Friday, April 30, 2010



A chemical parcel man must understand the pH scale.

For example--- Zinc tanks can take cargoes only between pH 6 to 9 or zinc will shed and contaminate the cargo. Most epoxies cannot take pH less than 3, though the manufacturer will NEVER declare this.

The pH scale is from zero to 14.

Neutral fresh water pH is zero . In pure water which is neutral, the conc of Hydrogen ion is 10 raised to -7 equivalent/litre which corresponds to pH of 7.

Zero pH is an acid of highest strength like Hydrochloric acid . pH 14 is a base of highest strength like Caustic .
pH is a measure of hydrogen ion concentration in that solution. A small change in pH represents a large change in hydrogen ion concentration. As the conc of H+ ions increase by 10 times, the value of pH decreases by one unit and vice versa. This is because the pH scale is logarithmic. This means each change of one in pH value is 10 times more acidic.

So a substance with pH 2 is 1000 times more acidic than one with pH 5. In other words ( better to understand this well ) diluting a strong acid of pH 2 , ten times increase the pH value to pH 3.

Acidic soil is infertile, so lime is added. Thiobacillus ferro oxidans ( bacteria ) lowers pH to 2 or even 0.7. Some lakes are fairly acidic ( pH 3.7 to 5.5 ). Be aware when a charterer while trying to save some money for TCFW tells you to dilute say molasses cargo with lake intake. Boiler feed water water cannot be acidic so additives are added to keep it basic.

Neutral or pure water has an equal conc of H+ ions and OH- ions. When an acid is added the conc of H+ ions become greater than that of OH- ions. Similarly when a base is added the conc of OH- ions increases while that of H+ decreases.

Thus an acid solution is one in which H+ is greater than 10 raised to -7.

pH changes with temp. It decreases on heating. pH of boiling water is 6.56.

The pH of DI water drops from 7 to 5.5 due to some reaction in water when splashed in air. Rain ph is 5.6 as CO2 dissolves to form carbonic acid. This is the reason why the DI water spray turns slightly acidic

Few pH values:---

Hydrochloric acid/ 0
Gastric stomach juice/ 1
Coca cola/ 2.5
Orange juice /3.0
Tomato/ 4.1
Black coffee/5
Urine/ 6
Milk/ 6.6
Fresh water/ 7
Blood/ 7.4
Sea water/ 8
Tooth paste/ 9.9
Ammonia/ 11.9
Caustic/ 14

Prior loading certain cargoes the pH value of the tank internals and attachments are taken to make sure they are neutral ( Phenol ).

Canned food is sterilized by lowering pH using acidulants like citric, acetic, fumaric, ascorbic, propionic, lactic, adipic, tartaric etc.

pH in water at room temp 25C-- there is only one hydrogen ion for every 555 million water molecules. Basically ph scale measures the amount of H+ and OH-.

A person cannot survive if his blood ph drops to 7 or rises to 7.8. The buffering capacity of blood prevents such swings in pH level.

The gentleman who invented pH wanted to know how acidic his beer was. Beer needs yeast and yeast uses enzymes. Enzymes work only if pH is right. Beer is pH3

For the erudite— The pH of a solution depends on the concentration of ionized protons and not the total concentration of acid. If there is an excess of protons it is an acidic solution. If there is a shortage of protons it is basic.

Bufferclean 5.5 removes all zinc white salts and brings it down like snow fall.

Buffer solution resists any change of its pH value due to dilution or an addition of solution of acid/ alkali. The process by which H+ or OH- ions are removed so that pH remains constant is known as buffer action.


Once i joined a chemical tankers with zinc silicate coating, with zinc shedding-- and coating permanently destroyed. Zinc Silicate coating cannot take pH l outside the range 6 to 9. 

When you produce DI / Demi water with 2 bed systems -- you have to be careful. Taste the water to see if it is NOT sour ( acidic ) .

Filtered water is first passed through cation exchange cylinder which removes CA2+/ MG2+ ( water hardness ions ) cations from it and an equivalent amount of H+ ions are released into the water. The water is now softened.  (THIS ACIDIC WATER CAN DESTROY YOUR ZINC SILICATE COATING WHICH CANNOT TAKE pH LESS THAN 6.)

Then this water is passed through an anion exchange cylinder which removes SO42- CL- ( chlorides ) anions from it and an equivalent amount of OH- ions are released into the water. The chlorides are now removed. The water is now called de ionized water or de mineralized water.




Since past 11000 years Hindu vedic rituals require breaking of the coconut at Yagnas. It is form of bloodless sacrifice. The liquid spilt is electrolytic plasma.

The vedic civilisation flourished from 9000 BC to 4000 BC on the banks of the river Saraswati, till the river dried up due to an earthquake blocking the glacial mouth at the Himalayas. These seers had 12 strand DNA and king sized resonating pineal glands.

In quantum physics terms -- it causes a " butterfly effect " .


Potential is only manifested when we provide the frequency information through our intentions— concept of MIND OVER MATTER.

For the uninitiated –it is just a pure offering to god. Rather the purest as faster than light, NEUTRINOS don't pass through it.

There is nothing on this planet purer or more sterile than tender coconut water. The water has a divine quality as it contains lauric acid found in mothers milk and is also identical to human plasma. 

Because of its capacity to dissolve numerous substances in large amounts, pure water rarely occurs in nature.

There are three eyes on top of the coconut shell. Only piercing the middle one will allow you to access the water inside. This middle eye is referred to as Shiva’s third eye. Rather its is the mediator( sattva ) of yin- yang or tamas -rajas.

The water is an electrolyte and boosts circulation and is anti bacterial.

While breaking the coconut the devotee must INTEND as per the vedic traditions. This is to tune our self to the quantum level energy matrix, this energy is transferred to our DNA.

Human intention can create quantum fluctuations in the ZERO POINT FIELD , a vast unharnessed energy source . We resonate in Zero Point Energy —human intention can influence the universe.

Nikola Tesla was introduced to this ocean of energy --Akasha ( Ether ) by The Hindu great master Swami Vivekananda. He told Tesla that the "emptiness" of empty space is in fact not empty, but a great ocean of seething energy! This included the empty space within the atom in which electrons zoomed around. Akasha is the womb of creation bringing forth every physical aspect that can be perceived with the senses according to Hindu traditions.

Consciousness, is a form of EM energy, that focused thought (with intent) can achieve extraordinary things

A beam of coherent intention is split into two—past and future. They meet in the present moment of NOW in the holographic universe.

 Holograms are three-dimensional pictures placed on a two-dimensional surface, which gives the image a curvature when the observer moves.

Our brain stores information in a holographic form. Each cell in our body carries all the information's needed to produce a copy.

Your intention ( basically an impulse ) is a powerful activator of your internal pharmacy. “Deliver us from evil” is the usual intention. Each individual mind has access to the universal mind. Human perception occurs because of interactions between the subatomic particles of our brains an the quantum energy sea. We literally resonate the Cosmos.

The quantum field or pure consciousness is influenced by intention.

SCALAR WAVES CAN BE REGARDED AS ELECTROMAGNETIC SOUND WAVES-- BEING LONGITUDINAL, AND NOT TRANSVERSE. Scalar waves from your mobius supercoil DNA couples with intention and consciousness. Intentions enhance the body’s natural flow of scalar energy produced by DNA. Your DNA can send and receive powerful data through the universal network of ether..

Scalar waves are created by a pair of identical waves (usually called the wave and its anti wave) that are in phase spatially, but out of phase temporally. The two waves are physically identical, but 180 degrees out of phase in terms of time. Scalar waves are different from normal hertzian waves– like an infinitely projected mobius pattern on axis, and are more field like than wave like.

Scalar waves can be created by wrapping electrical wires around a figure eight in the shape of a möbius coil. When an electric current flows through the wires in opposite directions, the opposing electromagnetic fields from the two wires cancel each other and create a scalar wave. Have a a look at the pictures of the FIGURE OF EIGHT mobius coils in your 8 strand DNA ( with evolution it will become 12 strand, like for Indigo children ) . The möbius coil intersection occurs just in front of the lungs, which contain a huge web-like network of capillary connections. This capillary network acts as a battery for the storage of scalar waves.

DNA can send and receive powerful data through the universal network of ether.. In the quantum holographic DNA-wave biocomputer theory, DNA is a self-calibrating antenna working by phase conjugate ( scalar waves and phase conjugation) adaptive resonance , capable of both receiving and transmitting quantum holographic information , stored in the form of diffraction patterns-quantum holograms.

Zero Point Field is an information field as it encodes everything that has left its traces in the form of Scalar waves in this universe. This boils down to the recording of every little thought that was ever thought and every little move that was ever made. The interference patterns of the scalar waves form a huge hologram that permeates the whole of the universe.

Intention is like the tuning fork which causes other forks to resonate to the same frequency.

Chromosomes that are damaged by X-rays, for instance, can be repaired by simply applying vibration and language, or sound combined with intention, or words or Mantra, to DNA!. When properly activated by sound combined with intention, the superconductor that is DNA is designed to re-harmonize the entire bioenergy blueprint.

The seemingly magical operations of psychoenergetics, sometimes called "psychotronics," cannot be achieved with ordinary transverse EM wave energy. But they are possible with longitudinal scalar waves because the mind itself is scalar in nature

We cannot observe the quantum world using our limited five senses. Instead we must imagine particles as they really are-- structures of matter waves (like quantum waves) in their wave medium, the quantum ether.

Our intentions create our reality. As proved amply by the double slit experiment the consciousness of the observer brought the observed object into being.

Nothing in the universe existed as an actual thing independently of our perception of it.

Mind and matter are both made of the same basic stuff. The difference has to be found in the composition of vibration or ripples. Matter belongs to larger and slower waves, which implies that it possesses less energy of the absolute. Mind is made out of much finer ripples, which indicate that it contains more of the consciousness of the absolute.

Scalar waves allow for information transfer across the universe, connecting every atom with every other atom and since these waves travel at super luminous speeds they could be the explanation of the non-local effects that were predicted in theory and empirically discovered in quantum physics.

Our universe is NOT a bunch of single individual parts of atoms, molecules, planets and stars that only maintain contact by separate forces such as gravity acting upon them. Quantum entangled particles keep their coherent relation eternally and are not bothered by any distance separating them whether it be a few millimetres or the distance of a galaxy.

Scalar waves are information carrying waves rather than energy waves. which are linked to human consciousness and are created by human thought and emotions. They are the interface between the mental and the physical world although we must keep in mind that in reality there is no duality between them. Scalar waves encode the information of space and time into a timeless spaceless quantum shorthand of interference patterns.

Little did Darwin know , that Biology is a quantum DNA process. All the processes in the body including cell communications are triggered by quantum fluctuations, and all higher brain functions and consciousness also appears at the quantum level. Newtons modern physics has set mankind back by many centuries.

In ignoring the effect of ZPF he had eliminated the possibility of interconnectedness and obscured a scientific explanation for many kinds of miracles. Psychic remote viewers see information encoded in quantum fluctuation. They pick this right out of the field. The US and Soviet armies have their own psychic spying wing.

On Makara Sankranti , at the Sabarimala temple in Kerala, India - FIVE MILLION minds having the same thought, format and intent, break coconuts.

 There exists a coherence in the "many-minds to the detecting charges" of the universe -- at least in that volume of space with a radius equal to the speed of light multiplied by the time since they all gained that coherence. Collective consciousness is a life force flowing through the universe. Remember, our wishes and our intentions create our reality.



If the coconut does not break into two even halves -- it is a divine indication that what you intend may not succeed.

Tesla Coil only uses sine waves or harmonic waves and quantum chaos already acknowledges that the sine wave creates a “hidden coherence” that bends space time. The sine wave is the secret behind current faster-than-light quantum electronics. The soliton is the quantum chaos sine wave that achieves anti gravity.

The speed of light (communication), or electron to electron reaction, is slower than the speed of gravity, or quark to quark reaction--hence the higher the scalar wave frequency, the faster the time rate.

Next time you visit a doctor , pl be aware that the Intention of doctor is as important as the medicine he gives you.

When a new Indian ship is launched , a coconut is broken on the ships bow, with an intention that the ship and the sailors who man her, must be safe till she goes for scrap.. This idea has been lifted and the rest of the world breaks a champagne bottle.

Author Lynn McTaggart, has written a book " The intention experiment".  There is NOT a single original idea in the entire book.  Yet she had NOT made a single mention of Vedas or India."

World war 3 , will be all about engineering the collective conscious by scalar interferometry -- the ultimate quantum psychotronic weapon.


Grace and peace!




The whole world ignores PERIOD OF IMPACT. On risk prone parcel chemical tankers we do not have the luxury of ignoring this crucial factor. On stubbing your toe, you will get most " severe pain" , " certainly" for 3 seconds. Nobody minds this short period pain. However LONG period of such pain is not an option.

In a nutshell , DRA is the CONTINOUS ASSESSMENT of risk in a rapidly changing environment like a ship on fire, chemical tanker having toxic spill, or collision/ grounding. Or analyzing new control measures when the changing degree of risk demands it ( suddenly reserve buoyancy at risk --or as the fire spreads, new toxic gases are released ).

Commonsense and experience dictates that no risk assessment can be static – it has to be dynamic, as the events unfold. Focus on any emergency response must change as the incident evolves.

There is something as a –
Initial stage
Development stage
a closing stage.

In the development stage, safe systems of response have indeed been initially selected and assessed, additional control measures introduced and an optimum course of action chalked out.

A good emergency response system must assign a competent person to do the process of -- “ MEASUREMENT “ -- in a mundane PLAN/ ACT/ MEASURE/ IMPROVE cycle.

This “measurement squad” , boils down to a “roving squad” consisting of a think tank ( usually Chief engineer and Electrical officer ) who are the ears and eyes of a Master who is blind and deaf on the bridge—yet , has to take critical decisions. He is short of feedback from a clear / experienced / competent brain who is observing from dynamic vantage positions —in the lookout for coming shadows and thinking of ways to avoid secondary dangers, all the time reviewing the effectiveness of the existing control measures..

In the old system ( discarded whole sale by the entire Annex 1 and Annex 2 tanker industry 15 years back ) the chief engineer was relegated to maintaining essential services and doing normal watchkeeping in the engine room , where he is not as familiar with valves and pipelines as the usual EOW.

We had a situation where both the 4 stripers were deaf and blind, the 3 stripers are busy doing something, and nobody watching the larger DYNAMIC picture unfolding. On the contrary a 4 striper should be all over the place , including the engine room ( when warranted ) and on bridge to hold critical intelligence information exchanges on new tactical modes/ stopping something happening the wrong way , (based on DRA) with the Master .

It must be appreciated that everything cannot be told on the walkie talkie in an emergency—including a TRUE report on how the Chief Officer ( on OFFENSIVE TACTICAL MODE ) and Second Engineer ( on DEFENSIVE TACTICAL MODE ) is managing their teams –for engine emergencies vice versa.

monitoring the physical conditions of the offensive and defensive leaders,
evaluating competence of allocated tasks ,
evaluating the larger picture ( life/ property/ pollution/ image )
evaluating if the calculated risk taken outweighs the benefits.
--and if indeed so , if there are any viable alternatives.

He is now able to tender specialist advise to the blind and deaf decision maker on the bridge ( read that as Master )



A seaman sees a huge round stone overhanging a ledge on the ship on top of a passage way used by the whole crew. He identifies this as a HAZARD.

Now what is a hazard?

A hazard is something which is of potential danger , but it has NOT YET HAPPENED . This can be compared to a fishing boat right ahead while sailing. The look out man who reports this to the OOW has reported a HAZARD.


Once the fishing boat has gone behind the ships wake , it is no longer a hazard, for it has happened. It could now be classified as a NEAR MISS if the ship missed it narrowly or it just grazed the ship—scrapping off paint and causing a scratch.

Of course if the fishing boat was damaged severely or it sank it is now classified as an ACCIDENT.

Now let us get back to good old stone. The seaman has reported the stone , which is a source of potential harm, to the chief officer.

It is now the ships managements duty to do RISK ASSESSMENT and then do RISK MANAGEMENT.

RISK ASSESSMENT since it includes the consequences has 6 DYNAMIC aspects:--

Severity—minor loss ( injury ) to total loss ( death )

Time of impact /Recovery --- rapid recovery to irreversible ( first aid to full life in wheelchair / long term impact to environment )

Frequency--- remote to occasional to progressively increasing.( this is more related to security than safety-- if a car is driven daily it will have less chance of a breakdown than a car which is take out once in 2 years. But if you sail close to Somalian coast daily your chances of getting pirated is higher than if you sail once in 2 years ) 

Certainty--- 100% sure ? YES or NO

Image—loss of image is abstract and is about loss of business ( cannot trade in USA, loss of oil major long term time charters etc ).

The ships management holds a risk assessment meeting and now decides to do RISK MANAGEMENT based on the well known T4 principles—

1) Terminate/ throw the nil value stone overboard ( eliminate, amputate )

2) Treat/ Lash up the stone with wires and wedges ( safeguards like extinguishers, reduce risk to acceptable level )

3) Tolerate/ Isolate and manage ( close the passage or use a deflector so that it falls elsewhere, PPE )

4) Transfer/ Call for special and skilled help or advise. ( call a shore workshop )

What T to use-- is determined by weighing if the RESIDUAL risk outweighs the benefits.

Risk Matrix





Severity Category/ Health and Safety Impact/ Damage to Vessel-Property/ Environmental Impact/ Contamination of next cargo

V Fatal Accident Total Loss/ Major Impact to Environment
(Liquids -- spill/discharge in water > 1m3)/ Highly Contaminated/ Readily Apparent and vessel cannot pass manifold sample

IV Serious Accident with possible Permanent Injury Damage requiring external assistance/ Significant Impact to Environment (Liquids -- Spill/discharge in water > 150L and < 1m3)/ Vessel Cannot pass first foot sample/ III Serious Personal Injury Damage which can be repaired by crew/ Impact to Environment .(Liquids --Spill/discharge in water > 10L and < 150L)/ Possible Contamination of minor nature II Injury requiring Medical Treatment/ Minor damage/ Minor Impact to Environment (Liquids -- Spill/discharge in water > 1L and < 10L)/ Possible Contamination of insignificant nature I First Aid Injury/ Insignificant damage/ Little Impact to Environment (Liquids -- Spill/discharge in water < 1L)/ Contamination not affecting next cargo 

TABLE 2 – IMPACT PERIOD DIRECT AND INDIRECT Risk Letter/ Effect Time period A IRREVERSIBLE loss of company image and business PERMANENT B Major impact for very long time > 5 Years
C Moderate impact for long time >6 months – 1 year
D Some Impact for some time >1 day
E Minor impact for very short time < 1 Hour


Risk Letter Certainty of Happening
Y -100 % SURE
N - Possible


In cases where the Determined Risk is:

Un Acceptable : ABORT! Await shore senior management level decision
(Higher premiums to be paid)

High: Work shall NOT start. Appropriate additional controls taken to reduce
residual high risk level to Moderate or Low

Moderate: Efforts made to reduce the risk, with monitoring of the additional
controls that are implemented

Low: No additional controls required, monitoring required to ensure existing
controls are maintained


Capt Ajit Vadakayil



DI water is used to flush out the chlorides from CHEMICAL TANKER tank bulkheads prior sensitive wall wash cargoes .

Methanol cannot dissolve chlorides. Water is a good solvent for salt . It has a high di-electric constant or relative permitivity. ( 81 --it has no units ). This means the force of attraction between ions is 81 times less in water than in a vacuum and this allows them to separate. High di-electric constant is equivalent to high insulating properties to lower the attraction between the oppositely charged ions once they are solvated. Water solvates both cations and anions. When you do a chloride wall wash test rememer that a pinch of salt put in methanol remains there , and water is the best solvent.

BASICS: A positive ion is called a cation and negative ion is called anion. The protons and neutrons are held together very tightly in the nuclues. But the outer orbital electrons are held very loosely. They can jump from one atom to another. It is also possible to shift electrons from one atom to another. The atom which loses one electron has one excess proton as a result in the tight nucleus and thus gets unbalanced. Such an atom is called a positive ion.

Ion exchange units are insoluble, cross linked, long chain organic polymers with microporous structure and the functional groups attached to the chain are responsible for ion exchanging properties.

Resins containing acidic functional groups are capable of exchanging H+ ions with other cations.

Resins containing basic functional groups are capable of exchanging anions with other anions.

Ion Exchangers are thus insoluble granular substances which have in their molecular structure acidic or basic radicals that can exchange. The positive or negative ions fixed on these radicals are replaced by ions of the same sign in solution in the liquid in contact with them.

CATION EXCHANGE RESINS: Copolymers which on sulphonation and carboxylation become capable to exchange their hydrogen ions / H+ with cations in water.

ANION EXCHANGE RESINS: Copolymers which after treating with NAOH solution become capable to exchange their OH- ions with anions in water.

First filter the water to reduce turbidity to less than 10 ppm.

Then this filtered water is first passed through cation exchange cylinder which removes CA2+/ MG2+ ( water hardness ions ) cations from it and an equivalent amount of H+ ions are released into the water. The water is now softened.  (THIS ACIDIC WATER CAN DESTROY YOUR ZINC SILICATE COATING WHICH CANNOT TAKE pH LESS THAN 6.)

Then this water is passed through an anion exchange cylinder which removes SO42- CL- ( chlorides ) anions from it and an equivalent amount of OH- ions are released into the water. The chlorides are now removed. The water is now called de ionized water or de mineralized water.

The ion exchange is complete without deterioration or changing the total number of ions in the liquid before the exchange

H+ cations and OH- anions get combined to form a water molecule H2O.

When the capacity of cation and anion exchangers to exchange H+ and OH- ions is lost they are said to be exhausted. Regeneration of cation cylinder is done by dilute Hydrochloric acid or Sulphuric acid .

Anion cylinder is regenerated by dilute Sodium Hydroxide. Then both the cylinders are washed with DI water to wash of the unwanted Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42, CL- ions.

Regardless of brand, the core principles of ion exhange resin remain the same. There are 4 main types of resin, each with their own function: Strong acid cation (SAC), Weak acid cation (WAC) , Strong base anion (SBA), Weak base anion (WBA).

Mixed Bed resins, sometimes referred to as mix bed resin, are a combination of cation and anion resins. Usually the ratio for mixed bed resin is 1:1 or 1:2 depending on the application.

Single cylinder containing intimate mixture of cation/ anion exchange resins. When the mixed bed is exhausted it is backwashed by by forcing water in the reverse upward direction. The lighter anion resins gets displaced on top and the heavier cation resins remain at the bottom. Then regenerate anion resin beads with NAOH and cation beads with Sulphuric acid.

AMBERLITE marketed by Rohm and Haas is usually used on chemical tankers as they are available in major ports.

Amberlite MB20---- Ionically equilibrated mixed bed resin. Mixture of strongly acidic cation exchanger with a strongly basic type anion exchanger.($)

Amberlite UP6150--- Fully regenerated mixed bed of cation and anion exchange resins.($$)

Amberlite IRN150--- Gelular polystyrene cation and anion exchange resin ($$$--expensive)

Water softening is done by cation exchange using Alumino silicate gel.

De ionizing and demineralising involves two steps. Soluble salts are converted to acids by passing through a Hydrogen exchanger. Secondly they are removed by an acid adsorbent or synthetic resin.

Mineral contaminants are usually present in ionized form.

In general cation resin for water softening and demineralization may last 5 to 10 years. Anion resins used in demineralization last anywhere from 3 to 5 years and are dependent on operational conditions. Like every other resin, the life of mixed bed resin is dependent on the application in which it is being used.

Resin life is difficult to predict; in critical applications it’s best to start analyzing and benchmarking the resin at least once per year.

Few terms:--
Exchange capacity: This is the weight of ions that can be retained per unit volume ( or sometime per unit weight ) of the exchange material concerned

Bed volume: volume per hours of liquid to be treated / volume of resin

Ion flux: Bed volume * salinity of water

Regeneration level: weight of reagent used / volume of ion exchange material

Regeneration rate: 100* (grams-equivalents of regenerating reagent)/ (grams-equivalents of the eluted ions)

Regeneration efficiency: This is the opposite ratio above

Ion leakage: This is the concentration of unwanted ion left in the treated liquid

In European ports it is cheaper to get a truck of DI water which is wasted from nuclear plants.

Use Graco pumps ( President and Monark models ) for spraying DI water.

For the uninitiated after reading the above---

Check the taste of the DI water you generate before spraying it on a zinc bulkhead— if the taste is acidic sour , check the pH. As you already know zinc silicate lining can take only 6 to 9 pH.


The practical aspects of a common place DI water single cylinder mixed bed filter , available on board Che,ical tankers is described herein.

The cylinder is mounted vertically and has a working pressure of 8 bars. The max pressure should be 2 bars higher. Install a pressure relief valve in your system if there is no effective control of max line pressure.

The mixed bed resin used here is a polishing resin, to produce ultra pure water from FWG water feed. Don’t try to use shore water as you will exhaust the resin fast. You can measure the out put by chloride PPM or by using a conductivity meter—the max allowed is 750 uS/ cm

Pureness of the DI water depends on flow velocity through filter. Ensure the water flows in the correct direction. After filling the mixed bed resin, fill the water slowly at first.

After use the bed must be dry after draining out all water. Filter capacity for this model is about 250 to 900 litres per hour

Replace the resin when the conductivity becomes high eg- 10 uS/cm or in case the resin if it has a coloring agent, gets discoloured.

You can regenerate the exhausted resin, if you land it ashore. To remove old resin put the filter horizontal and flush out with water.


Take the riser pipe with bottom distributor out of the filter.
Close the top end of the riser pipe with some tape
Make sure that the riser pipe and the bottom distributor is not filled with resin. Put the riser pipe with bottom distributor into the filter
Put funnel on top of the filter and fill the resin
Take care during filling that the riser pipe is situated in the middle of the filling hole
After filling , take the funnel off
Take the tape off the riser pipe.
Clean the internal thread of the filter carefully.
Clean the top distributor and mount it on the adaptor
Mount this assembly on the riser pipe and filter.
Screw the adaptor clockwise hand tight
Connect the FW inlet and outlet pipes
Filter is now ready for use. Water enters from top and exits from below.

Proforma: Conductivity / PPM chlorides/ Production in tons

1 / 0.3 / 750
2 / 0.6 / 375
5 / 1.5 / 150
10 / 3 / 75
20 / 6 / 37

In case the conductivity is above the desired limits , reduce the flow through the filter. If this does not give results, renew the resin. You can convert conductivity into ppm , by using a graph provided.

For best results the filter must be properly installed and operated as per the instruction manual.

After the end of DM water production, if the filter will not be used for a period longer than one week, drain all water from the filer, leaving it dry. Close both inlet and outlet valves.

Protect the system and the resin from frost. No make of resin in the filter can stand frost.

Maintain a log, with columns for date, FW quality from FWG in pp, flow rate in litres/ hour, DI water out put ppm and DI water quality in litres.

WATER HARDNESS is defined as concentration of Cal/ Mag cations in terms of Calcium Carbonate. Concentration is measured in degrees hardness. There are many units like American/ English/ French/ German hardness etc.

Hardness units: 1 ppm = 1 mg/l = 0.1 Fr = 0.07 Cl = 0.02 Meq/l

Fr = French Cl = Clarke Meq = milli equivalent

Good fresh water has a hardness of 2 while seawater has a hardness of 6800 mg/l

-------CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL ( 28 years in command )

Wednesday, April 28, 2010



A few years ago I stayed in Japan for a month to take delivery of a new ship , from the yard.

During one of the official dinners , the boss of the yard asked me if I knew PERRUYYA. I was taken aback a bit, still I said yes.

And then the man shed a few tears , and then continued on and on about Perruya— what a great hero he is for the Japanese people, and how his shrine at Chiyoda Tokyo is a place of worhip.

My puzzled Canadian Chief Engineer asked me, “ Who the hell is this guy? “.

I said “ He means Pal Lawyer!, I’ll tell you later, about him ”

My chief engineer whispered into my ear “ How can Perruyya be Pal Lawyer? “ .

I said “ When one of my officers Japanese girl friends got upset with my second officer for ditching her , she had barged into the officers lounge and shouted “ I don’t rrike you, I don’t rrove you, you are butter frry, you are prray boy, you are ARRU FUCKIN’ BARRU “ . This could only have meant - “ You are a butterfly, you are a playboy , you are all balls !”

--considering Japs can’t pronounce L , like how the Chinks can’t pronounce R.

In Rabaul ( Papua New Guinea ) I have seen from my cabin port hole , Japanese tourists lying face down on the mud on top of one of the World war 11 Japanese warship wrecks – I knew how emotional they could get over their dead ancestors.

Radha Binod Pal (27 January 1886 – 10 January 1967) was just one of the 11 jurists of the International military tribunal set up after the 2nd word war, known as Tokyo trials, to punish the Japanese .

Only one person was a career judge – the ex-professor of Law at Calcutta University, Justice Radhabinod Pal. The rest, mostly British, American and Australian were either ex-army officers or diplomats. Except for Judge Radhabinod Pal, no one had any legal training, formal or informal. No wonder Pal was the most eloquent and informed man on the bench in matters of international law .

Pal was expected to toe the line of his white ex-masters. However Pal had the courage to stand by his convictions. He refused to let Allied political concerns and purposes, let alone the charter, influence his judgment in any way . While clearly acknowledging the fact that the Japanese were indeed guilty of horrendous war crimes, he argued that the Allies who were judging them were also guilty of the same.

Indeed he questioned the very legitimacy of the Military Tribunal, and argued that it was driven solely by the spirit of retribution rather than international law. According to his view, the trial was the judgment of the vanquished by the victors; such proceedings, even if clothed in the garb of law, resulted in nothing but the satisfaction of the desire for vengeance.

In his lone dissent, he refers to the trial as a "sham employment of legal process for the satisfaction of a thirst for revenge." His very detailed document of dissent was promptly banned from publication, for many years. His judgement that the Allies were also equally guilty of war crimes, and that victors justice cannot be endorsed , was not palatable , at all.

He brought in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in his judgment as atrocities comparable with Nazi crimes. No wonder Justice Radhabinod Pal has the status of a national hero in Japan.

A memorial in his honor is prominent in the Yasukuni shrine in Tokyo.

In 1966, the Emperor of Japan conferred upon Pal the First Class of the Order of the Sacred Treasure when he visited Japan. He remarked that he had admired Japan from a young age for being the only Asian nation that "stood up against the West."

When Japanese Prime minister Shinzo Abe visited India ,in August 2007 he remember how Pal had saved his grandfather Nobusuke Kishi, guilty of war crimes, and the Japanese Emperor, from the gallows. (Japanese Prime Minister Hideki Tojo , who sanctioned the attack on Pearl Harbour, was however hanged . Hideki Tojo left a haiku written in Pal's honour before going to the gallows) .

Pal would bow to the Japanese benches every time he entered the court, irritating all. This was despite , that the number of Indian combatants killed in World War II exceeded the numbers of those of most of the other countries directly involved.  And Indians soldiers of Subash Chandra Bose's INA were tricked into digging 650 kilometers of tunnels in Rabaul-- a task worse than death itself.  And all of them were eaten for food--except for a few who escaped into the dense jungles..

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe met with Pal's son, Prasanta, in Kolkata . They chatted for half an hour at a city hotel.

Pal is also worshipped at the Kao Kannon temple at Atami. The ashes of Hideki Tojo is preserved here.


Saturday, April 24, 2010



Arnold Swartznegger was given a truth serum in the Hollywood movie “ True Lies “.

All of a sudden it became fashionable to use truth serum to force criminal suspects to tell the truth..

Recently I saw the method of using narcoanalysis (Sodium Pentothal) on the so called killers of a school girl by the name of Aarushi Talwar, on a Indian national TV channel.

Note:- I am a bit of a body language expert.   I do NOT see any real embedded grief in her own parents -- whose flesh and blood she is.  Where is the catch?

I hasten to say, I found the method of interrogation 100% wrong. I was surprised that no experts objected, during the subsequent days .

These interrogators had no dang idea how the human subconscious works. During narcoanalysis , you must NOT suggest to the patient, like a hypnotist. The patient may own up for a murder he has never done. Hypnosis is a whole different ball game.

No justice was being done to the poor men ( scape goats actually ) being interrogated, who were getting slapped regularly to prevent them from falling asleep.

Subconscious mind responds to stimuli not pressure. A truth serum must not be used to weaken the resolve of the subject and make him more compliant to pressure.

It is a crime to RAPE the subconscious mind , by ignorant misuse of truth serum sodium pentathol .

By injecting a truth serum a subject's delusions, fears and fantasies cannot be distinguished from reality. People would even confess to crimes that they clearly did not commit, perhaps the murder of a non-existent mistress or rape of his neighbour.

Brain is not capable of distinguishing between reality and memory—the same neurons are sparked when we see something as when we merely remember it.

Brain cannot distinguish between an image of experience and one of vivid imagination. You can participate in an orgy or think of an orgy, your wee willie winkie will give the same standing ovation.

This drug, Sodium Pentothal is usually used in medicine as sedatives. It acts as a depressant on the central nervous system and bring on a state of complete relaxation and a feeling of well-being. It just makes you chatty, as inhibitions are lost..

So all that a "truth serum" will do is probably loosen a person's tongue when you're very suggestible during the sedative, or relaxed, stage of anaesthesia. But there's absolutely no guarantee of truth.

The reality is that you stay in this stage for only a very short time - so you have to be continually "topped up" with more drugs. This can involve many injections ( probably half a dozen) over a period of 2 - 8 hours. Sometimes with improper dose , the subject does not increase truth-telling, but merely increases talking; hence, both truth and bull will be revealed in that construct. The patient may lose the inhibition, but may not lose his self-control. . There is no drug that will relax a person's defences so that they will happily and reliably reveal the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth.

The only 100% reliable way is to falsely give the subject the tendency to believe that he has revealed more than they actually did, and then make him confess the next day , at a time when his system is totally free of this drug— basically a form of trickery.

If you were to drink a glass of water with Sodium Pentothal, it would depress your central nervous system, slow your heart rate and lower your blood pressure. All of the listed above affects are the functions of any commonplace sedative.

When a person is in coma , anastesia, narco serum, shock, seizure or sleeping—the subconscious minds are wide open. Anything that will be said in their presence will be accepted by the spirit which will begin carrying it out.

Any passing comment or trivial statements can have a devastating effect on our subconscious mind because it is not argumentative or analytical. It accepts all statements directly on the face value. Even prayers and beliefs are positive signals which we give to our subconscious mind as something acceptable and true.

The subconscious mind cannot tell the difference between a real experience and one that you vividly imagine. You can fool it.

It is necessary to understand how the subconscious works. The subconscious mind does not think—it is only a store house of our experience. It has no sense of time. It cannot differentiate between positive and negative input. It cannot tell the difference between real and imagines experience.

The conscious mind can be engaged 100% in talking or deep thinking while the subconscious keeps the car on the road. The conscious and subconscious minds are connected through a filter. So we cant read the contents of our subconscious mind


Conscious = induction+ deduction ( determines what is to be done ). LEFT BRAIN LOBE : Numbers, written language, reasoning, spoken language, scientific skills , RH control

Subconscious = only deduction ( no thinking , draws conclusions, does not care for right or wrong, gives the power to do the job ) RIGHT BRAIN LOBE ( for right handers ): Insight, 3D forms , art, imagination, music, left hand control


Subconscious, mental activities within an individual proceed without his awareness. Dreams and slips of the tongue are concealed examples of unconscious content too threatening to be confronted directly.

When the situation demands we are able to use the subconscious memory to the full extent—but only in relation to the specific problem. The conscious mind has limited memory. The subconscious mind has unlimited memory.

Subconscious mind never sleeps even in a coma. the Subconscious has a tendency to accept what it imagines as real.

Every experience we have ever had is impressed somewhere in the electrochemical cells in our brain. The brain records every thing—every thing senses by our 5 senses—and it is imprinted in the brain cells for ever. Whenever something reactivates those cells we get a mental picture duplicating the original experience.

The central nervous system does not know the difference between visualization and the event. Visualizing you are having sex and doing the real thing has the same effect. The picture in our mind has an impact on every cell in our bodies. Thinking is not an action of the mind , but an action of our entire body. Tell your subconscious what you want repeatedly and it will produce it. You can call this visualization or intention.

The subconscious has a perfect memory. Every thing you have experienced using your 5 senses is part of the permanent memory of the subconscious mind, which never sleeps The subconscious mind acts on old beliefs stored over a lifetime. Many of those beliefs you may have accepted without thinking. Or you may have absorbed them when you were too young to exercise choice.

Hypnosis is state wherein your conscious (thinking) mind becomes bored … it relaxes and stops thinking Persons who can do self hypnosis has discovered the secret of successful living. All hypnosis is self hypnosis.—no one can hypnotise you against your will. There is no loss of consciousness in hypnosis.

Hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness, during which the conscious critical mind is relaxed and relatively inactive, and the doorway to the subconscious, inner mind is opened with a person’s permission. A hypnotist talks directly to the subconscious mind, without interference from reasoning . Truth serums are also used in psychiatry to help patients speak more freely during psychoanalysis because they help the patient release many thoughts locked in the subconscious.

The subconscious mind is protective. Hypnotized people will accept suggestions that are acceptable, and reject suggestions that are not acceptable. a person is in Hypnosis, he is not asleep. He or she is very much aware of all that is going on. In actuality, in Hypnosis, one’s senses become heightened and more acute.

Hypnosis is not a truth serum. Subjects in Hypnosis reveal no secrets in the Hypnotic State that they would not reveal (because they want to) in the Waking State. Hypnosis is a cooperative and collaborative relationship. The subject retains full control and responsibility for his or her actions at all times.

The hypnotized subject or patient is NOT asleep. He is relaxed, comfortable, focused, and in a state of daydream type thinking. His analyzing thinking mind (Conscious mind) is turned off and his feeling and intuitive and creative mind (Subconscious) is aware of everything that is going on.

A hypnotized subject cannot be made to do anything he is not willing to do. If a person is not willing to cooperate, he cannot be hypnotized. Hypnosis is NOT about the hypnotist controlling the patient. It is about the patient gaining more control over himself.

By following the "hypnotist's" instructions, you become more suggestible. When you are in this altered state of increased suggestibility, your mental "clutter" is cleared away so that you can pay attention to the hypnotist's suggestions and be open to experiencing new perspectives and solutions to your problem.

Once the Hypnotic State is induced and the doorway to the Subconscious Mind is opened, with your permission, the competent Hypnotist can provide information, in a language and form that the Subconscious can accept, to help you change the behaviors, feelings and thoughts that you want to change. We utilize the fact that the Subconscious Mind has the ability (actually the tendency) to accept what it imagines as real.

Some people can go into hypnosis while riding a stationary bicycle ( repetitive ). , if a hypnotherapist`s suggestion conflicts with a client's value system, the client simply brings him or herself up out of hypnosis; they just "wake up." a person cannot be hypnotized to do anything not in line with their moral and value system.

Olympic teams have Hypnotists to facilitate top performances from its athletes. A hypnotic stage is not mysterious. You actually enter and exit this state of mind many times during a ordinary day. Something triggers this state.

Subconscious mind has a memory of 100 trillion images, all our experiences, emotions and feelings are stored as an image or a sound in a digitised manner . Data that cannot be recalled are retained in the subconscious. A person may be unconscious of ever having been locked in a closet as a child, yet under hypnosis he may recall the experience vividly.

Negative suggestions with growing children gets rooted in their subconscious mind and is reflected later in their behavior.

During hypnosis –our conscious mind goes into a trance and suggestions are given directly to the subconscious mind, which cannot argue but accepts the suggestion at its face value.

We do self hypnosis unknowingly several times an a day while doing our day to day activities. This is how our body learns to relax otherwise we would die of stress at a very early age. Any monotonous sequence of events make it boring for the brain and eventually it starts producing a hormone called Serotin which induces a drowsy state of mind.

On my ship if have seen the POWERS OF VODKA as a truth serum especially in conjunction with suitable music and blue light for the alpha state , that can open pathways to the subconscious.