ve all been poked in the eye at some time in our life and if we see a finger or other object approaching our eyes, we shut them automatically.

      In the same way, a woman with vaginismus has had an experience of painful intercourse (or other object in the vagina).

      Later on when she or someone else tries to insert an object in the vagina, the vagina “shuts” to protect itself from pain without the woman even being conscious of it. The muscle spasm is what causes the pain and that is definitely real.

      The truth is that women with vaginismus don’t need to “stretch” anything; they need to learn to control the muscles around the vagina

      The pain with vaginismus occurs only with penetration.

      There are many couples who have been together for years but have never had intercourse because of vaginismus.

      They may even have had children by means of a “splash pregnancy” (the man ejaculates near the vaginal opening and sperm make their way up the vagina). BY KEEPING SOME PILLOWS UNDER THE ASS - to allow the sperm easier swimming to the target by gravity.

      The tightness is actually caused by involuntary contractions of the pelvic floor muscles surrounding the vagina. The woman does not directly control or 'will' the tightness to occur; it is an involuntary pelvic response. She may not even have any awareness that the muscle response is causing the tightness or penetration problem.

      Vaginismus is the main cause of unconsummated relationships. The tightness can be so restrictive that the opening to the vagina is 'closed off' altogether and the man is unable to insert his penis. The pain of vaginismus ends when the sexual attempt stops, and usually intercourse must be halted due to pain or discomfort.

      The approach is called progressive desensitization, and the idea is to get comfortable with insertion.

      First, do Kegel exercises by squeezing the same muscles you use to stop the flow of urine when urinating:

      Squeeze the muscles.
      Hold for 2 seconds.
      Relax the muscles.
      Do about 20 Kegels at a time. You can do them as many times a day as you want to.

      After a few days, insert one finger , up to about the first knuckle joint, inside the vagina while doing the exercises. It's a good idea to clip your fingernails first and use a lubricating WATER SOLUBLE jelly. Or do the exercises in a bathtub, where water is a natural lubricant.

      Start with one finger and work your way up to three. You'll feel the vagina's muscles contracting around your finger, and you can always take your finger out if you're not comfortable.



      The condition can also make gynaecological and pelvic examinations difficult or impossible.

      The symptoms can vary from one woman to the next. Some women are unable to insert anything into their vagina because it closes up completely, while others can insert a tampon but are unable to have penetrative sex, and other women are able to have sex but find it very painful.

      Vaginismus is a much more common problem than you may realize. Women with vaginismus tend to be very embarrassed about it and not mention it to anyone.. YOU ARE NOT ALONE.

      The good news is that there is a cure for vaginismus; it simply involves learning how to control and relax the muscles that are tightening involuntarily. The bad news is that this does not happen overnight and requires you to do “exercises” for several weeks How long it takes for the exercises to work depends on how faithful you are in doing them

      During the time period that you are doing the exercises, you should avoid intercourse. It may be hard to explain to your partner that you won’t be having intercourse for several weeks

      Dyspareunia is a term that describes painful intercourse. It may be confused with vaginismus. Dyspareunia encompasses sexual pain from a variety of sources. The pain could be due to cysts, pelvic inflammatory disease, or vaginal atrophy. Although vaginismus is one of the conditions that can contribute to dyspareunia, all dyspareunia is not necessarily vaginismus.

      If a woman has enjoyed normal sexual intercourse for years and suddenly finds that penetration is painful or not possible, this is considered secondary vaginismus. In secondary vaginismus, women usually experience a temporary pelvic pain, caused by infection and this causes and the vagina to build a defense against intercourse.

      Capt ajit vadakayil

  4. Thanks for your reply, Appreciate it a lot. I did some research on Vaginismus and practiced few techniques and was able to overcome this problem to some extent.
    I am now able to undergo Medical examination and was able to do couple of Ultrasounds which was impossible for me few months back.
    Now my concern is after blood tests my Doctor says my Progesterone and AMH levels are very low for my age and egg reserve is very low.
    This is causing me lot of worry , can you please advise on any natural herbs or Ayurvedic medicine which would help me conceive naturally.

    I read your post on CHEMBU KIZHNGU or Colocasia., I have started consuming it. We are thinking if the climate or soil has all the magic where it is grown.

    1. hi aw,

      turn veggie

      you can eat fish and eggs

      first thing in the morning drink lemon juice, honey with fresh turmeric paste ( mix ).

      capt ajit vadakayil

  5. Dear Ajit Paaji:


    NaMo tweet - Narendra Modi ‏@narendramodi 3h3 hours ago
    For the First Lady, presented Aranmula metal mirror, a unique GI protected handicraft from Kerala, and some pashmina stoles.

    Best Regards,